• A. L. Weitzman
  • S. Dressler
  • P. F. Stevens
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 6)


Evergreen trees or shrubs, accumulating aluminium; indumentum of unicellular hairs. Leaves distichous or spiral, conduplicate-involute or supervolute, usually evergreen and coriaceous, margins entire or toothed, a small, deciduous seta near the apex of each tooth; stipules absent. Plant dioecious or flowers hermaphroditic. Inflorescences axillary, rarely pseudo-terminal, flowers solitary or fasciculate, rarely in short racemes of up to 15 flowers, pedicellate, regular, 5-merous, usually <2 cm in diameter, pedicel with more or less apical prophylls; sepals quincuncial, connate or distinct, persistent in fruit, usually thick, concave, subequal, rarely unequal; petals distinct or connate basally, quincuncial, thick or membranous; stamens 5-many, free, connate and/or adnate to corolla basally, filaments equal or unequal, wide and flat or thickened, often narrowing and incurved apically, shorter than to 4x as long as the anthers; anthers dithecal, basifixed, introrse, oblong, opening by longitudinal slits, rarely by flaps or pore-like slits, connective often elongated; carpels (2)3–5(6), ovary superior, rarely inferior, placentation axile, rarely apical or parietal; ovules anatropous to campylotropous, (1, 2)-many per carpel; style simple or with apical branches, or stylodia separate; stigmas usually separate. Fruit a berry, or rarely irregularly dehiscent, or a loculicidal capsule; seeds 1-numerous, reniform, small, reticulate or areolate, or larger, ellipsoid, ± smooth; endosperm slight to copious; embryo hippocrepiform to ± straight.


Betulinic Acid Staminate Flower Wood Anatomy Arnold Arbor Style Branch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Anderberg A.A. et al. 2002. See general references.Google Scholar
  2. Baretta-Kuipers, T. 1976. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae. Leiden Bot. Ser. 3: 76–101.Google Scholar
  3. Barker, W.R. 1980. Taxonomic revisions in Theaceae in Papuasia. I. Gordonia, Ternstroemia, Adinandra and Archboldiodendron. Brunonia 3: 1–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barker, W.R. 1982. Theaceae. In: van Royen, P., The Alpine Flora of New Guinea. Vol. 3: Taxonomic part. Winteraceae to Polygonaceae. Vaduz: J. Cramer, pp. 13971454.Google Scholar
  5. Beauvisage, L. 1920. Contribution à l’étude anatomique de la famille des Ternstroemiacées. Tours: Arrault.Google Scholar
  6. Bentham, G. 1861. Notes on Ternstroemiaceae. J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5: 53–65.Google Scholar
  7. Bittrich, V., Amaral, M.C.E., Melo, G.A.R. 1993. Pollination biology of Ternstroemia laevigata and T. dentata (Theaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 185: 1–6.Google Scholar
  8. Carlquist, S. 1984 (1985). Wood anatomy and relationships of Pentaphylacaceae: significance of vessel features. Phytomorphology 34: 84–90.Google Scholar
  9. Conwentz, H. 1886. Die Angiospermen des Bernsteins. Danzig: W. Engelmann.Google Scholar
  10. Corner, E.J.G.H. 1946. Centifugal stamens. J. Arnold Arbor. 27: 423–437.Google Scholar
  11. Corner, E.J.G.H. 1976. See general references.Google Scholar
  12. Cronquist, A. 1981. See general references.Google Scholar
  13. De Vogel, E.F. 1980. Seedlings of dicotyledons. Wageningen: Pudoc.Google Scholar
  14. De Wit, H.C.D. 1947. A revision of the genus Eurya Thunb. (Theac.) in the Malay Archipelago (including New Guinea and south of the Philippines). Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, ser. III, 17: 329–375.Google Scholar
  15. Erdtman, G. 1952. See general references.Google Scholar
  16. Gardner, G. 1849. Descriptions of some new genera and species of plants, collected in the island of Hong Kong by Capt. J. G. Champion, 95`h Regt. Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 1: 240–246.Google Scholar
  17. Grote, P.J., Dilcher, D.L. 1989. Investigations of angiosperms from the Eocene of North America: a new genus of Theaceae based on fruit and seed remains. Bot. Gaz. 150: 190–206.Google Scholar
  18. Hallier, H. 1923. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Linaceae (DC. 1819) Dumort. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 39 (ií): 1–178.Google Scholar
  19. Hegnauer, R. 1973, 1990. See general references.Google Scholar
  20. Hickey, L.J. 1979. A revised classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. In: Metcalfe, C.R., Chalk, L. (eds.) Anatomy of the dicotyledons, ed. 2, vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 25–39.Google Scholar
  21. Hitzemann, C. 1886. Beiträge zur vergleichende Anatomie der Ternstroemiaceen, Dilleniaceen, Dipterocarpaceen und Chlaenaceen. Osterode: von Giebel & Oehlschlägel.Google Scholar
  22. Huber, H. 1991. Angiospermen. Leitfaden durch die Ordnungen und Familien der Bedecktsamer. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.Google Scholar
  23. Hung T. Chang, Ling Lai Kuan, 2000. Theaceae. In: Fu, L., Chen, T., Lang, K., Hong, T., Lin, Q. (eds.) Higher plants of China, vol. 4. Quingdao: Quingdao Publishing House, pp. 572–656 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  24. Kärehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. Am. J. Bot. 88: 2259–2274.Google Scholar
  25. Keng, H. 1962. Comparative morphological studies in the Theaceae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 33: 269–384.Google Scholar
  26. Knobloch, E., Mai, D.H. 1986. Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rozpr. Ustr. Ust. Geol. 47: 1–219.Google Scholar
  27. Kobuski, C.E. 1940. Studies in the Theaceae, V. The Theaceae of New Guinea. J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 134–162.Google Scholar
  28. Kobuski, C.E. 1942a. Studies in Theaceae, XII. Notes on the South American species of Ternstroemia. J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 298–343.Google Scholar
  29. Kobuski, C.E. 1942b. Studies in Theaceae, XIII. Notes on the Mexican and Central American species of Ternstroemia. J. Arnold Arbor. 23: 464–478.Google Scholar
  30. Kobuski, C.E. 1943. Studies in Theaceae, XIV. Notes on the West Indian species of Ternstroemia. J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 60–76.Google Scholar
  31. Kobuski, C.E. 1961. Studies in Theaceae, XXXII. A review of the genus Ternstroemia in the Philippine Islands. J. Arnold Arb. 42: 263–275.Google Scholar
  32. Kobuski, C.E. 1963. Studies in Theaceae, XXXV. Two new species of Ternstroemia from the Lesser Antilles. J. Arnold Arb. 44: 434–435.Google Scholar
  33. Kvaek, Z., Walther, H. 1984. Nachweis tertiärer Theaceen Mitteleuropas nach blatt-epidermalen Untersuchungen. I. Teil - Epidermale Merkmalskomplexe rezenter Theaceae. Feddes Repert. 95: 209–227.Google Scholar
  34. Lee, S. 1987. A palynotaxonomic study on the Korean Theaceae. Korean J. Bot. 30: 215–223.Google Scholar
  35. Liang, D., Baas, P. 1990. Wood anatomy of trees and shrubs from China II. Theaceae. I.A.W.A. Bull. II, 11: 337–378.Google Scholar
  36. Liang, D., Baas, P. 1991. The wood anatomy of the Theaceae. I.A.W.A. Bull. II, 12: 333–353.Google Scholar
  37. Mai, D.H. 1971. Über fossile Lauraceae und Theaceae in Mitteleuropa. Feddes Repert. 82: 313–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mattfeld, J. 1942. Pentaphylacaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 20b. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 13–21.Google Scholar
  39. Mauritzon, J. 1936. Zur Embryologie und systematischen Abgrenzung der Reihen Terebinthales und Celastrales. Bot. Not. ( Lund ) 1936: 161–212.Google Scholar
  40. Melchior, H. 1925. Theaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 21. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 109–154.Google Scholar
  41. Metcalfe, C.R., Chalk, L. 1950. See general references. Morton, C.M. et al. 1996. See general references.Google Scholar
  42. Nandi, O.I., Chase, M.W., Endress, P.K. 1998. A combined cladistic analysis of angiosperms using rbcL and non-molecular data sets. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 137–212.Google Scholar
  43. Payer, J.-B. 1857. Traité d’organogénie comparée de la fleur. Paris: Victor Masson.Google Scholar
  44. Prince, L.M., Parks, C.M. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Theaceae inferred from chloroplast DNA data. Am. J. Bot. 88: 2309–2320.Google Scholar
  45. Ridley, H.N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. Ashford, Kent.Google Scholar
  46. Ronse Decraene, L.P., Smets, E.F. 1996. The morphological variation and systematic value of stamen pairs in the Magnoliatae. Feddes Repert. 107: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Savolainen, V., Fay, M.F. et al. 2000. See general references. Schofield, E.K. 1968. Petiole anatomy of Guttiferae and related families. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 1–55.Google Scholar
  48. Schönenberger, J., Friis, E.M. 2001. Fossil flowers of Ericalean affinity from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Sweden. Am. J. Bot. 88: 467–480.Google Scholar
  49. Soltis, D.E. et al. 2000. See general references.Google Scholar
  50. Takhtajan, A.L. 1997. See general references.Google Scholar
  51. Tiffney, B.H. 1994. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 82: 299–315.Google Scholar
  52. Tsou, C.-H. 1995. Embryology of Theaceae–anther and ovule development of Adinandra, Cleyera and Eurya. J. Plant Res. 108: 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Steenis, G.G.G.J. 1955. Pentaphylacaceae. In: van Steenis, G.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora males. I, 5: 121–124. Leyden: Noordhoff.Google Scholar
  54. Verdcourt, B. 1962. Theaceae. In: Hubbard, C.E., Milne-Redhead, E. (eds.) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Theaceae. London: Crown Agents for Overseas Governments, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  55. Wawra von Fernsee, H.R. 1886. Ternstroemiaceae. In: Martius, C.F.P. (ed.) Flora brasiliensis, vol. 12(1). München: E Fleischer, pp. 261–334, pl. 52–68.Google Scholar
  56. Wei, Z.-X., Li, D.-Z., Fan, X.-K., Zhang, X.-L. 1999. Pollen ultra-structure of Pentaphylacaceae and Sladeniaceae and their relationships to the family Theaceae. Acta Bot. Yunn. 21: 202–206, pl. 1–3 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  57. Weitzman, A.L., 1987a. Taxonomic studies in Freziera (Theaceae), with notes on reproductive biology. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 323–334.Google Scholar
  58. Weitzman, A.L. 1987b. Systematics of Freziera Willd. (Theaceae). Ph.D. thesis, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  59. Wijninga, V.M. 1996. Paleobotany and palynology of Neogene sediments from the High Plain of Bogotá (Colombia). Wageningen: Ponsen & Looijen BV.Google Scholar
  60. Wijninga, V.M., Kuhry, P. 1990. A Pliocene flora from the Subachoque Valley ( Cordillera Oriental, Colombia). Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 62: 249–290.Google Scholar
  61. Ying, T.-S., Zhang, Y.-L., Boufford, D.E. 1993. The endemic genera of seed plants of China. Peking: Science Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Weitzman
  • S. Dressler
  • P. F. Stevens

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations