History of Optics

  • Keigo Iizuka


It was as early as 4,000 B.C. that the Sumerians cultivated a high level civilization in a region of Mesopotamia which at present belongs to Iraq. The name Mesopotamia, meaning “between the rivers”, [1.1] indicates that this area was of great fertility enjoying natural advantages from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They invented and developed the cuneiform script which is today considered to have been man’s first usable writing.


Wave Front Dense Medium Fringe Pattern Greek Philosopher Double Refraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.1
    R. J. Unstead: Egypt and Mesopotamia ( Adam and Charles Black, London 1977 )Google Scholar
  2. 1.2
    S. N. Kramer: From the Tablets of Sumer ( The Falcon’s Wing Press, Indian Hills, CO 1956 )Google Scholar
  3. 1.3
    S. N. Kramer: History Begins at Sumer ( The University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1981 )Google Scholar
  4. 1.4
    C. G. Fraser: Half-hours with Great Scientists; The Story of Physics (The University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1948 )Google Scholar
  5. 1.5
    L. Gorelick, A. J. Gwinnett: “Close Work without Magnifying Lenses?”, Expedition 23, No. 2, pp. 27–34 (Winter 1981 )Google Scholar
  6. 1.6
    T. Whittle: The World of Classical Greece (William Heinemann, London 1971 )Google Scholar
  7. 1.7
    G. Gamow: Biography of Physics ( Hutchinson, London 1962 )MATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 1.8
    V. Ronchi: The Nature of Light, an Historical Survey, translated into English by V. Barocas ( William Heinemann, London 1970 )Google Scholar
  9. 1.9
    K. Iizuka, H. Ogura, J. L. Yen, V. K. Nguyen, J. Weedmark: A hologram matrix radar, Proc. IEEE 64, 1493–1504 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 1.10
    D. C. Lindberg: Theories of Vision from A l-Kindi to Kepler ( The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1976 )Google Scholar
  11. 1.11
    A. I. Sabra: Theories of Light from Descartes to Newton ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1967 )Google Scholar
  12. 1.12
    M. Born, E. Wolf: Principles of Optics ( Pergamon, Oxford 1964 )Google Scholar
  13. 1.13
    News column, Nobel Physics Prize to Bloembergen, Schawlow and Siegbahn, Physics Today, pp. 17–20 (Dec. 1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keigo Iizuka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations