• J. G. Conran
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 6)


Perennial carnivorous evergreen herbs. Rootstock a thick, knotty rhizome, roots fibrous. Stems 0. Leaves borne in rosettes at rhizome apices, alternate, exstipular, petiolate, fine-hairy, alternately spathulate-obovate or pitcher-shaped and insect-trapping. Inflorescence a thyrse with scorpoid cymes. Flowers hermaphroditic, small, calyx well developed, basally connate, rotate, purplish-white; limb 6–lobed; lobes imbricate in bud; corolla 0; stamens 12 in two whorls of six; petals 0; filaments free, divergent; anthers dorsifixed, versatile, with a dorsal-connective appendage, 2-thecate, 4-sporangiate, introrse, opening by lateral slits; disk intrastaminal, trichomatous-papillose; gynoecium of 6 free carpels alternating with the inner stamens and sepals; ovaries superior, 1-locular with 1–2 erect anatropous ovules; stylodia terminal, straight, ventrally papillate near the apex. Fruit 1–2-seeded, hairy indehiscent leathery follicles; seeds small, ovoid, brown with a membranous testa; endosperm copious, granulose; embryo minute, linear.


Ellagic Acid Carnivorous Plant Large Gland Small Gland Paracytic Stomata 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Albert, V.A., Williams, S.E., Chase, M.W. 1992. Carnivorous plants: phylogeny and structural evolution. Science. 257: 1491–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) 1998. See general references.Google Scholar
  3. Bate Smith, E.C. 1962. See general references.Google Scholar
  4. Baillon, H. 1872. Histoire des plantes, vol. 3. Paris: Hachette. Behnke, H.-D. 1988. Sieve-element plastids and systematic relationships of Rhizophoraceae, Anisophyllaceae and allied groups. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1387–1409.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, H.D. 1991. Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. Aliso 13: 167–182.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, R. 1866. General remarks on the botany of Terra Australis. Misc. Bot. Works. 1: 76–78.Google Scholar
  7. Chase et al. 1993. See general references.Google Scholar
  8. Chrtek, J., Slaviková, Z., Studnička, M. 1989. Beitrag zur Leitbündelanordnung in den Kronblättern von ausgewählten Arten der fleischfressenden Pflanzen. Preslia 61: 107–124.Google Scholar
  9. Conran, J.G., Denton, M.D. 1996. Germination in the Western Australian Pitcher Plant Cephalotus follicularis and its unusual early seedling development. W.A. Nat. 21: 37–42.Google Scholar
  10. Corner, E.J.H. 1976. See general references.Google Scholar
  11. Dakin, W.J. 1919. The West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis), and its physiology. J. Roy. Soc. W.A. 4: 37–53.Google Scholar
  12. DeBuhr, L.E. 1976. Field notes on Cephalotus follicularis in Western Australia. Carn. Pl. Newslett. 5: 8–9.Google Scholar
  13. Dickson, A. 1878. The structure of the pitcher of Cephalotus follicularis. J. Bot. 16: 1–5.Google Scholar
  14. Dickson, A. 1883. On the morphology of the pitcher of Cephalotus follicularis. Trans. Proc. Edinburgh Bot. Soc. 14: 172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diels, L. 1928. Cephalotaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilen, ed. 2, 18a. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 71–74.Google Scholar
  16. Endress, P.K., Stumpf, S. 1991. The diversity of stamen structures in `Lower’ Rosidae (Rosales, Fabales, Proteges, Sapindales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 107: 217–293. With 294 figures.Google Scholar
  17. Erdtman, G. 1952. See general references.Google Scholar
  18. Froebe, H.A., Baur, N. 1988. Die Morphogenese der Kannenblätter von Cephaltus follicularis Labill. Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz, Abh. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Jg. 1988, 3, 19 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Goebel, K. 1891. Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen, part 2. Marburg: Elwert.Google Scholar
  20. Hamilton, A.G. 1904. Notes on the West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis Labill.). Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 29: 36–53.Google Scholar
  21. Hideux, M., Ferguson, I.K. 1976. The stereostructure of the exine and its evolutionary significance in Saxifragaceae sensu lato. In: Ferguson, I.K., Muller, I. (eds.) The evolutionary significance of the exine. Linnean Society Symposium Series no. 1. London: Academic Press, pp. 327–377.Google Scholar
  22. Jay, M., Lebreton, P. 1972. Chemotaxonomic research on vascular plants. XXVI. The flavinoids of the Sarraceniaceae, Nepenthaceae, Droseraceae and Cephalotaceae; a critical study of the Sarraceniales. Nat. Can. (Québec) 99: 607–613.Google Scholar
  23. Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J., Dahlgren, R. 1975. Iridoid compounds, their occurrence and systematic importance in the angiosperms. Bot. Notiser 128: 148–180.Google Scholar
  24. Joel, D.M., Juniper, B.E., Dafni, A. 1985. UV patterns in the traps of carnivorous plants. New Phytol. 101: 585–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Juniper, B.E., Robins, R.J., Joel, D.M. 1989. Carnivorous plants. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kondo, K. 1969. Chromosome numbers of carnivorous plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 96: 322–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kress, A. 1970. Zytotaxonomie Untersuchungen an einigen Insektenfängern (Droseraceae, Byblidaceae, Cephalotaceae, Roridulaceae, Sarraceniaceae). Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 83: 55–62.Google Scholar
  28. Lloyd, F.M. 1942. The carnivorous plants, 2nd edn. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Co.Google Scholar
  29. Luffitz, E 1966. The West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis Labill.). Austral. Pl. 12: 34–35.Google Scholar
  30. Macfarlane, J.M. 1911. Cephalotaceae. In: Engler, A. (ed.) Das Pflanzenreich IV, 116. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  31. Nicholls, K.W., Bohm, B.A., Ornduff, R. 1985. Flavonoids and affinities of the Cephalotaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 13: 261–264.Google Scholar
  32. Parkes, D.M., Hallam, N.D. 1984. Adaptation for carnivory in the West Australian pitcher plant (Cephalotus follicularis). Austral. J. Bot. 32: 595–604.Google Scholar
  33. Peng, C.-I., Goldblatt, P. 1983. Confirmation of the chromosome number in Cephalotaceae and Roridulaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 197–198.Google Scholar
  34. Piliciauskas, E. 1989. Cephalotus follicularis and how to grow them from seed. Vic. C. P. Soc. Newslett. 6: 12–15.Google Scholar
  35. Savolainen, V., Fay, M.F. et al. 2000. See general references.Google Scholar
  36. Schulze, W., Schulze, E.D., Pate, J.S., Gillison, A.N. 1997. The nitrogen supply from soils and insects during growth of the pitcher plants Nepenthes mirabilis, Cephalotus follicularis and Darlingtonia californica. Oecologia. 112: 464–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Solereder, H. 1908. Systematic anatomy of the Dicotyledons, vol. 1. Introduction, Polypetalae and Gamopetalae. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  38. Vogel, S. 1998. Remarkable nectaries: structure, ecology, organophyletic perspectives. II. Nectarioles. Flora (Jena) 193: 1–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Conran

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations