HIV infection and AIDS: present status of antiretroviral therapy

  • R. Husak
  • C. E. Orfanos
Chapter

Abstract

The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged in the last two decades of the 20th century and has now affected over 190 countries. At the end of 2000 approximately more than 35 million human beings were infected with HIV worldwide, 95% of them in countries of the developing world.

Keywords

Pancreatitis Lamivudine Zidovudine Lipoma Bete 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further reading

  1. Cameron DW, Japour AJ, Xu Y. Ritonavir and saquinavir combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection. AIDS 1999; 13: 213–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carpenter CCJ, Fischi MA, Hammer SM et al. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV Infection in 1998: Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society—USA Panel. JAMA 1998; 280: 78–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carr A, Samaras K, Chisholm DJ, Cooper DA. Pathogenesis of HIV-1-protease inhibitor-associated peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and insulin resistance. Lancet 1998; 351: 1881–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carr A, Samaras K, Thorisdottir A et al. Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Lancet 1999; 353: 2093–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen OJ, Fauci AS. Transmission of multidrugresistant human immunodeficiency virus-the wake-up call. N Engl J Med, 1998; 339: 341–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deeks SG, Smith M, Holodniy M, Kahn JO. HIV-1 protease inhibitors: a review for clinicians. JAMA 1997; 277: 145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Detels R, Munoz A, McFarlane G et al. Effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy on time to AIDS and death in men with known HIV infection duration. JAMA 1998; 280: 1497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dietrich U, Ruppach H, Gehring S et al. Large proportion of non-B HIV-1 subtypes and presence of zidovudine resistance mutations among German seroconvertors. AIDS 1997; 11: 1532–3.Google Scholar
  9. Dietrich U, Wolf E, Jäger H et al. Increasing prevalence of protease-resistance mutations in therapy-naive HIV-1 positive Germans. AIDS 1999; 13: 2304–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Flexner C. HIV-protease inhibitors. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 1281–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. German-Austrian Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infection. Eur J Med Res 2000; 5: 129–38.Google Scholar
  12. Hartmann M, Petzoldt D. Lipodystrophiesyndrom bei der HIV-Infektion. Hautarzt 2000; 51: 159–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Henry K, Melroe H, Huebsch J et al. Severe premature coronary artery disease with protease inhibitors. Lancet 1998; 351: 1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herry I, Bernard L, de Truchis P, Perronne C. Hypertrophy of the breasts in a patient treated with indinavir. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25: 937–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Husoli R, Orfanos CE. HIV-Infektion and KaposiSarkom. In: Orfanos CE, Garbe C, Therapie der Hautkrankheiten. 2. Auflage. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 1015–74.Google Scholar
  16. Ickovics JR, Meisler AW. Adherence in AIDS clinical trials. A framework for clinical research and clinical care. I Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50: 385–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levy JA. Caution: should we be treating HIV infection early? Lancet 1998; 352: 982–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lo JC, Mulligan K, Tai V. ‘Buffalo hump’ in men with HIV-1 infection. Lancet 1998; 351: 867–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lonergan JT, Behling C, Pfander H et al. Hyperlactatemia and hepatic abnormalities in 10 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients re-ceiving nucleoside analogue combination regimens. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 162–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Max B, Sherer R. Management of the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy and medication adherence. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30 (Suppl. 2): 96–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mellors J, Munoz A, Giorgi J et al. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med 1997; 26: 946–54.Google Scholar
  22. Miller KD, Jones E, Yanovski JA et al. Visceral abdominal-fat accumulation associated with use of indinavir. Lancet 1998; 351: 871–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Palella FJJR, Delaney KM, Moorman AC et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 853–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pezzotti P, Napoli PA, Acciai S et al. Increasing survival time after AIDS in Italy: The role of new combination therapies. AIDS 1999; 13: 249–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Racoosin JA, Kessler CM. Bleeding episodes in HIV-positive patients taking HIV protease inhibitors: a case series. Haemophilia 1999; 5: 266–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Treudler R, Husak R, Raisova M et al. Efavirenzinduced photoallergic dermatitis in HIV. AIDS 2001; 15: 1085–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ungvarski IPJ. Improving patient compliance with HIV treatment regimens. JAMA 1998; 280: 1745–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Visnegarwala F, Krause K, Musher D. Severe diabetes associated with protease inhibitor therapy. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Von Bargen J, Moorman A, Holmberg S. How many pills do patients with HIV infection take? JAMA 1998; 280: 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wali RK, Drachenberg CI, Papadimitriou JC et al. HIV-1-associated nephropathy and response to highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 1998; 352: 783–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walli R, Herfort O, Michl GM et al. Treatment with protease inhibitors associated with peripheral insulin resistance and impaired oral glucose tolerance in HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 1998; 12: 167–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walsh JC, Dalton M, Gazzard BG. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy assessed by anonymous patient self-report. AIDS 1998; 12: 2361–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Husak
  • C. E. Orfanos

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations