Sjögren’s syndrome

  • A. G. Tzioufas
  • H. M. Moutsopoulos


Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology, characterized by lymphocyte infiltration of exocrine glands resulting in xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In more than one-third of patients, extraglandular manifestations, such as skin, lung, kidney, liver, muscle and blood vessel involvement, can occur. SS can be found alone (primary SS) or in association with other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma (secondary SS). Five per cent of patients may develop B-cell lymphoma.


Sicca syndrome autoimmune epithelitis Gougerot disease Mikulicz’s disease 


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Further reading

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  5. Talai N, Moutsopoulos HM, Kassan SS. Sjögren’s Syndrome. Clinical and Immunological Aspects. Berlin: Springer, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Tzioufas AG, Moutsopoulos HM. Sjögren’s syndrome. In: Klippel JH, Dieppe PA, eds. Rheumatology. London: Mosby, 1993, 6: 32. 1–12.Google Scholar
  7. Vivino FB, Al-Hashimi I, Khan Z et al Pilocarpine tablets for the treatment of dry mouth and dry eyes symptoms in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, multicenter trial. P92–01 Study group. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 174–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Moutsopoulos HM. Therapy of Sjögren’s syndrome. In: van de Putte LBA, Furst DE, Williams WJ, van Riel PLCM, eds. Therapy of Systemic Rheumatic Disorders. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1998: 615–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. Tzioufas
  • H. M. Moutsopoulos

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