Th Thorium pp 17-174 | Cite as

Spectra

  • Rolf EnglemanJr.
Part of the Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry / Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie book series (GMELIN, volume T-h / A-E / A / 4)

Abstract

The early spectroscopic studies of the naturally occurring actinides, uranium and thorium, proceeded at a more or less equal pace. One of the first reports on thorium line spectra is given in Kayser’s 1912 Handbuch [1] where a line list is given summarizing the works of three earlier investigations. In Twyman’s 1931 tables [2] are listed the wavelengths of thorium tines determined by several workers. Also of historical interest are the early works on underwater sparks and carbon furnaces where both absorption and emission spectra were seen [3, 4], and Moore’s [5, 6] studies on the effect of a magnetic field on thorium emission spectra. The modern era of study can be considered to have begun with the works of Lang [7] on Th III analysis, Fred [8] on Th I and II line lists, and Lier [9] on Zeeman effects in thorium. Recent investigations of the spectroscopy of thorium have lagged behind its sister element, uranium, the latter being stimulated by developments in laser isotope separation and the nuclear power industry. Since thorium is monoisotopic in nature, no practical interest ties in the former process, while thorium is not widely used by the latter. Some impetus to the study of thorium was imparted by the proposed adoption of thorium as an international secondary wavelength standard beginning in 1955. However, that interest has waned and much less work in this area is currently being done.

Keywords

Graphite Carbide Enthalpy Ozone Radium 

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf EnglemanJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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