Human cells work better within a well-defined range of temperatures. Cellular malfunction and death are caused by increasing or decreasing microenvironmental temperatures beyond certain thresholds. Cryosurgery is a versatile surgical procedure which uses controlled freezing to produce local cellular destruction. Healing of any ensuing defects occurs by second intention.


Basal Cell Carcinoma Pyoderma Gangrenosum Freezing Front Granuloma Annulare Actinic Cheilitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further reading

  1. Arnott J. On the Treatment of Cancer by the Regulated Application of an Anesthetic Temperature. London: Churchill, 1851.Google Scholar
  2. Chiarello SE. Cryopeeling (extensive cryosurgery) for treatment of actinic keratoses: An update and comparison. Dermatol Surg 2000; 26 (8), 728–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper IS, Lee A. Cryostatic congelation: a system for producing a limited controlled region of cooling or freezing of biologic tissues. J New Ment Dis 1961; 133: 259–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dawber R, Colver G, Jackson A. Cutaneous Cryosurgery. London: Martin Dunitz, 1997.Google Scholar
  5. Gage AA. What temperature is lethal for cells? J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1979; 5: 459–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gage AA. History of cryosurgery. Semin Surg Oncol 1998; 14: 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gage AA, Koepf D, Wehrle D et al. Cryotherapy for cancer of the lip and oral cavity. Cancer 1965; 18: 1646–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Graham GF, Clark LC. Statistical analysis in cryosurgery of skin cancer. In: Breitbart EW, Dachow-Siwiec E eds. Clinics in Dermatology: Advances in Cryosurgery. New York: Elsevier, 1990: 191–7.Google Scholar
  9. Kuflik EG. Monitoring treatment with tissue temperature measurement. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1986; 12: 925–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuflik EG. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma with the open-spray technique. J Dermatol Surg Onco11986; 12: 125–6.Google Scholar
  11. Kuflik EG. Cryosurgery updated. JAm Acad Dermatol 1994; 31: 925–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuflik GK, Gage AA, Lubritz RR, Graham GF. History of dermatologic cryosurgery. Dermatol Surg 2000; 26 (8): 715–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuwahara RT, Craig SR, Amonette RA. Forceps and cotton applicator method of freezing benign lesions. Dermatol Surg 2001; 27 (2): 183–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pusey W. The use of carbon dioxide snow in the treatment of nevi and other lesions of the skin. JAm Med Assoc 1907; 49: 1354–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Todd MM, Rallis TM, Gerwels JW, Hata TR. A comparison of 3 lasers and liquid nitrogen in the treatment of solar lentigines: a randomized, controlled, comparative trial. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136 (7): 841–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Torre D, Lubritz RR, Kuflik EG. Practical Cutaneous Cryosurgery. Norwalk: Appleton & Lange, 1988.Google Scholar
  17. White AC. Liquid air: its applications in medicine and surgery. Med Record 1899; 56: 109–12.Google Scholar
  18. Whitehouse H. Liquid air in dermatology: its indications and limitations. J Am Med Assoc 1907; 49: 371–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zacarian SA. Cryosurgery of skin cancer and cryogenic techniques in dermatology. Springfield: C.C. Thomas, 1969: 71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Marini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations