Advertisement

Somatosensible Reizantworten von Rückenmark und Gehirn (SEP)

  • M. Stöhr

Zusammenfassung

Von der Kopfhaut des Menschen ableitbare somatosensible evozierte Potentiale (SSEP)1 wurden erstmals von Dawson (1947 a) beschrieben. Sie zeigten sich vorwiegend über der primären sensiblen Rinde kontralateral zur Seite der Stimulation lokalisiert (Abb. 2.1). Eine genauere Analyse dieser Reizantworten wurde erst nach Einführung elektronischer Mittelungsverfahren (Dawson 1954) möglich, bei denen die in fester zeitlicher Beziehung zum Reiz stehenden evozierten Potentiale aufsummiert, reizunabhängige Potentialschwankungen, wie das Grund-EEG oder Muskelartefakte, dagegen eliminiert werden. Auf diese Weise gelingt die Aufzeichnung und Messung niedrigster bioelektrischer Signale bis herab zu einer Größenordnung um 0,05 µV. Damit lassen sich die elektrischen Phänomene der Impulsgeneration und übermittlung in den somatosensiblen Anteilen des peripheren und zentralen Nervensystems von der Körperoberfläche aus abgreifen, was einen recht genauen Einblick in die Vorgänge der Impulsleitung und verarbeitung erlaubt.

Literatur

  1. Abbruzzese G, Bino G, Dall’Agata D, Morena M, Primavera A, Favale E (1988) Somatosensory evoked potentials in lacunar syndromes. J Neurol 235: 300–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbruzzese G, Dall’Agata D, Morena M, Reni L, Favale E (1990) Abnormalities of parietal and prerolandic somatosensory evoked potentials in Huntington’s disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 340–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abbruzzese G, Ratto S, Favale E, Abbruzzese M (1981) Proprioceptive modulation of somatosensory evoked potentials during active or passive finger movements in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 44: 942–949CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abbruzzese G, Reni L, Cocito L, Ratto S, Abbruzzese M, Favale E (1984) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in degenerative and vascular dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 1034–1037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Abbruzzese M, Favale E, Leandri M, Ratio S (1978) Spinal components of the cerebral somatosensory evoked response in normal man: The “S wave”. Acta Neurol Scand 58: 213–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Abrahamian HA, Allison T, Goff WR, Rosner BS (1963) Effects of thiopental on human cerebral evoked responses. Anaesthesiology 24: 650–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ackermann H, Diener HC, Dichgans J (1986) Funktionsorientierte neurophysiologische Diagnostik: Long loop-Reflexe bei spinalen und zerebralen Läsionen. Z EEG-EMG 17:88Google Scholar
  8. Adinolfi AM (1971) The postnatal development of synaptic contacts in the cerebral cortex. In: McGinty DJ, Adinolfi AM (eds) Brain development and behavior. Academic Press, New York, pp 73–89Google Scholar
  9. Alajouanine Th, Scherrer J, Barbizet J, Calvet J, Verley R (1958) Potentiels évoqués corticaux chex des sujets atteints de troubles somésthésiques. Rev Neurol (Paris) 98: 757Google Scholar
  10. Albe-Fessard D (1967) Organization of somatic central projection. In: Neff WD (ed) Contributions to sensory physiology, vol 2. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Albe-Fessard D, Fessard A (1963) Thalamic integrations and their consequences at the telencephalic level. In: Moruzzi G (ed) Brain mechanisms. Progress in brain research, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 115–148Google Scholar
  12. Albe-Fessard D, Liebeskind J (1966) Origine des messages somatosensitifs activant les cellules du cortex moteur chez le singe. Exp Brain Res 1: 127–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Albe-Fessard D, Tasker R, Yamashiro K, Chodakiewitz J, Dostrovsky J (1986) Comparison in man of short latency averaged evoked potentials recorded in thalamic and scalp hand zones of representation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65:405–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Allert ML, Jelasic F (1974) Diagnostik neurogener Blasenstörungen durch Elektromyographie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  15. Allison T (1962) Recovery functions of somatosensory evoked responses in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 14: 331–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Allison T (1965) Cortical and subcortical evoked responses to central stimuli during wakefulness and sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 18:131–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Allison T, Goff WR, Williamson PD, Van Gilder JC (1980) On the neural origin of early components of the human somatosensory evoked potential. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 51–68Google Scholar
  18. Allison T, Hume AL (1981) A comparative analysis of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in man, monkey, cat and rat. Exp Neurol 72: 592–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Allison T, McCarthy G, Wood CC (1992) The relationship between human long-latency somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from the cortical surface and from the scalp. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 84:301–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Allison T, McCarthy G, Wood CC, Jones SJ (1991) Potentials evoked in human and monkey cerebral cortex by stimulation of the median nerve. Brain 114:2465–2503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Allison T, Wood CC, Goff WR (1983) Brain stem auditory, pattern-reversal visual, and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: Latencies in relation to age, sex, and brain and body size. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 55: 619–636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Allison T, Wood CC, McCarthy G, Hume AL, Goff WR (1982) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in man, monkey, cat and rat: Comparative latency analysis. In: Courjon J, Maugière F, Revol M (eds) Advances in Neurology vol 32: Clinical Applications of Evoked Potentials in Neurology. Raven, New York, pp 303–312Google Scholar
  23. Altenmüller E, Cornelius CP, Buettner UW (1990) Somatosensory evoked potentials following tongue stimulation in normal subjects and patients with lesions of the afferent trigeminal system. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 403–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. American Association of Electromyography and Electrodiagosis (AAEE) Evoked Potentials Committee (1984) Guidelines for somatosensory evoked potentialsGoogle Scholar
  25. Anderson NE, Frith RW, Synek VM (1986) Somatosensory evoked potentials in syringomyelia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49: 1407–1410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Anziska B, Cracco RQ (1980 a) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials: studies in patients with focal neurological disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 227–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Anziska B, Cracco RQ (1980 b) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in brain dead patients. Arch Neurol 37: 222–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Anziska B, Cracco RQ (1981) Short latency SEPs to median nerve stimulation: Comparison of recording methods and origin of components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 531–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Anziska B, Cracco RQ, Cook AW, Feld EW (1978) Somatosensory far field potentials: Studies in normal subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 602–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Arezzo J, Legatt AD, Vaughan HG (1979) Topography and intracranial sources of somatosensory evoked potentials in the monkey. 1. Early components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 46: 155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Arezzo J, Vaughan HG, Legatt AD (1981) Topography and intracranial sources of somatosensory evoked potentials in the monkey. 2. Cortical components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51: 1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Asanuma H, Larsen K, Yumiya H (1980) Peripheral input pathways to the monkey motor cortex. Exp Brain Res 38: 349–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Assmus H (1978) Das somato-sensorische evozierte kortikale Potential (SSEP) im Verlauf der sensiblen Regeneration nach Nervennähten. EEG EMG 9:167–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Austin GM, McCough GP (1955) Presynaptic component of intermediary cord potential. J Neurophysiol 18:441–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Badr GG, Hanner P, Edstroem S (1983) Cortical evoked potentials in response to trigeminus nerve stimulation in humans. Clin Electroencephalogr 14:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Baker JB, Larson SJ, Sances A, White PT (1968) Evoked potentials as an aid to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 18: 286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Baran EM, Jefferson T (1979) Surface recorded cauda equina and spinal cord responses in children with transverse myelitis and myelomeningococele. In: 6th International Congress of Electromyography, Stockholm, p 68 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  38. Bates JAV (1973) Electrical recording from the thalamus in human subjects. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 561–578)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bates JAV, Ettlinger G (1960) Differential effects of cortical lesions in infant and adult cats on roughness discrimination. Exp Neurol 3:177–192Google Scholar
  40. Baust W, Ilsen HW, Jörg J, Wambach G (1972) Höhenlokalisation von Rückenmarksquerschnitts-Syndromen mittels corticaler Reizantworten. Nervenarzt 43: 292–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Baust W, Jörg J, Wortmann R, Zimmermann A (1977) Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung kortikaler somatosensorischer Reizantwortpotentiale durch Pharmaka. Arzneim Forsch 27: 440–446Google Scholar
  42. Beall JE, Applebaum AE, Foreman RD, Willis WD (1977) Spinal cord potentials evoked by cutaneous afferents in the monkey. J Neurophysiol 40:199–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Beltinger A, Riffel B, Stöhr M (1987) Somatosensory evoked potentials following median and tibial nerve stimulation in patients with Friedreich’s ataxie. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 236: 358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bennett MH, Jannetta RJ (1980) Trigeminal evoked potentials in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 48: 517–526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Bennett MH, McCallum JE (1977) Experiment decompression of spinal cord. Surg Neurol 8: 63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Bergamini L, Bergamasco B (1967) Cortical evoked potentials in man. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  47. Bergamini L, Bergamasco B, Fra L, Gandiglio G, Mombelli AM, Mutani R (1965) Somatosensory evoked cortical potentials in subjects with peripheral nervous lesions. Electromyography 5: 121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Bergamini L, Bergamasco B, Fra L, Gandiglio G, Mombelli AM, Mutani R (1966) Résponses corticales et périphériques évoquées par stimulation du nerf dans la pathologie des cordons postérieurs. Rev Neurol (Paris) 115: 99Google Scholar
  49. Beric A, Dimitrijevic MR, Prevec TS, Sherwood AM (1986) Epidurally recorded cervical somatosensory evoked potential in humans. Electronencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Beric A, Dimitrijevic MR, Sharkey PC, Sherwood AM (1986) Cortical potentials evoked by epidural stimulation of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65:102–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Beric A, Prevec T (1981) The early negative potential evoked by simulation of the tibial nerve in man. J Neurol Sci 50: 299–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Berkley KJ (1986) Specific somatic sensory relays in the mammalian diencephalon. Rev Neurol 142: 283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Bernhard CG (1953) The spinal cord potentials in leads from the cord dorsum in relation to peripheral source of afferent stimulation. Acta Physiol Scand (Suppl 106) 29: 1–29Google Scholar
  54. Besser R, Dillmann U, Hartmann M (1988) Der Einfluß der Referenzelektrode auf die Konfiguration der somatosensorisch evozierten Potentiale. Z EEG EMG 19: 152–157Google Scholar
  55. Bignall KE, Imbert M (1969) Polysensory and cortico-cortical projections to frontal lobe of squirrel and rhesus monkeys. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 26: 206–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bonney G, Gilliatt RW (1958) Sensory nerve conduction after traction lesion of the brachial plexus. Proc R Soc Med 51:365–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bosch EP, Yamada T, Kimura J (1985) Somatosensory evoked potentials in motor neuron disease. Muscle Nerve 8: 556–562CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Bostock H, Sears TA (1978) The internodal axon membrane: electrical excitability and continuous conduction in segmental demyelination. J Physiol (Lond) 280: 273–301Google Scholar
  59. Bowsher D (1961) The termination of secondary somatosensory neurons within the thalamus of M. mulatta. An experimental degeneration study. J Comp Neurol 117: 213–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Branston NM, Symon L, Crockard HA (1967) Recovery of the cortical evoked response following temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in baboons: relation to local blood flow and pO2. Stroke 7:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Bräu H, Baum K, Reischies FM, Schörner W, Stölzel R (1986) Kortikale SEP früher und mittlerer Latenz nach Medianus- und Tibialisstimulation bei Encephalomyelitis disseminata — Beziehung zu Befunden der zerebralen Magnetischen Resonanztomographie. Z EEG EMG 17: 201–208Google Scholar
  62. Bricolo A, Ore GD, da Pian R, Faccioli F (1976) Local cooling in spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 6:101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Brierley JB, Adams JH, Graham DI, Simpson JA (1971) Neocortical death after cardiac arrest. Lancet II: 560Google Scholar
  64. Brodal A (1969) Neurological anatomy in relation to clinical medicine. Oxford University Press. New York London TorontoGoogle Scholar
  65. Broughton R, Meier-Ewert K, Ebe M (1969) Evoked visual, somatosensory and retial potentials in photosensitive epilepsy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 27: 373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Broughton RJ (1967) Somatosensory evoked potentials in man: cortical and scalp recordings: Dissertation. McGill University, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  67. Broughton RJ (1969) Discussion. In: Donchin, Lindsley (eds) Average evoked potentials NASA SP-191. US Government, Washington, pp 79–84Google Scholar
  68. Brown AG (1968) Cutaneous afferent fibre collaterals in the dorsal columns of the cat. Exp Brain Res 5: 293–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Brown AG (1973) Ascending and long spinal pathways: dorsal columns, spinocervical tract and spinothalamic tract. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 315–338)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Brown WF, Feasby TE (1984) Sensory evoked potentials in Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 288–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Bruce DA, Langfitt TW, Miller JD (1973) Regional blood flow, intracranial pressure and brain metabolism in comatose patients. J Neurosurg 38: 131–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Buchner H, Ferbert A, Brückmann H, Hacke W (1987) The subcortical generated somatosensory evoked potentials in non-cephalic, cephalic, and anterior neck referenced recordings in a patient with a cervico-medullary lesion: A clue to the identification of the P 14/N 14 and N 13 generators. J Neurol 234: 412–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Buchner H, Ludwig I, Veldkamp R, Willmes K, Ferbert A (1992) Topographie der frühen kortikalen N. medianus-SEP: Ergebnisse für die Methodik in der Routine. Z EEG EMG 23: 203–209Google Scholar
  74. Buchner H, Scherg M (1991) Analyse der Generatoren früher kortikaler somatosensibel evozierter Potentiale (N. medianus) mit der Dipolquellenanalyse: Erste Ergebnisse. Z EEG EMG 22: 62–69Google Scholar
  75. Buchner H, Schildknecht M, Ferbert A (1991) Spinale und subkortikale somatosensibel evozierte Potentiale: Vergleich mit der Lokalisation spinaler, medullärer und pontiner Läsionen und im Hirntod. Z EEG EMG 22: 51–61Google Scholar
  76. Buchthal F (1973) Sensory and motor conduction in polyneuropathies. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New development in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol 2. Karger, Basel, pp 259–271Google Scholar
  77. Buddenberg D, Hopf HC (1985) Sensibel evozierte Potentiale nach elektrischer Stimulation des N. femoralis. Aktuel Neurol 12:45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Budnick B, McKeown KL, Wiederholt WC (1981) Hypothermia-induced changes in rat short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51:19–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Buettner UW (1984) Vergleichende Untersuchung des somatosensiblen Systems mit elektrophysiologischen und klinisch-manuellen Techniken. Habilitationsschrift, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  80. Buettner UW (1985) Somatosensible evozierte Potentiale (SEP) nach Armnervenstimulation bei Prozessen des Hirnstammes und der Hemisphären. Aktuel Neurol 12: 38–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Buettner UW, Petruch F, Scheglmann K, Stöhr M (1982) Diagnostic significance of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials following trigeminal nerve stimulation. In: Courjon J, Maugière F, Revol M (eds) Advances in Neurology vol 32: Clinical Applications in Evoked Potentials in Neurology. Raven, New York, pp 339–346Google Scholar
  82. Burke D, Skuse NF, Lethlean AK (1981) Cutaneous and muscle afferent components of the cerebral potential evoked by electrical stimulation of human peripheral nerves. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51: 579–588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Caccia MR, Ubiali E, Andreussi L (1976) Spinal evoked responses recorded from the epidural space in normal and diseased humans. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 962–972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Cant BR (1980) Somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials in patients with disorders of consciousness. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 282–291Google Scholar
  85. Caruso G, Santoro L, Perrett A, Massini R, Pelosi L, Crisci C, Ragno M, Campanella G, Filla A (1987) Friedreich’s ataxia: Electrophysiologic and histologic findings in patients and relatives. Muscle Nerve 10: 503–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Celesia GG (1979) Somatosensory evoked potentials recorded directly from human thalamus and SMI cortical area. Arch Neurol 36: 399–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Cesa-Bianchi MG, Mancia M, Mutani R (1967) Experimental epilepsy induced by cobalt powder in lower brain-stem and thalamic structures. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 22: 525–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Chan SHH (1979) Suppression of dental pulp-evoked trigeminal responses by nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis in the cat. Exp Neurol 66: 356–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Chatrian GE, Farrell DF, Canfield RC, Lettich E (1975) Congenital insensitivity to noxious stimuli. Arch Neurol 32: 141–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Chiappa KH (1980) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with restricted CNS lesions and with brain death. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 94 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  91. Chiappa KH, Choi SK, Young RR (1980) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in patients with neurological lesions. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 264–281Google Scholar
  92. Christiansen J (1966) Neurological observations of macaques with spinal cord lesions. Anat Rec 154: 330Google Scholar
  93. Chu NS, Yang SS (1988) Portal-systemic encephalopathy: Alterations in somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. J Neurol Sci 84: 41–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ciganek L (1968) Some problems in measurements of the evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 24: 294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Clark DL, Rosner BS (1973) Neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics: I. The electroencephalogram and sensory evoked responses in man. Anesthesiology 38: 564–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Claus D, Linsenmeier R, Sturm U, Engelhardt A (1987) Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale nach taktilen Hautreizen. Z EEG EMG 18:115–121Google Scholar
  97. Cohen LG, Starr A (1987) Localization, timing and specificity of gating of somatosensory evoked potentials during active movement in man. Brain 110: 451–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Cohen LG, Starr A, Pratt H (1985) Cerebral somatosensory potentials evoked by muscle stretch, cutaneous taps and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves in the lower limbs in man. Brain 108:103–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Colon E, Joosten E, de Weerd J (1978) Somatosensory evoked response in controlled A-alpha sensory fiber disease. J Neurol 219: 273–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Cook AW, Browder EJ (1965) Function of posterior columns in man. Arch Neurol 12:72–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Corkin S, Milner B, Rasmussen T (1964) Effects of different cortical excisions on sensory thresholds in man. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 112–116Google Scholar
  102. Cosi V (1991) Somatosensory, visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Current Opin Neurol Neurosurg 4: 760–769Google Scholar
  103. Cosi V, Poloni M, Mazzini L, Callieco R (1984) Somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 857–861CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Cracco JB, Bosch VV, Cracco RQ (1980) Cerebral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials in children with CNS degenerative disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 437–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Cracco JB, Castells S, Mark E (1984) Spinal somatosensory evoked potentials in juvenile diabetes. Ann Neurol 15: 55–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Cracco JB, Cracco RO, Graziani L (1974) Spinal evoked response in infants with myelodysplasia. Neurology (Minneap) 24: 359–360Google Scholar
  107. Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Graziani L, Lazaro T (1973) Spinal evoked response in premature and term infants. Neurology (Minneap) 23: 426Google Scholar
  108. Cracco RQ (1972) Traveling waves of the human scalp-recorded somatosensory evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 33: 557–566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Cracco RQ (1973) Spinal evoked response: peripheral nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 379–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Cracco RQ (1975) Comparison of single and multiple peripheral nerve stimulation on the human spinal evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 38: 543Google Scholar
  111. Cracco RQ (1980) Scalp-recorded potentials evoked by median nerve stimulation: subcortical potentials, traveling waves and somatomotor potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  112. Cracco RQ, Bickford RG (1968) Somatomotor and somatosensory evoked responses. Arch Neurol 18:52–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Cracco RQ, Cracco JB (1976) Somatosensory evoked potentials in man: far-field potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 41: 460–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Cracco RQ, Cracco JB, Sarnowski R, Vogel HB (1980) Spinal evoked potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 87–104Google Scholar
  115. Cracco RQ, Evans B (1978) Spinal evoked potential in the cat: Effects of asphyxia, strychnine, cord section and compression. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 187–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Cragg BG, Thomas PK (1961) Changes in conduction velocity and fiber size proximal to peripheral nerve lesions. J Physiol (Lond) 157: 315–327Google Scholar
  117. Creutzfeldt O, Houchin J (1974) Neuronal basis of EEG-waves. In: Creutzfeld O (ed) The neuronal generation of the EEG. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Handbook EEG clin neurophysiology, Rémond A (ed) vol 2/C pp 5–55)Google Scholar
  118. Croft TJ, Brodkey JS, Nulsen FE (1972) Reversible spinal cord trauma: a model for electrical monitoring of spinal cord function. J Neurosurg 36: 402–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Cruccu G, Inghilleri M, Manfredi M, Meglio M (1987) Intracranial stimulation of the trigeminal nerve in man. III. Sensory potentials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 1323–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Cruse R, Klem G, Lesser RP, Lueders H (1982) Paradoxical lateralization of cortical potentials evoked by stimulation of posterior tibial nerve. Arch Neurol 39: 222–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Cusick JF, Myklebust JB, Larson SJ, Sances A (1979) Spinal cord evaluation of cortical evoked responses. Arch Neurol 36:140–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Cutler JR, Aminoff MJ, Brant-Zawadzki M (1986) Evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis by evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging:A comparative study. Ann Neurol 20: 645–648CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. D’Allest AM, Laget P, Raimbault J (1982) Visual and somesthetic potentials in neurolipidosis. In: Courjon J, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. d’Angelo CM, Gilder JC van, Taub A (1973) Evoked potentials in experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 38: 332–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Dal-Bianco P, Mamoli B, Dorda W (1985) Identifikationshäufigkeit und Konfigurationsvarianten der NSEP-Signale in Abhängigkeit von Ableitort und Meßzeitort. Z EEG EMG 16:206–211Google Scholar
  126. Darian-Smith I (1973) The trigeminal stem. In: Autrum H, Jung R, Loewenstein WR (eds) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 271–314)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Dawson EG, Sherman JE, Kanim LEA, Nuwer MR (1991) Spinal cord monitoring. Results of the scoliosis research society and the european spinal deformity society survey. Spine 16: 361–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Dawson GD (1947 a) Cerebral responses to electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 10: 134–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Dawson GD (1947b) Investigations on a patient subject to myoclonic seizures after sensory stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 10: 141–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Dawson GD (1954) A summation technique for the detection of small evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 6: 65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Dawson GD (1956) The relative excitability and conduction velocity of sensory and motor nerve fibres in man. J Physiol (Lond) 131:436Google Scholar
  132. de la Torre JC (1980) Somatosensory evoked potentials in coma and brain death. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques de potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, pp 1–2 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  133. de la Torre JC, Johnson CM, Goode DJ, Mullan S (1975) Pharmacologic treatment and evaluation of permanent experimental spinal cord trauma. Neurology (Minneap) 25: 508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. de la Torre JC, Trimble JL, Beard RT, Hanlon K, Surgeon JW (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials for the prognosis of coma in humans. Exp Neurol 60: 304–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. de Vito J (1954) Study of sensory pathway in monkeys. PhD thesis, University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  136. de Vito J (1967) Thalamic projection of the anterior ectosylvian gyrus (somatic area II) in the cat. J Comp Neurol 131: 67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Debecker J, Desmedt JE (1964) Les potentiels évoqués cérébraux et les potentiels de nerf sensible chez l’homme. Acta Neurol Belg 64: 1212–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Debecker J, Noël P, Desmedt JE (1971) The use of average cerebral evoked potentials in the evaluation of sensory loss in forensic medicine. Electromyography 11:131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Delbeke J, McComas AJ, Kopec SJ (1978) Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41: 293–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Delberghe X, Mavroudakis N, Zegers de Beyl D, Brunko E (1990) The effect of stimulus frequency on post- and pre-central short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 86–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Desmedt JE (1971) Somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials in man. In: Cobb WA (ed) Somatic sensation. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Handbook of electroenceph clin neurophysiol, vol 9, pp 55–82)Google Scholar
  142. Desmedt JE, Bourguet M (1985) Color imaging of parietal and frontal somatosensory potential fields evoked by stimulation of median or posterior tibial nerve in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62:1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Desmedt JE, Brunko E (1980) Functional organization of far-field and cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials in normal adults. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 27–50Google Scholar
  144. Desmedt JE, Brunko E, Debecker J (1976) Maturation of the somatosensory evoked potentials in normal infants and children, with special reference to the early N1 component. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 40:43–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Desmedt JE, Brunko E, Debecker J (1980) Maturation and sleep correlates of the somatosensory evoked potential. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 146–161Google Scholar
  146. Desmedt JE, Brunko E, Debecker J, Carmeliet J (1974) The system bandpass required to avoid distorsion of early components when averaging somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 37: 407–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1980 a) Somatosensory pathway and evoked potentials in normal human aging. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 162–169Google Scholar
  148. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1980 b) Central somatosensory conduction in man: Neural generators and interpeak latencies of the far-field components recorded from neck and right or left scalp and earlobes. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 50: 382–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1980 c) Somatosensory evoked potentials to finger stimulation in healthy octogenarians and in young adults: wave forms, scalp topography and transit times and frontal components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 50: 404–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1981) Prevertebral (oesophageal) recording of subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials in man: The spinal P 13 component and the dual nature of the spinal generators. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 257–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1983) Spinal and far-field components of human somatosensory evoked potentials to posterior tibial nerve stimulation analysed with oesophageal derivations and non-cephalic reference recording. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 635–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Desmedt JE, Debecker J (1972) The somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials of the sleeping human newborn. In: Clemente CD, Purpura DP (eds) Sleep and the maturing nervous systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 229–239Google Scholar
  153. Desmedt JE, Manil J (1970) Somatosensory evoked potentials of the normal human neonate in REM sleep, in slow wave sleep and in waking. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 29:113–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Desmedt JE, Manil J, Borenstein S, Debecker J, Lambert C, Franken L, Danis A (1966) Evaluation of sensory nerve conduction from average cerebral evoked potentials in neuropathies. Electromyography 6: 263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Desmedt JE, Nguyen TH (1984) Bit-mapped colour imaging of the potential fields of propagated and segmental subcortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 58: 481–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Desmedt JE, Noël P (1973) Average cerebral evoked potentials in the evaluation of lesions of the sensory nerves and of the central somatosensory pathway. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol 2. Karger, Basel, pp 352–371Google Scholar
  157. Desmedt JE, Noël P (1975) Cerebral evoked potentials. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH (eds) Peripheral neuropathy, vol 1. Saunders, Philadelphia London Toronto, pp 480–491Google Scholar
  158. Desmedt JE, Noël P, Debecker J, Nameche J (1973) Maturation of afferent conduction velocity as studied by sensory nerve potentials and by cerebral evoked potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol 2. Karger, Basel, pp 52–63Google Scholar
  159. Desmedt JE, Robertson D (1977) Differential enhancement of early and late components of the cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials during forced-pace cognitive tasks in man. J Physiol (Lond) 271: 761Google Scholar
  160. Diener HC, Dichgans J, Hülser PJ, Buettner UW, Bacher M, Guschlbauer B (1984) The significance of delayed long-loop responses to ankle displacement for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57: 336–342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Dimitrijevic MR, Larsson LE, Lehmkuhl D, Sherwood A (1978) Evoked spinal cord and nerve root potentials in human using a non-invasive recording technique. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 331–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Dimitrijevic MR, Lenman JA, Prevec T, Wheatly K (1982) A study of posterior column function in familial spastic paraplegia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45:46–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Dimitrijevic MR, Prevec TS, Sherwood A, McKay WB, Butinar D, Brecelj T (1980) Somatosensory perception and cortical evoked potential in established paraplegia. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 101 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  164. Domino EF, Matsuoka S, Waltz J, Copper IS (1965) Effects of cryogenic thalamic lesions on the somesthetic evoked response in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 19: 127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Donchin E, Callaway E, Cooper R, Desmedt JE, Goff WR, Hillyard SA, Sutton S (1977) Publication criteria for studies of evoked potentials in man: report of a committee. Prog Clin Neurophysiol 1:1–11Google Scholar
  166. Donofrio PD, Walker F (1988) Tabes dorsalis: electrodiagnostic features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51: 1097–1099CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Dorfman LJ (1977) Indirect estimation of spinal cord conduction velocity in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 42:26–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Dorfman LJ, Bosley TM, Cummins KL (1978) Electrophysiological localization of central somatosensory lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 742–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Dorfman LJ, Perkash I, Bosley TM, Cummins KL (1980) Use of cerebral evoked potentials to evaluate spinal somatosensory function in patients with traumatic and surgical myelopathies. J Neurosurg 52: 654–660CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Drake CG (1964) Diagnosis and treatment of lesions of the brachial plexus and adjacent structures. Clin Neurosurg 11: 110–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Drechsler F (1977) Methoden zur Bestimmung neurophysiologischer Parameter des ZNS im Alter. I. Mitteilung: Evozierte Potentiale. Aktuel Gerontol 7: 273–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Drechsler F (1980) Short and long latency cortical potentials following trigeminal nerve stimulation in man. In: Barber C (ed) Evoked potentials. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Dubois M, Coppola R, Buchsbaum MS, Lees DE (1981) Somatosensory evoked potentials during whole body hyperthermia in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Ducker TB, Salcman M, Lucas JT, Garrison WB, Perot PL Jr (1978) Experimental spinal cord trauma. II. Blood flow, tissue oxygen, evoked potentials in both paretic and plegic monkeys. Surg Neurol 10:64–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Duckworth T, Yamashita T, Franks CI, Brown BH (1976) Somatosensory evoked cortical responses in children with spina bifida. Dev Med Chil Neurol 18: 19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Duclaux R, Franzen O, Chatt B, Kenshalo DR, Stowell H (1974) Responses recorded from human scalp evoked by cutaneous thermal stimulation. Brain Res 78: 279–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Duclaux R, Franzen O, Kenshalo DR, Stowell H, Chatt AB (1975) Potentiels évoqués sur le sclap par des stimulations thermiques cutanéez chez l’homme. J Physiol (Paris) 67: 340 aGoogle Scholar
  178. Duff TA (1980) Multichannel topographic analysis of human somatosensory evoked potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 69–86Google Scholar
  179. Duffy FH (1986) Topographic mapping of brain electrical activity. Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  180. Dumitru D, Jewett DL (1993) Far-field potentials. Muscle Nerve 16: 237–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Dumitru D, Kalantri A, Dierschke B (1991) Somatosensory evoked potentials of the medial and lateral plantar and calcaneal nerves. Muscle Nerve 14: 665–671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Dumitru D, Lester JP (1991) Needle and surface electrode somatosensory evoked potential normative data: a comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 72: 989–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Dvonch V, Scarff T, Bunch WH, Smith D, Boscardin J, Lebarge H, Ibrahim K (1984) Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials: Their use in lumbar radiculopathy. Spine 9: 291–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Dyck PJ (1975) Inherited neuronal degeneration and atrophy affecting peripheral motor, sensory and autonomic neurons. In: Dyck PJ (ed) Peripheral neuropathy, vol 2. Saunders, Philadelphia London Toronto, pp 825–867Google Scholar
  185. Dyck PJ, Lais AC (1973) Evidence for segmental demyelination secondary to axonal degeneration in Friedrich’s ataxia. In: Kakulas BA (ed) Clinical studies in myology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 253–263Google Scholar
  186. Dyck PJ, Lambert EH (1968) Lower motor and primary sensory neuron diseases with peroneal muscular atrophy. 1. Neurologic, genetic and electrophysiologic findings in hereditary polyneuropathies. Arch Neurol 18: 603–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Dyck PJ, Lambert EH, Nichols PC (1971) Quantitative measurement of sensation related to compound action potential and number and sizes of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres of sural nerve in health, Friedreich’s ataxia, hereditary sensory neuropathy and tabes dorsalis. In: Cobb WA (ed) Somatic sensation. Elsevier, Amsterdam (Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Rémond (ed) vol 9, pp 83–118)Google Scholar
  188. Dyck PJ, Ohta M (1975) Neuronal atrophy and degeneration predominantly affecting peripheral sensory neurons. In: Dyck PJ (ed) Peripheral neuropathy, vol 2. Saunders, Philadelphia London Toronto, pp 791–824Google Scholar
  189. Ebensperger H (1980) Somatosensorisch evozierte kortikale Potentiale nach elektrischer Stimulation des Nervus tibialis. Untersuchungen an Normalpersonen und an Patienten mit Multipler Sklerose. Dissertation, Universität TübingenGoogle Scholar
  190. Ebner A, Dengler R, Meier C (1981) Peripheral and central conduction times in hereditary pressuresensitive neuropathy. J Neurol 226: 85–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ebner A, Einsiedel-Lechtape H, Lücking CH (1982) Somatosensory tibial nerve evoked potentials with parasagittal tumours: A contribution to the problem of generators. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 508–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ebner A, Lücking CH (1985) Somatosensibel evozierte Potentiale bei Großhirnhemisphärenläsionen (Beinnervenstimulation). Aktuel Neurol 12: 41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ebner FF, Myers RE (1962) Commissural connections in the neocortex of monkey. Anat Rec 142: 229Google Scholar
  194. Eccles JC (1951) Interpretation of action potentials evoked in the cerebral cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 3: 449–464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Eccles JC, Eccles RM, Lundberg A (1960) Types of neurons in and around the intermediate nucleus of the lumbosacral cord. J Physiol (Lond) 154: 89–114Google Scholar
  196. Eisen A (1986 a) Noninvasive measurement of spinal cord conduction: Review of presently available methods. Muscle Nerve 9: 95–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Eisen A (1986 b) SEP in the evaluation of disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In: Cracco RQ, Bodis-Wollner I (eds) Evoked potentials. Alan R. Liss, Inc.: New York, pp 409–417Google Scholar
  198. Eisen A, Burton K, Larsen A, Hoirch M, Calne D (1984) A new indirect method for measuring spinal conduction velocity in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 204–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Eisen A, Danon J (1974) Mild cubital tunnel syndrome. Its natural history and indications for surgical intervention. Neurology 24: 608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Eisen A, Elleker G (1980) Sensory nerve stimulation and evoked cerebral potentials. Neurology 30: 1097–1105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Eisen A, Hoirch M (1983) The electrodiagnostic evaluation of spinal root lesions. Spine 8: 98–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Eisen A, Odusote K (1980) Central and peripheral conduction times in multiple sclerosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 48: 253–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Eisen A, Paty D, Purves S, Hoirch M (1981) Occult fifth nerve dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 8: 221–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Eisen A, Roberts K, Low M, Hoirch M, Lawrence P (1984) Questions regarding the sequential neural generator theory of the somatosensory evoked potential raised by digital filtering. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 388–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Eisen A, Stewart J, Nudleman K, Cosgrove JBR (1979) Short-latency somatosensory responses in multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 29: 827–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Eisen A, Yufe R, Trop D, Campbell I (1978) Reduced neuromuscular transmission safety factor in multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 28: 598–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Eisenberg HM, Turner JW, Teasdale G, Rowan J, Feinstein R, Grossman RG (1979) Monitoring of cortical excitability during induced hypotension in aneurysm operations. J Neurosurg 50: 595–602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. El-Negamy E, Sedgwick EM (1978) Properties of a spinal somatosensory evoked potential recorded in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41: 762–768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Elleker G, Eisen A (1980) Segmental sensory stimulation and SEPs — normative data and clinical application. Neurology 30: 372Google Scholar
  210. Engler LG, Spielholz NI, Bernhard WN, Danziger F, Merkin H, Wolff T (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials during Harrington instrumentation for scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 60: 528–532Google Scholar
  211. Ertekin C (1973) Human evoked electrospinogram. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol 2. Karger, Basel, pp 344–351Google Scholar
  212. Ertekin C (1976 a) Studies on the human evoked electrospinogram: the origin of the segment evoked potentials. Acta Neurol Scand 53: 3–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Ertekin C (1976 b) Studies on the human evoked electrospinogram: 2. The conduction velocity along the dorsal funiculus. Acta Neurol Scand 53: 21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Ertekin C (1978 a) Comparison of the human evoked electrospinogram recorded from the intrathecal, epidural and cutaneous levels. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 683–690CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Ertekin C (1978 b) Evoked electrospinogram in spinal cord and peripheral nerve disorders. Acta Neurol Scand 57: 329–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Ertekin C, Mutlu R, Sarica Y, Uckardesler L (1980) Electrophysiological evaluation of the afferent spinal roots and nerves in patients with conus medullaris and cauda equina lesions. J Neurol Sci 48: 419–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Ertekin C, Reel F (1976) Bulbocavernosus reflex in normal men and in patients with neurogenic bladder and/or impotence. J Neurol Sci 28:1–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Ertekin C, Sarica Y, Ückardesler L (1984) Somatosensory cerebral potentials evoked by stimulation of the lumbo-sacral cord in normal subjects and in patients with conus medullaris and cauda equina lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 57–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Ervin F, Mark V (1964) Studies of the human thalamus. Ann NY Acad Sci 112: 81–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Eulert J, Mitzkat K, Stöhr M, Gekeler J (1979) Zur Anwendung evozierter Potentiale bei Skolioseoperationen. 66. Tagung d. Dtsch. Gesellsch. f. Orthopädie u. Traumatologie, BaselGoogle Scholar
  221. Fardeau M, Engel WK (1969) Ultrastructural study of a peripheral nerve biopsy in Refsum’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 28:278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Fehlings MG, Tator CH, Linden RD (1989) The relationships among the severity of spinal cord injury, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord blood flow. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 74:241–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Feinsod M, Blau D, Findler G, Hadani M, Beller AJ (1982) Somatosensory evoked potential to peroneal nerve stimulation in patients with herniated lumbar discs. Neurosurgery 11: 506–511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Ferbert A, Buchner H, Brückmann H (1990) Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in pontine haemorrhage. Brain 113: 49–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Findler G, Feinsod M (1982) Reversible facial pain due to hydrocephalus with trigeminal somatosensory evoked response changes. Case report. J Neurosurg 57: 267–269Google Scholar
  226. Flügel KA, Sturm U, Skiba N (1984) Somatosensibel evozierte Potentiale nach Stimulation des N. cutaneus femoris lateralis bei Normalpersonen und Patienten mit Meralgia paraesthetica. Z EEG EMG 15:88–93Google Scholar
  227. Foerster O (1936) Sensible corticale Felder. In: Bumke O, Foester O (eds) Großhirn. Vegetatives Nervensystem. Körperbau und Konstitution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbuch der Neurologie, Bd 6, S 358–448)Google Scholar
  228. Foerstl J, Hohagen F, Hewer W, Pohlmann-Eden B (1989) Another case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob like syndrome due to andidepressant toxicity. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52: 920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Franzen O, Offenloch K (1969) Evoked response correlates of psychophysical magnitude estimates for tactile stimulation in man. Exp Brain Res 8: 1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Friedreich N (1875) Über hereditäre Ataxie. Allg Z Psychiatr 32: 539Google Scholar
  231. Fruhstorfer H, Guth H, Pfaff U (1973) Cortical responses evoked of psychophysical stimuli in man. Third International Congress on event related slow potentials of the brain, Bristol. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  232. Fukushima T, Mayanagi Y (1975) Neurophysiological examination (SEP) for the objective diagnosis of spinal lesions. In: Klug W, Brock W (eds) Meningiomas, multiple sclerosis, forensic problems in neurosurgery. Advances in Neurosurgery, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Fukushima T, Mayanagi Y, Bouchard G (1976) Thalamic evoked potentials to somatosensory stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 40: 481–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Gado M, Hanaway J, Frank R (1979) Functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex by computed tomography. J Comp Ass Tomogr 3:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Gamstorp I, Shelburne AS (1965) Peripheral sensory conduction in ulnar and median nerves of normal infants, children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr Scand 54: 209–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Ganchev GN, Yankov E (1980) Somatosensory evoked potential of the stretch-reflex (T-reflex). Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 5: 63–69Google Scholar
  237. Ganes T (1980 a) Somatosensory evoked responses and central afferent conduction times in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43: 948–953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Ganes T (1980 b) A study of peripheral, cervical and cortical evoked potentials and afferent conduction times in the somatosensory pathway. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 446–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Gardner W (1968) Trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 15:1–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Gasser HS, Graham HT (1933) Potentials produced in the spinal cord by stimulation of dorsal roots. Am J Physiol 103: 303–320Google Scholar
  241. Gelfan S, Tarlov IM (1956) Physiology of spinal cord, nerve root and peripheral nerve compression. Am J Physiol 185:217–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. George SR, Taylor MJ (1991) Somatosensory evoked potentials in neonates and infants: developmental and normative data. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 94–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Giblin DR (1960) The effect of lesions of the nervous system on cerebral responses to peripheral nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 12:262Google Scholar
  244. Giblin DR (1964) Somatosensory evoked potentials on healthy subjects and in patients with lesions of the nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sci 112: 94–142Google Scholar
  245. Giblin DR (1980) Scalp-recorded somatosensory evoked potentials. In: Aminoff MJ (ed) Electrodiagnosis in Clinical Neurology. Livingstone, New York Edinburgh London, pp 415–450Google Scholar
  246. Gibson NA, Brezinova V, Levene MI (1992) Somatosensory evoked potentials in the term newborn. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 84:26–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Giesser BS, Kurtzberg D, Vaughan HG (1987) Trimodal evoked potentials compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 44:281–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Gilliatt RW, Sears TA (1958) Sensory nerve action potentials in patients with peripheral nerve lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:109–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Gilliatt RW, Thomas PK (1960) Changes in nerve conduction with ulnar lesions at the elbow. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23: 312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Gilmore RL, Bass NH, Wright EA, Greathouse D, Stanback K, Norvell E (1985) Developmental assessment of spinal cord and cortical evoked potentials after tibial nerve stimulation: Effects of age and stature on normative data during childhood. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62: 241–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Gilmore RL, Nelson KR (1989) SSEP and F-wave studies in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Muscle Nerve 12: 538–543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Glees P, Soler J (1951) Fiber content of the posterior column and synaptic connections of the nucleus gracilis. Z Zellforsch 36:381–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Goff GD, Matsumiya Y, Allison T, Goff WR (1977) The scalp topography of human somatosensory and auditory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 42:57–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Goff WR, Rosner BS, Allison T (1962) Distribution of somatosensory evoked responses in normal man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 14: 697–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Goff WR, Shaywitz BA, Goff GD, Reisenauer MA, Jasiorkowski JG, Venes JL, Rothstein PT (1983) Somatic evoked potential evaluation of cerebral status in reye syndrome. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 55: 388–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Goff WR, Williamson PD, Van Gilder JC, Allison T, Fisher TC (1980) Neural origins of long latency evoked potentials recorded from the depth and from the cortical surface of the brain in man. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 126–145Google Scholar
  257. Goldie WD, Chiappa KH, Young RR (1979) Brainstem auditory evoked responses in the evaluation of deeply comatose patients. 6th International Congress of electromyography, Stockholm, p 71 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  258. Goldring S, Ratcheson R (1972) Human motor cortex: sensory input data from single neuron recordings. Science 175: 1493–1495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Gollehon D, Kahanovitz N, Happel LT (1983) Temperature effects on feline cortical and spinal evoked potentials. Spine 5: 443–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Gonzalez EG, Hajdu M, Bruno R, Keim H, Brand L (1985) Lumbar spinal stenosis: Analysis of pre- and postoperative somatosensory evoked potentials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66: 11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Goodridge A, Eisen A, Hoirch M (1987) Paraspinal stimulation to elicit somatosensory evoked potentials: An approach to physiological localization of spinal lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 268–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Goss-Sampson MA, Kriss A, Muddle JR, Thomas PK, Muller DPR (1988) Lumbar and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in rats with vitamin E deficiency. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51: 432–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Gott PS, Karnaze DS (1985) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in myotonic dystrophy: Evidence for a conduction disturbance. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62: 455–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Green JB, Hamilton WJ (1977) Anosognosia for hemiplegia: somatosensory evoked potential studies. Neurology (Minneap) 26:1141–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Green JB, McLeod S (1979) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with neurological lesions. Arch Neurol 36: 846–851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Green JB, Walcoff MR, Lucke JF (1982) Comparison of phenytoin and phenobarbital effects on far-field auditory and somatosensory evoked potential interpeak latencies. Epilepsia 23: 417–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Greenberg RP, Mayer DJ, Becker DP, Miller JD (1977) Evaluation of brain function in severe human head trauma multimodality evoked potentials. J Neurosurg 47: 150–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Greenberg RP, Miller JD, Becker DP (1980) Early prognosis after severe human head injury utilizing multimodality evoked potentials. Acta Neurochir (Wien) [Suppl 1] 28:50–51Google Scholar
  269. Gregory PC, McGeorge AP, Fitch W, Graham DI, Mackenzie ET, Harper AM (1980) Effects of hemorrhagic hypotension on the cerebral circulation. II. Electrocortical function. Stroke 10: 719–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Grimm G, Oder W, Prayer L, Ferenci P, Madl C (1990) Evoked potentials in assessment and follow-up of patients with Wilson’s disease. Lancet 336: 963–964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Grisolia JS, Wiederholt WC (1980) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials from radial, median and ulnar nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 50: 375–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Guérit JM, Soveges L, Baele P, Dion R (1990) Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in profound hypothermia for ascending aorta repair. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 163–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Gupta PR, Dorfman LJ (1981) Spinal somatosensory conduction in diabetes. Neurology (NY) 31: 841–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Guttmann L (1976) Spinal cord injuries: Comprehensive management and research, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford London Edinburgh MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  275. Haldeman S (1986) Pudendal nerve evoked spinal, cortical, and bulbocavernosus reflex responses: Methods and application. In: Cracco RQ, Bodis-Wollner I (eds) Evoked potentials. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 68–75Google Scholar
  276. Halliday AM (1967 a) Changes in the form of cerebral evoked responses in man associated with various lesions of the nervous system. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol [Suppl] 25: 178–192Google Scholar
  277. Halliday AM (1967 b) The clinical incidence of myoclonus. Mod Trends Neurol 4: 69–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Halliday AM (1980) Evoked brain potentials: how far have we come since 1875? In: Barber C (ed) Evoked potentials. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Halliday AM, Halliday E (1980) Cerebral somatosensory and visual evoked potentials in different clinical forms of myoclonus. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 292–310Google Scholar
  280. Halliday AM, Mason AA (1964) The effect of hypnotic anaesthesia on cortical responses. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 27: 300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Halliday AM, Wakefield GS (1963) Cerebral evoked potentials in patients with dissociated sensory loss. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26: 211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Happel LT, LeBlanc HJ, Kline DG (1975) Spinal cord potentials evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 38: 349–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Harden A, Pampiglione G, Picton-Robinson N (1973) Electroretinogram and visual evoked response in a form of “neuronal lipidosis” with diagnostic EEG features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36:61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Harding AE (1981) Friedreich’s ataxia: A clinical and genetic study of 90 families with an analysis of early diagnostic criteria and intrafamilial clustering of clinical features. Brain 104: 589–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Hardy RW, Brodkey JS, Richards DE, Nulsen FE (1972) Effect of systemic hypertension on compression block of spinal cord. Surg Forum 23: 434–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Hashimoto I (1984) Somatosensory evoked potentials from the human brain-stem: Origins of short latency potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57: 221–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Hashimoto I (1988) Trigeminal evoked potentials following brief air puff: Enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Ann Neurol 23: 332–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Hattori S, Saiki K, Kawai S (1979) Diagnosis of the level and severity of cord lesion in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Spine 6: 478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Herdmann J, Dvorák J, Vohánka S (1992) Neurophysiological evaluation of disorders and procedures affecting the spinal cord and the cauda equina. Current Opin Neurol Neurosurg 5: 544–548Google Scholar
  290. Hess CW, Mills KR, Murray NMF, Schriefer TN (1987) Magnetic brain stimulation: Central motor conduction studies in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 22: 744–752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Heuß D, Stöhr M (1991) Eigenreflex-Verlust bei multipler Sklerose? Aktuelle Neurol 18:19–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Hillyard SA, Picton TW (1979) Event-related brain potentials and selective information processing in man. Prog Clin Neurophysiol 6: 1–52Google Scholar
  293. Hillyard SA, Picton TW, Regan D (1978) Sensation, perception and attention: analysis using ERPs. In: Callaway E, Tueting P, Koslow SH (eds) Event related brain potentials in man. Academic Press, New York, pp 223–231Google Scholar
  294. Hirsch JF, Pertuiset B, Calvet J, Buisson-Ferey J, Fischgold H, Scherrer J (1961) Etude des résponses électrocorticales obtenuez chez l’homme par des stimulations somesthésiques et visuelles. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 13: 411–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Hopf HC, Eysholdt M (1978) Impaired refractory periods of peripheral sensory nerves in multiple sclerosis. An Neurol 4: 499–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Hrbek A, Karlberg P, Kjellmer I, Olsson T, Riha M (1977) Clinical application of evoked electroencephalographic responses in newborn infants. I. Perinatal asphyxia. Dev Med Child Neurol 19: 34–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Huang CM, Feely M (1982) Trigeminal evoked potentials in the cat. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 63–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Hughes JT, Brownell B, Hewer RL (1968) The peripheral sensory pathway in Friedreich’s ataxia. Brain 91:803–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Hume AL, Cant BR (1978) Conduction time in central somatosensory pathways in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 361–375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Hume AL, Cant BR (1980) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials after severe head injury. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 93 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  301. Hume AL, Cant BR, Shaw NA (1979) Central somatosensory conduction time in comatose patients. Ann Neurol 5: 379–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Hume AL, Cant BR, Shaw NA, Cowand JC (1982) Central somatosensory conduction time from 10 to 79 years. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54:49–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Hume AL, Waxman SG (1988) Evoked potentials in suspected multiple sclerosis: Diagnostic value and prediction of clinical course. J Neurol Sci 83: 191–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Huttunen J, Homberg V, Lange HW (1993) Pre- and postcentral somatosensory evoked potentials in Huntington’s disease: Effects of stimulus repetition rate. J Neurol Sci 116: 119–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Hyvärinen I, Poranen A, Jokinen Y, Näätänen R, Linankoski I (1972) Observations on unit activity in the primary somesthetic cortex of behaving monkeys. In: Kornhuber HH (ed) The somatosensory system. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  306. Ibáñez V, Fischer G, Mauguière F (1992) Dorsal horn and dorsal column dysfunction in intramedullary cervical cord tumours. Brain 115: 1209–1234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Ingram DA, Thompson AJ, Swash M (1988) Central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis: Evaluation of abnormalities revealed by transcutaneous magnetic stimulation of the brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51: 487–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Iob I, Andrioli GC, Mingrino S, Salar G (1980) CER in spinal neurotraumatology. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 100 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  309. Ishiko N, Hanamori T, Murayama N (1980) Spatial distribution of somatosensory responses evoked by tapping the tongue and finger in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 50:1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Jacobson GP, Tew JM (1988) The origin of the scalp recorded P 14 following electrical stimulation of the median nerve: Intraoperative observations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 71: 73–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Jamal GA (1990) Spinal cord physiology and neurophysiological investigation. Current Opin Neurol Neurosurg 3: 597–602Google Scholar
  312. Jannetta RJ (1977) Observations on the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, acoustic nerve dysfunction and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Definitive microsurgical treatment and results in 117 patients. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 20: 145–154Google Scholar
  313. Jannetta RJ, Rand RW (1967) Arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg [Suppl] 26: 159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Jasper H, Lende R, Rasmussen T (1960) Evoked potentials from the exposed somatosensory cortex in man. J Nery Ment Dis 130: 526–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Jeanmonod D, Sindou M, Mauguière F (1991) The human cervical and lumbo-sacral evoked electrospinogram. Data from intraoperative spinal cord surface recordings. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 477–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Jebsen RH (1967) Motor conduction velocities in the median and ulnar nerves. Arch Phys Med 48: 185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Jerret SA, Cuzzone LJ, Pasternak BM (1984) Thoracic outlet syndrome. Arch Neurol 41: 960–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Jones EG (1975) Lamination and differential distribution of thalamic afferents within the sensory- motor cortex of the squirrel monkey. J Comp Neurol 160: 167–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Jones EG, Powell TPS (1968) The ipsilateral cortical connections of the somatic sensory areas in the cat. Brain Res 9:71–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Jones EG, Powell TPS (1969) Connections of the somatic sensory cortex of the rhesus monkey. I. Ipsilateral cortical connections. Brain 92: 504–531Google Scholar
  321. Jones EG, Powell TPS (1970) Connections of the somatic sensory cortex of the rhesus monkey. 3. Thalamic connections. Brain 93: 37–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Jones EG, Powell TPS (1973) Anatomical organization of the somatosensory cortex. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 579–620)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Jones SJ (1977) Short latency potentials recorded from the neck and scalp following median nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysol 43: 853–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Jones SJ (1979) Investigations of brachial plexus traction lesions by peripheral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 107–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Jones SJ (1990) Somatosensory evoked potentials. Current Opinion Neurol Neurosurg 3: 779–783Google Scholar
  326. Jones SJ, Baraitser M, Halliday AM (1980) Peripheral and central somatosensory nerve conduction defects in Friedreich’s ataxia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43: 495–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Jones SJ, Halliday AM (1982) Subcortical and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials: Characteristic waveform changes associated with disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system. In: Courjon J, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology. Raven Press, New York, pp 313–320Google Scholar
  328. Jones SJ, Parry CB, Landi A (1981) Diagnosis of brachial plexus traction lesions by sensory nerve action potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials. Injury 12: 376–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Jones SJ, Small DG (1978) Spinal and subcortical evoked potentials following stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 299–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Jörg J (1976) Die Neurographie der Cauda equina zur Differenzierung lumbosacraler Erkrankungen. Nervenarzt 47: 682–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Jörg J (1977) Die elektrosensible Diagnostik in der Neurologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Jörg J (1980) Diagnostic value of segmental SEP in cases with chronic progressive para- or tetraspastic syndromes. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 96 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  333. Jörg J (1983) Praktische SEP-Diagnostik. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  334. Jörg J, Hielscher H (1990) Evozierte Potentiale in Klinik und Praxis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Josiassen RC, Shagass C, Mancall EL, Roemer RA (1982) Somatosensory evoked potentials in Huntington’s disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 483–493CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Kaeser HE (1970) Nerve conduction velocity measurements. In: Killam EK, Killam K (ed) Physiological correlates. North Holland, Amsterdam (Handbook of clinical neurology, Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) vol 7, pp 116–196)Google Scholar
  337. Kaeser HE, Lambert EH (1962) Nerve function studies in experimental polyneuritis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol [Suppl] 22:29–35Google Scholar
  338. Kaji R, Sumner AJ (1990) Vector short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve stimulation. Muscle Nerve 13: 1174–1182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Kakigi R (1989) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials following median neve stimulation in Down’s syndrome. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 74:88–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Kakigi R, Jones SJ (1985) Effects on median nerve SEPs tactile stimulation applied to adjacent and remote areas of the body surface. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62: 252–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H (1983) Scalp topography of the short latency somatosensory evoked potentials following posterior tibial nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 430–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H (1987) Generator mechanism of giant somatosensory evoked potentials in cortical reflex myoclonus. Brain 110:1359–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H (1987) Somatosensory evoked potentials following stimulation of the lower limb in cortical reflex myoclonus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 1641–1646CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H (1991) Estimation of conduction velocity of the spino-thalamic tract in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80:39–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H (1991) Middle-latency somatosensory evoked potentials following median and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in Down’s syndrome. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophys 80: 364–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Hashizume A, Kuroiwa Y (1982) Short latency somatosensory evoked spinal and scalp-recorded potentials following posterior tibial nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 53: 602–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Ikeda A (1989) Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials following CO2 laser stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 74: 139–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Kuroda Y, Endo C, Oda KI, Ikeda A, Hashimoto K (1988) Multimodality evoked potentials in HTLV-I associated myelopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51: 1094–1096CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Kuroda Y, Neshige R, Endo C, Tabuchi K, Kishikawa T (1991) Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials in syringomyelia. Brain 114:1871–1889CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Tanaka K, Ikeda T, Oda KI, Endo C, Ikeda A, Neshige R, Kuroda Y, Miyata K, Yi S, Ikegawa S, Araki S (1991) CO2 laser-induced pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials in peripheral neuropathies: correlation between electrophysiological and histopathological findings. Muscle Nerve 14: 441–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Kalaska J, Pomeranz B (1982) Chronic peripheral nerve injuries alter the somatotopic organization of the cuneate nucleus in kittens. Brain Res 236: 35–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Kaplan PE (1981) A somatosensory evoked response obtained after stimulation of the contralateral pudendal nerve. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 21: 585–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Kaplan PE (1982) A somatosensory evoked response obtained after stimulation of the contralateral nerve II: With diabetic neuropathy and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 22: 517–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Kaschner AG, Sandmann W, Larkamp H (1984) Percutaneous flexible bipolar epidural neuroelectrode for spinal cord stimulation. J Neurosurg 60: 1317–1319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Kataoka N, Yamauchi T, Takasaka Y, Kudoh T, Hirabayashi Y, (1980) Somatosensory and visual evoked potentials in temporal lobe epilepsy. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 33: 251–254Google Scholar
  356. Katayama Y, Tsubokawa T (1987) Somatosensory evoked potentials from the thalamic sensory relay nucleus (VPL) in humans: Correlations with short latency somatosensory evoked potentials recorded at the scalp. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 187–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Katifi HA, Sedgwick EM (1986) Somatosensory evoked potentials from posterior tibial nerve and lumbosacral dermatomes. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 249–259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Katifi HA, Sedgwick EM (1987) Evaluation of the dermatomal somatosensory evoked potential in the diagnosis of lumbo-sacral root compression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 1204–1210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Katz S, Blackburn JG, Perrot PL, Lam CF (1978) The effects of low spinal injury on somatosensory evoked potentials from forelimb stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 236–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Kazis A, Vlaikidis N, Xafenias D, Papanastasiou J, Pappa P (1982) Fever and evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 227:1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Keller O, Butkhuzi SM, Vyklicky L, Brožek G (1974) Cortical responses evoked by simulation of tooth pulp afferents in the cat. Physiol Bohemoslov 23:45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Kelly DL, Goldring S, O’Leary JL (1965) Averaged evoked somatosensory responses from exposed cortex of man. Arch Neurol 13:1–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Kempster PA, Iansek R, Balla JI (1987) Value of visual evoked responses and oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of spinal multiple sclerosis. Lancet I: 769–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Kerr FWL, Wilson PR, Nijensohn DE (1978) Acupuncture reduces the trigeminal evoked response in decerebrate cats. Exp Neurol 61:84–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Kimura J, Yamada T, Kawamura H (1978) Central latencies of somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials. Arch Neurol 35: 683–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. King DW, Green JB (1979) Short latency somatosensory potentials in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 46: 702–708CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Kjellman A, Larsson LE, Prevec T (1967) Potentials evoked by tapping recorded from the human scalp over the cortical somatosensory region. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 23: 396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Klee M, Rall W (1977) Computed potentials of cortically arranged populations of neurons. J Neurophysiol 40: 647–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Kobrine AI, Evans DE, Rizzoli HV (1979) Experimental acute balloon compression of the spinal cord: factors affecting disappearance and return of the spinal evoked response. J Neurosurg 51: 841–845CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Kornhuber HH (1972) Tastsinn und Lagesinn. In: Boeckh J, Jung J, Kornhuber HH, Schmidt RF, Thoden U (eds) Physiologie des Menschen, Bd 11/1. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Berlin Wien, S 51–107Google Scholar
  371. Krarup-Hansen A, Fugleholm K, Helweg-Larsen S, Hauge EN, Schmalbruch H, Trojaborg W, Krarup C (1993) Examination of distal involvement in cisplatin-induced neuropathy in man. Brain 116:1017–1041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Kretschmer H (1981) Integriertes Therapieprogramm bei traumatischen Schädigungen des Plexus brachialis. Chirurg 52: 349–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Kritchevsky M, Wiederholt WC (1978) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Arch Neurol 35:706–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Krönlein (1898) Zur cranio-cerebralen Topographie. Beitr Klin Chir 22: 364–370Google Scholar
  375. Kruger L (1956) Characteristics of the somatic afferent projection to the precentral cortex in the monkey. Am J Physiol 186: 475–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Krumholz A, Weiss HD, Goldstein PJ, Harris KC (1981) Evoked responses in vitamin B12 deficiency. Ann Neurol 9: 407–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Kugelberg E, Widén L (1954) Epilepsia partialis continua. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 6: 503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Kuhlendahl H, Ischebeck W (1975) Multiple sclerosis and other misdiagnoses in spinal processes. In: Klug W, Brock M, Kliner M, Spoerri O (eds) Advances in neurosurgery, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 183Google Scholar
  379. Kunde V, Treede RD (1993) Topography of middle-latency somatosensory evoked potentials following painful laser stimuli and non-painful electrical stimuli. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 88: 280–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Kunesch E, Knecht S, Classen J, Roick H, Tyercha C, Benecke R (1993) Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) elicited by magnetic nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 88: 459–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Kurokawa T, Kobayashi M, Imai T, Tsuyama N (1979) Electrospinogram in cervical spondylosis. 6th International Congress of electromyography, Stockholm, p 67 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  382. Kusske JA, Burke BL, Dill RC, Porter RW, Verzeano M (1976) Somatosensory evoked responses and slow potential oscillations in human scalp recordings. Physiol Behav 15: 241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Laget P, Mamo H, Houdart R (1967) De l’intérêt des potentiels évoqués somésthésiques dans l’étude des lésions du lobe pariétal de l’homme. Neurochirurgie 13: 841–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Laget P, Raimbault J, Thieriot-Prevost G (1975) L’évolution du potentiel évoqué somesthésique (P.E.S.) chez l’enfant norma âgé de 61 jours à 7 ans. CR Soc Biol (Paris) 167: 831–835Google Scholar
  385. Larson SJ, Sances A, Christenson PC (1966) Evoked somatosensory potentials in man. Arch Neurol 15:88–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Larson SJ, Sances J (1968) Averaged evoked potentials in stereotaxic surgery. J Neurosurg 28: 227–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Larsson LE, Prevec TS (1970) Somatosensory responses to mechanical stimulation as recorded in the human EEG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 162–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Leandri M, Campbell JA (1986) Origin of early waves evoked by infraorbital nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Leandri M, Parodi CI, Favale E (1985) Early evoked potentials detected from the scalp of man following infraorbital nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62: 99–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Leandri M, Parodi CI, Favale E (1988) Early trigeminal evoked potentials in tumours of the base of the skull and trigeminal neuralgia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 71:114–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Lehmann D, Gabathuler U, Baumgartner G (1979) Right/left differences of median nerve evoked scalp potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 221: 15–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Lehmann HJ, Ule G (1964) Electrophysiological findings and structural changes in circumscript inflammation of peripheral nerves. Prog Brain Res 6:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Lehmann K, Schmidt J (1980) Beeinflussung somatosensorisch ausgelöster Kortexpotentiale durch Psychopharmaka. Acta Biol Med Ger 38: 619–625Google Scholar
  394. Lehmkuhl D, Dimitrijevic MR, Renouf F (1984) Electrophysiological characteristics of lumbosacral evoked potentials in patients with established spinal cord injury. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59:142–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Lesser RP, Koehle R, Lueders H (1980) Effect of stimulus intensity on short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 47: 377–382Google Scholar
  396. Lesser RP, Lueders H, Hahan J, Klem G (1981) Early somatosensory potentials evoked by median nerve stimulation: Intraoperative monitoring. Neurology (NY) 31: 1519–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Levitt M, Schwartzmann RJ (1966) Spinal sensory tracts and two-point tactile sensitivity. Anat Rec 154: 377Google Scholar
  398. Levy R, Behrman J (1970) Cortical evoked responses in hysterical hemianaesthesia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 29: 400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Levy R, Mushin J (1973) The somatosensory evoked responses in patients with hysterical anaesthesia. J Psychosom Res 17:81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Lewis EG, Dustman RE, Beck EC (1978) Visual and somatosensory evoked potential characteristics of patients undergoing hemodialysis and kidney transplantation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44:223–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Lewis EG, O’Neill WM, Dustman RE, Beck EC (1980) Temporal effects of hemodialysis on measures of neural efficiency. Kidney Int 17: 357–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Li CL, Cullen C, Jasper HH (1956) Laminar microelectrode studies of specific somatosensory cortical potentials. J Neurophysiol 19: 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Liberson WT (1966) Study of evoked potentials in aphasics. Am J Phys Med 45: 135–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Liberson WT, Kim KG (1963) The mapping out of evoked potentials elicited by stimulation of the median and peroneal nerves. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 15: 721Google Scholar
  405. Libet B (1973) Electrical stimulation of cortex in human subjects and conscious sensory aspects. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 743–790)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Libet B, Alberts WW, Wright EW, Lewis M, Feinstein B (1972) Some cortical mechanisms mediating conscious sensory responses and the somatosensory qualities in man. In: Kornhuber HH (ed) Somatosensory system. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  407. Lille F, Audin G, Hazemann P (1975) Effects of time and tasks upon auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39: 239–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Lloyd DPC, McIntyre AK (1950) Dorsal column conduction of group I muscle afferent impulses and their relay through Clarke’s column. J Neurophysiol 13:39–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Loeb GE (1976) Decreased conduction velocity in the proximal projections of myelinated dorsal root ganglion cells in the cat. Brain Res 103: 381–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Loening-Baucke V, Read NW, Yamada T (1991) Cerebral evoked potentials after rectal stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80:490–495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Lorente de No R (1947 a) A study of nerve physiology. Studies from the Rockefeller Institute 132, Ch. 16. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  412. Lorente de No R (1947 b) Action potentials of the motoneurons of the hypoglossus nucleus. J Cell Comp Physiol 29: 207–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Lowitzsch K, Maurer K, Hopf HC, Tackmann W, Claus D (1993) Evozierte Potentiale bei Erwachsenen und Kindern. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  414. Lu CS, Chu NS (1991) Effects of alcohol on myoclonus and somatosensory evoked potentials in dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 54: 905–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Lueders H, Gurd A, Hahn J, Andrish J, Weiker G, Klem G (1982) A new technique for intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord function. Spine 2:110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Lueders H, Lesser R, Hahn L, Little J, Klem G (1983) Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Brain 106: 341–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Maccabee PJ, Levine DB, Pinkhasov EI, Cracco RQ, Tsairis P (1983) Evoked potentials recorded from scalp and spinous processes during spinal column surgery. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 569–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. MacDonell RAL, Donnan GA, Bladin PF (1989) A comparison of somatosensory evoked and motor evoked potentials in stroke. Ann Neurol 25:68–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Magladery JW, Porter WE, Parker AM, Teasdall RD (1951 a) Electrophysiological studies of nerve and reflex activity in normal man. 4. The two neuron reflex and identification of certain action potentials from spinal roots and cord. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 88: 499–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Magladery JW, Teasdall RD, Park AM, Porter WE (1975 b) Electrophysiological studies of nerve and reflex activity in normal man. 5. Excitation and inhibition of two neuron reflexes by afferent impulses in the same nerve trunk. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 88: 520–537Google Scholar
  421. Majnemer A, Rosenblatt B, Watters G, Andermann F (1986) Giant axonal neuropathy: Central abnormalities demonstrated by evoked potentials. Ann Neurol 19: 394–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Mamoli B, Dal-Bianco P, Dorda W (1985) Der Einfluß der Körpergröße, der Armlänge, des Geschlechtes und der Temperatur auf die SSEP-Latenzen. Z EEG EMG 16: 138–144Google Scholar
  423. Markand ON, Garg BP, DeMyer WE, Warren C, Worth RM (1982) Brain stem auditory, visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in leukodystrophies. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54:39–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Markand ON, Warren C, Mallik GS, King RD, Brown JW, Mahomed Y (1990) Effects of hypothermia on short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 416–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Mastaglia FL, Black JL, Cala LA, Collins DWK (1977) Evoked potentials, saccadic velocities and computerised tomography in diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Brit Med J I: 1315–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Masur H, Elger CE, Render K, Fahrendorf G, Ludolph AC (1989) Functional deficits of central sensory and motor pathways in patients with cervical spinal stenosis: a study of SEPs and EMG responses to non-invasive brain stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 74: 450–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Matsuda H, Hirose T, Shimazu A, Yoshimura M, Yamano Y, Nakajima K (1977) Electro-neurophysiological diagnosis by the approach from single nerve root unit in the degenerative spondylolisthesis. Osaka City Med J 23: 155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Matsukado Y, Yoshida M, Goya T, Shimoji K (1976) Classification of cervical spondylosis or disc protrusion by preoperative evoked spinal electrogram. J Neurosurg 44: 435–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Matthews WB (1980) The cervical somatosensory evoked potential in diagnosis. In: Aminoff MJ (ed) Electrodiagnosis in clinical neurology. Livingstone, New York Edinburgh London, pp 451–467Google Scholar
  430. Matthews WB, Beauchamp M, Small DG (1974) Cervical somatosensory evoked responses in man. Nature 252: 230–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Matthews WB, Read DJ, Pountney E (1979) Effect of raising body temperature on visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 250–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Matthews WB, Small DG (1979) Serial recording of visual and somatosensory evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 40:11–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Matthews WB, Wattam-Bell JRB, Pountney E (1982) Evoked potentials in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: A follow up study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 303–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Mattigk G (1991) Die Medianus-evozierten Potentiale bei gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen: Normwerte. Z EEG EMG 22: 147–151Google Scholar
  435. Mauguière F, Courjon J (1981) The origin of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in man. A clinical contribution. Ann Neurol 9: 607–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Mauguière F, Courjon J, Schott B (1983) Dissociation of early SEP components in unilateral traumatic section of the lower medulla. Ann Neurol 13: 309–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Mauguière F, Desmedt JE (1991) Focal capsular vascular lesions can selectively deafferent the prerolandic or the parietal cortex: somatosensory evoked potentials evidence. Ann Neurol 30: 71–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Mauguière F, Desmedt JE, Courjon J (1983 a) Astereognosis and dissociated loss of frontal or parietal components of somatosensory evoked potentials in hemispheric lesions. Brain 106: 271–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Mauguière F, Desmedt JE, Courjon J (1983 b) Neural generators of N 18 and P 14 far-field somatosensory evoked potentials studied in patients with lesion of thalamus or thalamocortical radiations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 283–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Mauguière F, Gonnaud PM, Ibanez V, Schott B (1987) Short-latencies SEPs to median nerve stimulation and somatosensory loss in capsula-thalamic lesions. A study of clinical, CT scan and SEP in 70 patients (fren). Rev Neurol 143: 643–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. Maurer K, Dierks TH (1987) Brain Mapping — topographische Darstellung des EEG und der evozierten Potentiale in Psychiatrie und Neurologie. Z EEG EMG 18:4–12Google Scholar
  442. Maurer K, Lowitzsch K, Stöhr M (1988) Evozierte Potentiale AEP-VEP-SEP. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  443. Mauritz KH, Schmitt C, Dichgans J (1981) Delayed and enhanced long latency reflexes as the possible cause of postural tremor in late cerebellar atrophy. Brain 104: 97–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Mayer RF, Denny-Brown D (1964) Conduction velocity in peripheral nerve during experimental demyelination in the cat. Neurology (Minneap) 14: 714–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. McCallum JE, Bennett MH (1976) Electrophysiologic monitoring of spinal cord function during intraspinal surgery. Surg Forum 26: 469–471Google Scholar
  446. McDonald WI (1977) Pathophsiology of conduction in central nerve fibres. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Visual evoked potentials in man. New development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 427–437Google Scholar
  447. McLeod JG (1971) An electrophysiological and pathological study of peripheral nerves in Friedreich’s ataxia. J Neurol Sci 12: 333–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Mehler WR (1966) Some observations on secondary ascending afferent systems in the central nervous system. In: Knighton RS, Dumke PR (eds) Pain. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 11–32Google Scholar
  449. Melzack R, Haugen FP (1957) Responses evoked at the cortex by tooth stimulation. Am J Physiol 190: 570–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Mervaala E, Keränen T, Tiihonen P, Riekkinen P (1987) The effects of carbamazepine and sodium valproate on SEPs and BAEPs. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 475–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Millesi H, Meissel G, Katzer H (1973) Zur Behandlung der Verletzungen des Plexus brachialis. Bruns’ Beitr Klin Chir 220: 429–446Google Scholar
  452. Moldofsky H, England RS (1975) Facilitation of somatosensory average-evoked potentials in hysterical anesthesia and pain. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32: 193–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Moller AR, Jannetta PJ, Burgess JE (1986) Neural generators of the somatosensory evoked potentials: Recording from the cuneate nucleus in man and monkeys. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 241–248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Monster AW (1980) The human electrospinogram and its use in the study of reflex responses. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 118–125Google Scholar
  455. Morales-Blanquez G, Beaujean M, Delwaide PJ (1980) Les potentiels évoqués somesthésiques dans le diagnostic du syndrom costoclaviculaire. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 95 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  456. Morioka T, Katsuta T, Fujii K, Kato M, Fukui M (1993) Discrepancy between SEPs directly recorded from the dorsal column nuclei following upper and lower limb stimulation in patiens with syringomyelia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 88: 453–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Morioka T, Shima F, Kato M, Fukui M (1991) Direct recording of somatosensory evoked potentials in the vicinity of the dorsal column nuclei in man: their generator mechanisms and contribution to the scalp far-field potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 215–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Morioka T, Tobimatsu S, Fujii K, Fukui M, Kato M, Matsubara T (1991) Origin and distribution of brainstem somatosensory evoked potentials in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 221–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Mountcastle VB (1975) Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat’s somatic sensory cortex. J Neurophysiol 20: 408–434Google Scholar
  460. Murdoch JR, Waxman SG, Waksman BH (1981) Basic and clinical electrophysiology of demyelinating diseases. Neurology 31: 1308–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Nagaoka T, Walker DD, Seaba PJ, Yamada T (1992) “Cross-talk” in recording evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 84: 473–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Nai-Shin C (1986) Median and tibialis somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes in short- and longlatency components in patients with lesions of the thalamus and thalamo-cortical radiations. J Neurol Sci 76:199–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Nai-Shin C (1986) Sensory evoked potentials in Wilson’s disease. Brain 109: 491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Nai-Shin C (1987) Short- and long-latency tibial somatosensory evoked potentials in cerebral lesions affecting Rolandic leg areas. J Neurol 234: 74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Nainzadeh N, Lane ME (1987) Somatosensory evoked potentials following pudendal nerve stimulation as indicators of low sacral root involvement in a postlaminectomy patient. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68: 170–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Nakanishi T, Shimada Y, Sakuta M, Toyokura Y (1978) The initial positive component of the scalp-recorded somatosensory evoked potential in normal subjects and in patients with neurological disorders. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45:26–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Nakanishi T, Shimada Y, Toyokura Y (1974) Somatosensory evoked responses to mechanical stimulation in normal subjects and in patients with neurological disorders. J Neurol Sci 21:289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Nakanishi T, Tamaki M, Ozaki Y, Arasaki K (1983) Origins of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56:74–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Nakashima K, Kanba M, Fujimoto K (1985) Somatosensory evoked potentials over the non-affected hemisphere in patients with unilateral cerebrovascular lesions. J Neurol Sci 70: 117–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Namerow NS (1968) Somatosensory evoked responses in multiple sclerosis patients with varying sensory loss. Neurology (Minneap) 18:1197–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Namerow NS, Sclabassi RJ, Enns NF (1974) Somatosensory responses to stimulus trains: normative data. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 37:11–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Narabayashi H (1969) Muscle toe conducting system and tremor concerned structures. In: Gillingham FG, Donaldson IML (eds) 3rd Symposium on Parkinson’s Disease. Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 246–251Google Scholar
  473. Nash CL Jr, Lorig RA, Schatzinger LA, Brown RH (1978) Spinal cord monitoring during operative treatment of the spine. Clin Orthop 126: 100–105Google Scholar
  474. Nashold B, Somjen G, Friedman H (1972) Paresthesias and EEG potentials evoked by stimulation of the dorsal funiculi in man. Exp Neurol 36: 273–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Niemann G, Stöhr M, Müller GA (1984) Einfluß der Hämodialyse auf die somatosensibel evozierten Potentiale bei Urämiepatienten. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 234: 184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Noël P, Desmedt JE (1975) Somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials after vascular lesions of the brainstem and diencephalon. Brain 98:113–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Noël P, Desmedt JE (1976) The somatosensory pathway in Friedreich’s ataxia. Acta Neurol Belg 76: 271Google Scholar
  478. Noël P, Desmedt JE (1980) Cerebral and far-field somatosensory evoked potentials in neurological disorders involving the cervical spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus and cortex. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 205–230Google Scholar
  479. Notermans SLH, Colon EJ (1986) Some comments on the clinical use of evoked potentials. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 235: 292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Noth J, Engel L, Friedemann HH, Lange HW (1984) Evoked potentials in patients with Huntington’s disease and their offspring. 1. Somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 134–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. Nuwer MR, Dawson E (1984) Intraoperative evoked potential monitoring of the spinal cord: Enhanced stability of cortical recordings. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 318–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Nuwer MR, Perlman SL, Packwood JW, Kark RAP (1983) Evoked potential abnormalities in the various inherited ataxias. Ann Neurol 13: 20–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Obeso JA, Marti-Masso JF, Carrera N (1980) Somatosensory evoked potentials: Abnormalities with focal brain lesions remote from the primary sensorimotor area. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 59–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Obeso JA, Teijeira JM, Marti-Masso JF, Iragui MI, Maravi E, Carrera N, Teijeira J (1979) Somatosensory evoked potentials: Abnormalities in brainstem lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 19: 417–422Google Scholar
  485. Oepen G, Doerr M, Thoden U (1980) Visual (VEP) and somatosensory (SSEP) evoked potentials in Huntington’s chorea. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 48 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  486. Oh SJ, Halsey JH (1973) Abnormality in nerve potentials. Neurology (Minneap) 23:52–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Ohnishi A, Harada M, Tateishi J, Ogata J, Kawanami S (1983) Segmental demyelination and remyelination in lumbar spinal roots of patients with diabetes mellitus. Ann Neurol 13: 541–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. Ormerod EC, Miller H, McDonald WI, Du Boulay EPGH, Rudge P, Kendall BE, Moseley IF, Johnson G, Tofts PS, Halliday AM, Bronstein AM, Scaravilli F, Harding AE, Barnes D, Zilkha KJ (1987) The role of NMR imaging in the assessment of multiple sclerosis and isolated neurological lesions. Brain 110:1579–1616CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. Owen MP, Brown RH, Spetzler RF, Nash CL Jr, Brodkey JS, Nulsen FE (1980) Excision of intramedullary arteriovenous malformation using intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. Surg Neurol 12: 271–276Google Scholar
  490. Paintal AS (1978) Conduction properties of normal peripheral mammalian axons. In: Waxman SG (ed) Physiology and pathobiology of axons. Raven, New York, pp 131–144Google Scholar
  491. Pandya D, Kuypers HGJM (1969) Cortico-cortical connections in the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 13: 13–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. Papakostopoulos D, Crow HJ (1980) Direct recording of the somatosensory evoked potentials from the cerebral cortex of man and the difference between precentral and postcentral potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 15–26Google Scholar
  493. Paty DW, Asbury AK, Herndon RM, McFarland HF, McDonald WI, McIlroy WJ, Prineas JW, Scheinberg LC, Wolinsky JS (1986) Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: Policy statement. Neurology 36: 1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Payan J (1969) Electrophysiological localization of ulnar nerve lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 32: 208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Pedersen L, Trojaborg W (1981) Visual, auditory and somatosensory pathway involvement in hereditary cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich’s ataxia and familial spastic paraplegia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 283–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Pelosi L, Cracco JB, Cracco RQ (1987) Conduction characteristics of somatosensory evoked potentials of peroneal, tibial and sural nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68:287–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Pelosi L, Lanzillo B, Perretti A, Santoro L, Blumhardt L, Caruso G (1991) Motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in hereditary spastic paraplegia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 54: 1099–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Penfield W, Rasmussen T (1950) The cerebral cortex of man. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  499. Perlik S, Fisher MA, Patel DV, Slack C (1986) On the usefulness of somatosensory evoked responses for the evaluation of lower back pain. Arch Neurol 43: 907–913CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Perlik SJ, Fisher MA (1987) Somatosensory evoked response evaluation of cervical spondylytic myelopathy. Muscle Nerve 10: 481–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Perot PL (1973) The clinical use of somatosensory evoked potential in spinal cord injury. Clin Neurosurg 20: 367–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. Persson HE (1963) Development of somatosensory cortical functions. An electrophysiological study in prenatal sheep. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 39: 1–64Google Scholar
  503. Peters G (1970) Klinische Neuropathologie. Spezielle Pathologie der Krankheiten des zentralen und peripheren Nervensystems. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  504. Petruch F, Stöhr M, Scheglmann K (1980) Diagnostische Bedeutung der somatosensorischen evozierten Potentiale nach Trigeminusstimulation. In: Mertens HG, Przuntek H (Hrsg) Pathologische Erregbarkeit des Nervensystems und ihre Behandlung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 642–644Google Scholar
  505. Peyronnard JM, Lapointe L, Bouchard JP, Lamontagne A, Lemieux B, Barbeau A (1976) Nerve conduction studies and electromyography in Friedreich’s ataxia. Can J Neurol Sci 3: 313–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Pfadenhauer K, Riffel B, Stöhr M (1988) Elektrophysiologische Befunde beim Bannwarth-Syndrom. In: Fischer PA, Baas H, Enzensberger W (Hrsg) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie, Bd 5. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 545–550Google Scholar
  507. Pfadenhauer K, Riffel B, Stöhr M (im Druck) Bannwarth-Syndrom. Phillips KR, Potvin AR, Syndulko K, Cohen SN, Tourtellote WW, Potvin JH (1983) Multimodality evoked potentials and neurophysiological tests in multiple sclerosis. Effects of hyperthermia on test results. Arch Neurol 40: 159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Phillips LH, Dabue JR (1980) Lumbosacral spinal evoked potentials in humans. Neurology 30:1175–1183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Plum F, Posner JB (1966) The diagnosis of stupor and coma. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  510. Pollock M, Calder C, Allpress S (1977) Peripheral nerve abnormality in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2:41–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Pop PHM, Oepkes CT, Notermans SLH, Vlek NMT, Stegeman DF (1988) Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials of the lumbar and cervical roots. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 238: 22–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Poser CM (1987) Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: An addendum. Ann Neurol 17: 773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Poser S, Ritter G (1980) Multiple Sklerose in Forschung, Klinik und Praxis. Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  514. Pratt H, Amlie RN, Starr A (1979) Short latency mechanically evoked somatosensory potentials in humans. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 47: 524–531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Pratt H, Politoske D, Starr A (1980) Mechanically and electrically evoked somatosensory potentials in humans: effects of stimulus presentation rate. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 240–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Prevec TS (1980) Effect of valium on the somatosensory evoked potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 311–318Google Scholar
  517. Purpura DP, Shofer RJ, Housepian EM, Noback CR (1964) Comparative ontogenesis of structure-function relations in cerebral and cerebellar cortex. Prog Brain Res 4: 187–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Refsum S, Eldjarn L (1967) Heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis — an inborn defect in the metabolism and branched-chain fatty acids. In: Bammer HG (Hrsg) Zukunft der Neurologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 36Google Scholar
  519. Reisecker F (1988) Frühe somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale bei zerebrovaskulär ischämischen Erkrankungen — Teil III: Korrelationen zu Alter, Geschlecht, klinischen Daten, EEG, Emissions- und Transmissions-Computertomographie. Z EEG EMG 19: 55–61Google Scholar
  520. Reisecker F (1988) Frühe somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale bei zerebrovaskulär ischämischen Erkrankungen — Teil II: Normwerte und Befunde bei asymptomatischen Gefäßstenosen/Verschlüssen, komplizierter Migräne, transitorisch-ischämischen Attacken, reversiblem ischämischen neurologischen Defizit, komplettem Schlaganfall und Multiinfarktdemenz. Z EEG EMG 19:44–52Google Scholar
  521. Restuccia D, Di Lazzaro V, Valeriani M (1992) Segmental dysfunction of the cervical cord revealed by abnormalities of the spinal N13 potential in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Neurology 42: 1054–1063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Restuccia D, Di Lazzaro V, Valeriani M (1993) N 24 spinal response to tibial nerve stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging in lesions of the lumbosacral spinal cord. Neurology 43: 2269–2275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Restuccia D, Mauguière F (1991) The contribution of median nerve SEPs in the functional assessment of the cervical spinal cord in syringomyelia. Brain 114: 361–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Rexed B, Ström G (1952) Afferent nervous connection of the lateral cervical nucleus. Acta Physiol Scand 25:219–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. Riffel B, Kroiß H, Stöhr M (1994) Diagnostik und Prognostik mit Evozierten Potentialen in der Intensivmedizin. Kohlhammer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  526. Riffel B, Stöhr M (1982) Spinale und subkortikale somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale nach Stimulation des N. tibialis. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 232:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. Riffel B, Stöhr M (1985) SEP bei proximalen Läsionen des peripheren Nervensystems und bei Rückenmarkserkrankungen. Aktuel Neurol 12:35–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Riffel B, Stöhr M, Ebensperger H, Petruch F (1983) Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale nach Tibialisstimulation in der Differentialdiagnose von Rückenmarkserkrankungen. Aktuel Neurol 10:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Riffel B, Stöhr M, Körner S (1984) Spinal and cortical evoked potentials following stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve in the diagnosis and localization of spinal cord diseases. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 58: 400–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. Riffel B, Stöhr M, Petruch F, Ebensperger H, Scheglmann K (1982) Somatosensory evoked potentials following tibial nerve stimulation in multiple sclerosis and space-occupying spinal cord diseases. In: Courjon M, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology. Raven Press, New York, pp 493–500Google Scholar
  531. Rinvik E (1968) The corticothalamic projection from the second somatosensory cortical area in the cat. An experimental study with silver impregnation methods. Exp Brain Res 5: 153–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Robertson WC Jr, Lambert EH (1978) Sensory nerve conduction velocity in children using cerebral evoked potentials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 59:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. Robinson K, Rudge P (1977) Abnormalities of the auditory evoked potentials in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain 100: 19–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Rodriquez AA, Kanis L, Rodriquez AA, Lane D (1987) Somatosensory evoked potentials from dermatomal stimulation as an indicator of L 5 and S 1 radiculopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68: 366–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. Rohdewald P, Derendorf H, Elger CE, Knoll O (1982) Evoked potentials as objective parameters for the analgesic response of weak analgesics. In: Courjon J, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Advances in Neurology vol 32. Clinical Applications of Evoked Potentials in Neurology. Raven, NewYork, pp 375–382Google Scholar
  536. Rose JE, Mountcastle VB (1959) Touch and kinesthesis. Am Physiol Soc 1: 387–429Google Scholar
  537. Rosner BS, Goff WR (1967) Electrical responses of the nervous sytsem and subjective scale of intensity. In: Neff WD (ed) Contributions to sensory physiology, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, p 169Google Scholar
  538. Rossini PM, Greco F, de Palma L, Pisano L (1980) Electrospinogram of the rabbit. Monitoring of the spinal conduction in acute cord lesions versus clinical observation. Eur Neurol 19: 409–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Rossini PM, Treviso M, Stefano F di, Paolo B di (1983) Nervous impulse propagation along peripheral and central fibres in patients with chronic renal failure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 56: 293–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. Rowed DW, McLean JA, Tator CH (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials in acute spinal cord injury: prognostic value. Surg Neurol 9: 203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. Rush JL, Kusske JA, Porter RW, Verzeano M (1976) Driving of slow oscillations in the human somatosensory stem. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 41:168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Rustioni A (1973) Non-primary afferents to the nucleus gracilis from the lumbar cord of the cat. Brain Res 51:81–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Salar G, Iob I, Mingrino S (1982) Somatosensory evoked potentials before and after percutaneous thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia. In: Courjon J, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology. Raven Press, New York, pp 359–366Google Scholar
  544. Saletu B, Saletu M, Itil T (1972) Effect of minor and major tranquilizers on somatosensory evoked potentials. Psychopharmacologia 24: 347–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Saletu B, Saletu M, Itil TM (1973) Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on the somatosensory evoked potential in man. Psychopharmacologia 29:1–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Sances A, Larson SJ, Cusick JF, Myklebust J, Ewing CL, Jodat R, Ackman JJ, Walsh P (1978) Early somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 505–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Sarnowsky RJ, Cracco RW, Vogel HB, Mount F (1975) Spinal evoked response in the cat. J Neurosurg 43: 329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Satya-Murti S, Howard L, Krohel G, Wolf B (1986) The spectrum of neurologic disorder from vitamin E deficiency. Neurology 36: 917–921Google Scholar
  549. Sauer M (1980) Somatosensible Leitungsmessungen bei neurologischen Systemerkrankungen: neurale Muskelatrophien und spinocerebelläre Ataxien. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 228: 223–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. Sauer M, Schenck E (1977) Vergleichende Untersuchungen somatosensibler spinaler und kortikaler evozierter Potentiale bei Kindern. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 223: 295–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. Scarff TB, Toleikis JR, Bunch WH, Parrish S (1979) Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials in children with myelomeningocele. Z Kinderchir Grenzgeb 28: 384–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. Schiff JA, Cracco RQ, Rossini PM, Cracco JB (1984) Spine and scalp somatosensory evoked potentials in normal subjects and patients with spinal cord disease: Evaluation of afferent transmission. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 374–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Schliack H (1977) Vegetative Innervation der Haut. In: Mumenthaler M, Schliack H (Hrsg) Läsionen peripherer Nerven. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  554. Schmid UD, Hess CW, Ludin HP (1988) Somatosensory evoked potentials following nerve and segmental stimulation do not confirm cervical radiculopathy with sensory deficit. J Neurosurg Psychiatry 51:182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Schmidt RF (1973) Control of the access of afferent activity to somatosensory pathway. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 151–206)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Schramm J (1985 a) Evozierte Potentiale in der Praxis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  557. Schramm J (1985 b) Spinal cord monitoring: Current status and new developments. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 3: 207–227Google Scholar
  558. Schramm J, Hashizume K, Fukushima T, Takahashi H (1979) Experimental spinal cord injury produced by slow, graded compression. J Neurosurg 50:48–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Schramm J, Koht A, Schmidt G, Pechstein V, Taniguchi M, Fahlbusch R (1990) Surgical and electrophysiological observations during clipping of 134 aneurysms with evoked potential monitoring. Neurosurg 26:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Schramm J, Oettle GJ, Pichert T (1980) Clinical application of segmental somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) — experience in patients with non-space occupying lesions. In: Barber C (ed) Evoked potentials. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Schumm F, Boellaard JW, Schlote W, Stöhr M (1981) Morbus Gerstmann- Sträussler-Scheinker. Familie Sch.: ein Bericht über drei Kranke. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 230: 179–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Sedgwick EM, El-Negamy E, Frankel H (1980) Spinal cord potentials in traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43: 823–830CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Selby G (1975) Diseases of the fifth cranial nerve. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK (eds) Peripheral neuropathy, vol 1. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  564. Semmes J (1973) Somesthetic effects of damage to the central nervous system. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 719–742)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. Semmes J, Mishkin M (1965) A search for the cortical substrate of tactual memories. In Ettlinger EG (ed) Functions of the corpus callosum. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  566. Serra C, d’Angelillo A, Facciolla D, Romano F, Rossi A, Ruocco A, Sorrentino F (1979) Somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials in uremic polyneuropathy. Acta Neurol (Napoli) 34: 1–14Google Scholar
  567. Seyal M, Emerson RG, Pedley TA (1983) Spinal and early scalp-recorded components of the somatosensory evoked potential following stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 55: 320–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. Seyal M, Gabor AJ (1985) The human posterior tibial somatosensory evoked potential: Synapse dependent and synapse independent spinal components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62: 323–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Shagass C (1972) Evoked brain potentials in psychiatry. Plenum, New York LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Shahani M, Bharucha EP, Capadia GD (1980) Comparative study of early and late somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with hemiplegia and/or hemianaesthesia. In: Barber C (ed) Evoked potentials. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 465–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. Shibasaki H, Barrett G, Halliday E, Halliday AM (1980) Cortical potentials following voluntary and passive finger movement. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 50: 201–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Shibasaki H, Kakigi R, Ohnishi A, Kuroiwa Y (1982) Peripheral and central nerve conduction in subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy. Neurology (NY) 32: 1186–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Shibasaki H, Kakigi R, Tsuji S, Kimura S, Kuroiwa Y (1982) Spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 57: 441–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Shibasaki H, Yamashita Y (1986) Somatosensory evoked potentials in the analysis of the mechanism of myoclonus. In: Cracco RQ, Bodis-Wollner I (eds) Evoked potentials. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 402–408Google Scholar
  575. Shibasaki H, Yamashita Y, Kuroiwa Y (1978) Electroencephalographic studies of myoclonus: Myoclonus-related cortical spikes and high amplitude somatosensory evoked potentials. Brain 101: 447–460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Shimoji K, Higashi H, Kano T (1971) Epidural recording of spinal electrogram in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 30: 236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  577. Shimoji K, Kano T, Higashi H, Morioka T, Henschel EO (1972) Evoked spinal electrograms recorded from epidural space in man. J Appl Physiol 33: 468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. Shimoji K, Kano T, Morioka T, Ikezono E (1973) Evoked spinal electrogram in a quadriplegic patient. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 659–662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. Shimoji K, Matsuki M, Shimizu H (1977) Wave-form characteristics and spatial distribution of evoked spinal electrogram in man. J Neurosurg 46: 304–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. Siivola J, Myllylä VV, Sulg I (1979) Brachial plexus and radicular neurography in relation to cortical evoked responses. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 1151–1158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  581. Siivola J, Pokela R, Sulg I (1983) Somatosensory evoked reponses as a diagnostic aid in thoracic outlet syndrome. A postoperative study. Acta Chir Scand 149: 147–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Siivola J, Sulg I, Pokela R (1982) Somatosensory evoked responses as a diagnostic aid in thoracic outlet syndrome. A preoperative study. Acta Chir Scand 148: 647–652Google Scholar
  583. Simpson RK, Blackburn JG, Martin HF, Katz S (1981) Peripheral nerve fiber and spinal cord pathway contributions to the somatosensory evoked potential. Exp Neurol 73: 700–715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Singer JM, Russell GV, Coe JE (1971) Changes in evoked potentials after experimental cervical spinal cord injury in the monkey. Exp Neurol 29: 449–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. Singh N, Kuldip PD, Sachdev K, Brisman R (1982) Trigeminal nerve stimulation: Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Neurology (NY) 32: 97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Slimp JC, Rubner DE, Snowden ML, Stolov WC (1992) Dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials: cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral levels. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 84:55–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  587. Slimp JC, Tamas LB, Stolov WC, Wyler AR (1986) Somatosensory evoked potentials after removal of somatosensory cortex in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65:111–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. Small DG, Beauchamp M, Matthews WB (1980) Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials in normal man and in patients with central nervous sytem lesions. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 190–204Google Scholar
  589. Small DG, Matthews WB, Small M (1978) The cervical somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 35: 211–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. Small M, Matthews WB (1984) A method of calculating spinal cord transit time from potentials evoked by tibial nerve stimulation in normal subjects and in patients with spinal cord disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 156–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. Smith SJM, Kocen RS (1988) A Creutzfeldt-Jakob like syndrome due to lithium toxicity. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51:120–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  592. Smith T, Jacobsen J, Trojaborg W (1990) Myelopathy and HIV infection. AIDS 4: 589–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. Sonoo M, Genba K, Zai W, Iwata M, Mannen T, Kanazawa I (1992) Origin of the widespread N 18 in median nerve SEP. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophys 84: 418–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Sonoo M, Shimpo T, Genba K, Kunimoto M, Mannen T (1990) Posterior cervical N 13 in median nerve SEP has two components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophys 77:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Spielholz NI, Benjamin MV, Engler GL, Ransohoff J (1980) Somatosensory evoked potentials during decompression and stabilization of the spine. Methods and findings. Spine 4: 500–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. Spudis EV, Fullerton W, Fernandez H, Green P, Tatum T, Howard G (1980) Somatosensory central latencies and disc discrimination in multiple sclerosis. Clin Electroencephalogr 11:48–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  597. Squires NK, Squires KC, Hillyard SA (1975) Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 38: 387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. Starr A (1978) Sensory evoked potentials in clinical disorders of the nervous system. Annu Rev Neurosci 1: 103–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. Starr A, Burke D, McKeon B, Skuse N (1980) Stretch-evoked somatosensory potentials in man. Neurology (NY) 30: 372Google Scholar
  600. Stockard JJ, Sharbrough FW (1980) Unique contributions of short-latency auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials to neurologic diagnosis. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 231–263Google Scholar
  601. Stohr PE, Goldring S (1969) Origin of somatosensory evoked scalp responses in man. J Neurosurg 31:117–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  602. Stöhr M (1977) Parainfektiöse Hirnnerven-Mononeuritis und Mononeuritis Multiplex. Nervenarzt 48: 359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  603. Stöhr M (1980) Iatrogene Nervenläsionen. Injektion, Operation, Lagerung, Strahlentherapie. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  604. Stöhr M (1992) Kortison-Stoßtherapie bei Multipler Sklerose. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Stöhr M, Bluthardt M (1987) Atlas der klinischen Elektromyographie und Neurographie (2. Aufl.). Kohlhammer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  606. Stöhr M, Buettner UW, Riffel B, Koletzki E (1982) Spinal somatosensory evoked potentials in cervical cord lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 257–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  607. Stöhr M, Buettner UW, Wiethölter H, Riffel B (1983 a) Combined recordings of compound nerve action potentials and spinal evoked potentials in differential diagnosis of spinal root lesions. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 233: 103–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  608. Stöhr M, Dichgans J, Voigt K, Buettner UW (1983 b) The significance of somatosensory evoked potentials for localization of unilateral lesions within the cerebral hemispheres. J Neurol Sci 61: 49–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  609. Stöhr M, Petruch F (1979) Somatosensory evoked potentials following stimulation of the trigeminal nerve in man. J Neurol 220: 95–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  610. Stöhr M, Petruch F, Scheglmann K (1981) Somatosensory evoked potentials following trigeminal nerve stimulation in trigeminal neuralgia. Ann Neurol 9: 63–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  611. Stöhr M, Petruch F, Scheglmann K, Schilling K (1978) Retrograde changes of nerve fibers with the carpal tunnel syndrome. J Neurol 218: 287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. Stöhr M, Riffel B (1982) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation: Components N 13 — P 13, N 14 — P 14, P 15, P 16 and P 18 with different recording methods. J Neurol 228: 39–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  613. Stöhr M, Riffel B (1985) Generatoren der somatosensorisch evozierten Potentiale nach Armnervenstimmulation. Z EEG EMG 16: 130–133Google Scholar
  614. Stöhr M, Riffel B, Buettner UW (1981) Somatosensibel evozierte Potentiale in der Diagnostik von Armplexusläsionen. Z EEG EMG 12: 195–197Google Scholar
  615. Stöhr M, Riffel B, Pfadenhauer K (1991) Neurophysiologische Untersuchungsmethoden in der Intensivmedizin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Stöhr M, Riffel B, Trost E, Ullrich A (1987) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in brain death. J Neurol 234: 211–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  617. Strenge H (1989) Die Wiederholungs-Zuverlässigkeit der somatosensorisch evozierten Potentiale. Z EEG EMG 20:147–152Google Scholar
  618. Strenge H, Gundel A (1983) Multivariate analysis of somatosensory evoked potential parameters in normal adults. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 233: 499–508CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  619. Strenge H, Soyka D, Tackmann W (1982) Visual and somatosensory evoked potentials and F-wave latency measurements in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. J Neurol 226: 269–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  620. Strenge H, Tackmann W (1979) Das somatosensorisch evozierte kortikale Potential bei Thalamusläsionen und seine klinisch-anatomische Interpretation. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 47: 407–417Google Scholar
  621. Strenge H, Tackmann W, Barth R, Sojka-Raytscheff A (1980) Central somatosensory conduction time in diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol 19: 402–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  622. Sugioka H, Tsuyama N, Hara T, Nagano A, Tachibana S, Ochiai N (1982) Investigation of brachial plexus injuries by intraoperative cortical somatosensory evoked potentials. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 99: 143–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. Sunderland S (1978) Nerves and nerve injuries. Livingstone, Edinburgh London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  624. Sutton GG, Mayer RF (1974) Focal reflex myoclonus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37: 207–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Suzuki I, Mayanagi Y (1984) Intracranial recording of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in man: Identification of origin of each component. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 286–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  626. Symon L, Hargadine J, Zawirski M, Branston N (1979) Central conduction time as an index of ischemia in subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol Sci 44: 95–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. Synek VM (1983) Somatosensory evoked potentials from musculocutaneous nerve in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injuries. J Neurol Sci 61: 443–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  628. Synek VM (1985) Assessing sensory involvement in lower limb nerve lesions using somatosensory evoked potential techniques. Muscle Nerve 8: 511–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. Synek VM, Cowan JC (1983) Saphenous nerve evoked potentials and the assessment of intraabdominal lesions of the femoral nerve. Muscle Nerve 6: 453–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  630. Szentágothai J (1964) Neuronal and synaptic arrangement in the substantia gelatinosa Rolandi. J Comp Neurol 122: 219–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  631. Tackmann W (1985) Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale in der Diagnostik der Multiplen Sklerose. Aktuel Neurol 12:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Tackmann W, Kuhlendahl D (1979) Evoked potentials in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Eur Neurol 18:234–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  633. Takahashi K, Fujitani Y (1971) Somatosensory and visual evoked potentials in hyperthyroidism. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 29: 551–556Google Scholar
  634. Takahashi K, Okada E (1972) Somatosensory and visual evoked potentials in Huntington’s chorea. Clin Neurol (Tokyo) 22: 381–385Google Scholar
  635. Tamura K, Kuroiwa Y (1972) Somatosensory evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 26: 269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  636. Taylor MJ, Borrett DS, Coles JC (1985) The effects of profound hypothermia on the cervical SEP in humans: evidence of dual generations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 62:184–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  637. Taylor MJ, Sagan ER (1988) SEPs to median nerve stimulation: normative data for paediatrics. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 71: 323–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  638. Terao A, Araki S (1975) Clinical application of somatosensory cerebral evoked response for the localization and the level diagnosis of neuronal lesions. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 29: 341–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  639. Terao A, Nomura N, Fukunaga H, Matsuda E (1980) Detection of spinal cord lesion using skin electrode recording of spinal evoked potential. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn 33: 525–531Google Scholar
  640. Thomas PK (1960) Motor nerve conduction in the carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology (Minneap) 10: 1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Thomas PK, Lascelles RG (1966) The pathology of diabetic neuropathy. Q J Med 35:489–509Google Scholar
  642. Tomberg C, Desmedt JE, Ozaki I, Noël P (1991) Nasopharyngeal recordings of somatosensory evoked potentials document the medullary origin of the N 18 far-field. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 496–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  643. Töpper R, Schwarz M, Podoll K, Dömges F, Noth J (1993) Absence of frontal somatosensory evoked potentials in Huntington’s disease. Brain 116: 87–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  644. Towe AL (1966) On the nature of the primary evoked response. Exp Neurol 15:113–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  645. Towe AL (1973) Somatosensory cortex: descending influences on ascending systems. In: Iggo A (ed) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 701–718)Google Scholar
  646. Towe AL, Amassian VE (1958) Patterns of activity in single cortical units following stimulation of the digits in monkeys. J Neurophysiol 21: 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  647. Treede RD, Lankers J, Frieling A, Zangemeister WH, Kunze K, Bromm B (1991) Cerebral potentials evoked by painful laser stimuli in patients with syringomyelia. Brain 114:1595–1607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  648. Trojaborg W (1964) Motor nerve conduction velocities in normal subjects with particular reference to the conduction in proximal and distal segments of median and ulnar nerve. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 17: 314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  649. Trojaborg W, Jorgensen EO (1973) Evoked cortical somatosensory potentials in patients with “isoelectric” EEGs. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  650. Trojaborg W, Petersen E (1979) Visual and somatosensory evoked cortical potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 42: 323–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  651. Tsuij S, Shibasaki H, Kato M, Kuroiwa Y, Shima F (1984) Subcortical, thalamic and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59:465–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  652. Tsuji S, Murai Y (1986) Scalp topography and distribution of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 429–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  653. Tsuji S, Murai Y (1991) Cortical somatosensory potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation: effect of body height, age, and stimulus intensity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 32–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  654. Tsumoto T, Hirose N, Nonaka S, Takahashi M (1972) Analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials to lateral popliteal nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 33: 379–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  655. Tsumoto T, Hirose N, Nonaka S, Takahashi N (1973) Cerebrovascular disease: changes in somatosensory evoked potentials associated with unilateral lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35:463–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  656. Turano G, Jones SJ, Miller DH, du Boulay GH, Kakigi R, McDonald WI (1991) Correlation of SEP abnormalities with brain and cervical cord MRI in multiple sclerosis. Brain 114: 663–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  657. Urasaki E, Wada SI, Kadoya C, Tokimura T, Yokota A, Matsuoka S, Fukumura A, Hamada S (1990) Skin and epidural recording of spinal somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation: correlation between the absence of spinal N13 and impaired pain sense. J Neurol 237:410–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  658. Urasaki E, Wada SI, Kadoya C, Yokata A, Matsuoka S (1990) Spinal intramedullary recording of human somatosensory evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 233–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  659. Uttal WR, Cook L (1964) Systematics of the evoked somatosensory cortical potential: a psychophysical-electrophysiological comparison. Ann NY Acad Sci 112: 60–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Vaughan HG (1969) The relationship of brain activity to scalp recordings of event-related potentials. In: Donchin E, Lindsley DB (eds) Average evoked potentials: methods, results, evaluations. NASA SP-191 Government, Washington, p 45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  661. Vaughan HG, Ritter W (1970) The sources of auditory evoked responses recorded from the human scalp. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 360–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Vauzelle C, Stagnara P, Jouvinroux P (1973) Functional monitoring of spinal cord activity during spinal surgery. Clin Orthop 93: 173–178CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  663. Veilleux M, Daube JR (1987) The value of ulnar somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in cervical myelopathy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 415–423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  664. Veilleux M, Stevens JC, Campbell JK (1988) Somatosensory evoked potentials: lack of value for diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome. Muscle Nerve 11: 571–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Velasco F, Velasco M, Cepeda C, Muñoz H (1980) Wakefulness-sleep modulation of cortical and subcortical somatic evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 48:64–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  666. Velasco M, Velasco F (1976) Differential effect of task relevance on early and late components of cortical and subcortical somatic evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39: 353–364Google Scholar
  667. Vercruyssen A, Martin JJ, Ceuterick C, Jacobs K, Swerts L (1982) Adult ceroid-lipofuscinosis: Diagnostic value of biopsies and of neurophysiological investigations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 1056–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  668. Vercruyssen A, Martin JJ, Mercelis R (1982) Neurophysiological studies in adrenomyeloneuropathy. A report on five cases. J Neurol Sci 56: 327–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. Vierck CJ (1966) Spinal pathway mediating limb position sense. Anat Rec 154: 437Google Scholar
  670. Vitová Z, Kopecký A, Faladová L (1978) Photical and somatosensory responses in disorders of thyroid gland during childhood. Act Nery Super (Praha) 20:39–40Google Scholar
  671. Vogel P (1985) Sensibel evozierte Potentiale (SEP) — Technische Voraussetzungen, praktische Durchführung. EEG Labor 7:74–83Google Scholar
  672. Vogel P, Rüber P, Klein R (1986) The latency difference of the tibial and sural nerve SEP: Peripheral versus central factors. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 65: 269–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  673. Vyklicky L, Keller O (1975) Projection of the tooth pulp primary afferents in the brainstem of the cat. In: Kornhuber HH (ed) The somatosensory system. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 60–67Google Scholar
  674. Wagner W (1988) Ableitung subkortikaler somatosensibel evozierter Potentiale mit Nasopharnygealelektroden — eine Untersuchung an sedierten Patienten. Z EEG EMG 19: 141–147Google Scholar
  675. Wall PD (1973) Dorsal horn electrophysiology. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 253–270)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Walsh JC, Garrick R, Cameron J, McLeod JG (1982) Evoked potential changes in clinically definite multiple sclerosis: A two year follow up study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 494–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  677. Walsh JC, Yiannikas C, McLeod JG (1984) Abnormalities of proximal conduction in acute idiopathic polyneuritis: Comparison of short latency evoked potentials in F-waves. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 197–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  678. Wang AD, Symon L, Gentili F (1982) Conduction of sensory action potentials across the posterior fossa in infratentorial space-occupying lesions in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 45: 440–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  679. Warren J, Gutmann L, Figueroa AE, Bloor BM (1969) Electromyographic changes of brachial plexus root avulsions. J Neurosurg 31:137–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  680. Welker WI (1973) Principles of organization of the ventrobasal complex in mammals. Brain Behav Evol 7: 253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  681. Werner G, Whitsel BL (1968) Topology of the body representation in somatosensory area I of primates. J Neurophysiol 31:856–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  682. Werner G, Whitsel BL (1973) Functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. In: Iggo A (ed) Somatosensory system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 2, pp 621–700)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  683. Wessel K, Huss GP, Brückmann H, Kömpf D (1993) Follow-up of neurophysiological tests and CT in late-onset cerebellar ataxia and multiple system atrophy. J Neurol 240: 168–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  684. Wiederholt WC (1980) Early components of the somatosensory evoked potential in man, cat and rat. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral brainstem and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Karger, Basel, pp 105–117Google Scholar
  685. Wiethölter H, Hülser PJ, Niemann G (1985) Generatoren der somatosensorisch evozierten Potentiale nach Beinnervenstimulation. Z EEG EMG 16: 126–129Google Scholar
  686. Williamson PD, Goff WR, Allison T (1970) Somatosensory evoked responses in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 566–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  687. Willis J, Seales D, Frazier E (1984) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in infants. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59: 366–373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  688. Wilson M (1965) Tactual discrimination learning in monkeys. Neuropsychologia 3: 353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  689. Wood CC, Cohen D, Cuffin BN, Yarita M, Allison T (1985) Electrical sources in human somatosensory cortex: Identification by combined magnetic and potential recordings. Science 227: 1051–1053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. Woodbury JW (1960) Potentials in a volume conductor. In: Ruch TC, Fulton JF (eds) Medical physiology and biophysics, 18th edn. Saunders, London, pp 83–91Google Scholar
  691. Woolsey CN (1958) Organization of somatic sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. In: Harlow HF, Woolsey CN (eds) The biological and biochemical bases of behaviour. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 63–81Google Scholar
  692. Woolsey CN, Erickson TC (1950) Study of the postcentral gyrus of man by the evoked potential technique. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 75:50–52Google Scholar
  693. Worth RM, Markand ON, deRosa GP, Warren CH (1982) Intraoperative somatosensory evoked response monitoring during spinal cord surgery. In: Courjon J, Mauguière F, Revol M (eds) Advances in Neurology vol 32. Clinical Applications of Evoked Potentials in Neurology. Raven, New York, pp 367–374Google Scholar
  694. Wulff C, Gilliatt RW (1979) F-Waves in patients with hand wasting due to a cervical rib and band. Muscle Nerve 2: 452–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. Yamada T, Kayamori R, Kimura J, Beck DO (1984) Topography of somatosensory evoked potentials after stimulation of the median nerve. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 59:29–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  696. Yamada T, Kimura J, Nitz DM (1980) Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 48: 367–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Yamada T, Kimura J, Young S, Powers M (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by bilateral stimulation of the median nerve and its clinical application. Neurology (Minneap) 28: 218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  698. Yamada T, Machida M, Kimura J (1982) Far-field somatosensory evoked potentials after stimulation of the tibial nerve. Neurology 32: 1151–1158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  699. Yamada T, Rodnitzky RL, Kameyama S, Matsuoka H, Kimura J (1991) Alteration of SEP topography in Huntington’s patients and their relatives at risk. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 80: 251–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. Yamada T, Shivapour E, Wilkinson JT, Kimura J (1982) Short- and long-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 39:88–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. Yamamoto T, Llena JF, Kim ES, Hirano A (1984) Chronic encephalomyelitis presenting as chronic progressive myelopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47:1192–1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  702. Yasuhara A, Yamada T, Seki Y, Emori T, Vachatimanont P, Andoh K, Ando M, Ross M, Kimura J (1990) Presence of two subcomponents in P 9 far-field potential following stimulation of the median nerve. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 77: 93–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  703. Yiannikas C, Shahani BT, Young RR (1983) The investigation of traumatic lesions of the brachial plexus by electromyography and short latency somatosensory potentials evoked by stimulation of multiple peripheral nerves. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 46:1014–1022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  704. Yiannikas C, Shahani BT, Young RR (1986) Short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials from radial, median, ulnar, and peroneal nerve stimulation in the assessment of cervical spondylosis. Comparison with conventional electromyography. Arch Neurol 43: 1264–1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  705. Yiannikas C, Walsh JC (1983) Somatosensory evoked responses in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 46: 234–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  706. York DH, Watts C, Raffensberger M, Spaginolia T, Joyce C (1983) Utilization of somatosensory evoked cortical potentials in spinal cord injury. Spine 8: 832–839CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  707. Yu YL, Jones SJ (1985) Somatosensory evoked potentials in cervical spondylosis. Brain 108: 273–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  708. Zanette G, Polo A, Gasperini M, Bertolasi L, De Grandis D (1990) Far-field and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in motor neuron disease. Muscle Nerve 13:47–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  709. Zhu Y, Georgesco M, Cadilhac J (1987) Normal latency values of early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in children. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 68: 471–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  710. Ziganow S, Rowed DW (1980) The cortical somatosensory evoked potential in acute spinal cord injuries. In: Symposium International. Applications cliniques des potentiels évoqués en neurologie. Résumés. Lyon, p 98 (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  711. Zimmermann M (1980) Somato-viscerale Sensibilität: Die Verarbeitung im Zentralnervensystem. In: Schmidt RF, Thews G (Hrsg) Physiologie des Menschen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 209–228Google Scholar
  712. Zuckermann EG, Glaser GH (1972) Urea-induced myoclonic seizures. Arch Neurol 27:14–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  713. Zvéfina E, Kredba J (1977) Somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials in diagnosing brachial plexus injuries. Scand J Rehabil Med 9:47–54Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Stöhr

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations