Are there Universal Environmental Values?
If one were to judge from the present state of environmental ethics there is more plurality, diversity and heterogeneity to be found in environmental values than in any other field of human valuation. Plurality means that there is great number of separate values which coexist not only in the value systems of cultures and societies, but even of groups and individuals and for which it is doubtful whether they can be reduced to some one overarching monistic principle. Diversity and heterogeneity mean that these values are of different origins and belong to very different traditions, religious and secular, philosophical and popular, and that they are sometimes diametrically opposed to each other in content and direction. Even if they are compatible in theory they easily conflict in practice, calling for rules of priority to determine their relative weights and order of precedence.
KeywordsDition Sonal Metaphor Verse Protec
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Beauchamp TL, Childress JF (1994) Principles of biomedical ethics. 4th ed., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ehrenfeld D (1978) The arrogance of humanism. New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Jakobson KM, Dragun AK (1996) Contingent valuation and endangered species. Methodological issues and applications. Cheltenham, UK/Brookfields, USGoogle Scholar
- Leopold A (1949) The land ethic. In: Leopold AA Sand County almanac and Sketches here and there. New York, pp 201–226Google Scholar
- Minteer B, Robert A, Manning E (1999) Pragmatism in environmental ethics: Democracy, pluralism, and the management of nature. Environmental Ethics 21: 191–207Google Scholar
- Norton BG (1991) Toward unity among environmentalists. New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pimlott, DH (1974) The value of diversity. In: Bailey JA, Elder W, McKinney TD (eds) Readings on wildlife conservation. Washington D. C., 31–43Google Scholar
- Rawls J (1993) Political liberalism. New YorkGoogle Scholar
- World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future Oxford/New YorkGoogle Scholar