• G. Pacioni
  • O. Comandini


Our knowledge of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) first stemmed from the truffles. Thus, Frank (1885) identified the symbiotic partnership between plants and a truffle (Tuber aestivum) that we now know as ECM. Since Frank’s discovery, truffle-farming has become widespread, and truffle orchards have been established over many thousands of hectares. Truffles, along with the connected nursery activities, are a significant source of income in southern Europe; however, despite extensive literature, our knowledge of the biology of Tuber species remains relatively poor. This is partly explained by acknowledged difficulties in growing Tuber mycelia under axenic conditions. The first reliable isolations of Tuber mycelia from young sporocarps and ECM were reported in the 1970s. Unfortunately these mycelia were often short-lived and most were lost after being studied, their potentially high economic value meaning that the studies were not disseminated widely in the scientific community (Fontana 1971; Chevalier 1972; Palenzona et al. 1972). In this chapter we review what is currently known regarding Tuber species, placing emphasis on their interactions with plants in ECM associations.


Corylus Avellana Tuber Melanosporum Tuber Species Black Truffle Truffle Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agerer R (1996) Characterization of ectomycorrhizae: a historical overview. Descr Ectomyc 1: 1–22Google Scholar
  2. Amicarelli F, Poma A, Spanò L (1997) Glyoxalase-I activity in two lines of corn (Zea mays) with different sensitivity to cold stress. 3rd Int Conf “Oxygen, free radicals and environmental stress in plants” Abstr, p 67Google Scholar
  3. Amicarelli F, Bonfigli A, Colafarina S, Cimini AM, Pruiti B, Celia. MP, Di Ilio C, Pacioni G, Miranda M (1999) Glutathione dependent enzymes and antioxidant defences in truffles: microaerobic environment living organism. Mycol Res (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Awameh MS, Alsheikh A (1980a) Ascospore germination of black kamé (Terfezia boudieri). Mycologia 72: 50–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Awameh MS, Alsheikh A (1980b) Features and analysis of spore germination in the brown kamé (Terfezia claveryi). Mycologia 72: 494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balestrini R, Hahn MG, Bonfante P (1996) Location of cell-wall components in ectomycorrhizae of Corylus avellana and Tuber magnatum. Protoplasma 191: 55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barry D, Staunton S, Callot G (1994) Mode of the absorption of water and nutrients by ascocarps of Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum: a radioactive tracer technique. Can J Bot 72: 317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barry D, Jaillard B, Staunton S, Callot G (1995) Translocation and metabolism of phosphate following absorption by ascocarps of Tuber melanosporum and T. aestivum. Mycol Res 99: 167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartnicki-Garcia S (1968) Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis and taxonomy of fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol 22: 87–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bencivenga M, Granetti B (1989) Indagine preliminare sul contenuto in macro e microelementi del terreno e dei carpofori di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Micol Ital 18: 25–30Google Scholar
  11. Bencivenga M, Granetti B (1990a) Analisi comparativa delle caratteristiche ecologiche di Tuber magnatum Pico e Tuber melanosporum Vitt. nell’Italia centrale. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 433–434Google Scholar
  12. Bencivenga M, Granetti B (1990b) Risultati produttivi di tartufaie coltivate di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. in Umbria. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 313–322Google Scholar
  13. Bencivenga M, Granetti B (1990c) Valutazione biometrica delle micorrize su Ostrya carpinifolia Scop prodotte da tartufi di varie specie. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  14. Bencivenga M,Venanzi G (1990) Alcune osservazioni sull’accrescimento delle piante tartufigene in pieno campo. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 241–248Google Scholar
  15. Bencivenga M, Di Massimo G, Donnini D (1991) Produzioni e problemi di una tartufaia coltivata di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Micol Ital 20: 129–139Google Scholar
  16. Bencivenga M, Di Massimo G, Donnini D (1992) Rapporto tra l’umidità, la temperatura del terreno e la produzione di sporocarpi in alcune tartufaie di Tuber melanosporum. Micol Veg Med 7: 195–206Google Scholar
  17. Beuchat LR, Brenneman TB, Dove CR (1993) Composition of the pecan truffle (Tuber texense). Food Chem 46: 189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blaschke H (1987) Vorkommen and Charakterisierung der Ektomykorrhizaassoziation Tuber puberulum mit Picea abies. Z Mykol 53: 283–288Google Scholar
  19. Botton B, Fourcy A, Bossy JP (1980) Localisation cellulaire du calcium chez ascomycète Sphaerostilbe repens par analyse directe à la microsonde électronique. Can J Bot 58: 2395–2401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulawa CE (1993) Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol 47: 505–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bullini L, Biocca E, Chevalier G, Dupré C, Ferrara AM, Palenzona M, Sallicandro P, Urbanelli S (1994) Struttura clonale di alcune specie del genere Tuber. G Bot Ital 128: 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Callot G, Jaillard B (1996) Effect of structural characteristics of subsoil on the fruiting of Tuber melanosporum and other mycorrhizal fungi. Agronomie 16: 405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cameleyre I, Olivier JM (1993) Evidence for intraspecific isozymes variations among French isolates of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. FEMS Microbiol Lett 110: 159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ceruti A (1965) La tartuficoltura in Italia. Ann Accad Agric Torino 107: 131–142Google Scholar
  25. Ceruti A (1968) Biologia e possibilità di coltivazione dei tartufi. Proc I Congr Int sul Tartufo. Spoleto, Italy, pp 29–42Google Scholar
  26. Chalvignac MA, Tysset C, Pochon J (1959) Action de la truffe (Tuber melanosporum) sur la microflore tellurique. Soc Fr Microbiol 96: 355–3580Google Scholar
  27. Chevalier G (1972) Obtention de cultures de mycélium de truffe à partir du carpophore et des mycorrhizes. C R Hebd Séances Acad Agric Fr 58: 981–989Google Scholar
  28. Chevalier G, Desmas C (1977) Synthéses des mycorhizes de Tuber melanosporum avec Corylus avellana sur agara partir de spores. Ann Phytopathol 9: 531Google Scholar
  29. Chevalier G, Dupré C (1990) Recherce et experimentation sur la truffe et la trufficulture en France. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 157–166Google Scholar
  30. Chevalier G, Frochot H (1990) Ecology and possibility of culture in Europe of the Burgundy truffle (Tuber uncinatum Chatin). Agric Ecosyst Environ 28: 71–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chevalier G, Grente J (1974) Effectes des mycorhizes de Tuber sp. sur le développement de différents pins. Ann Phytopathol 6: 218–219Google Scholar
  32. Chevalier G, Poitou N (1990) Study of important factors affecting the mycorrhizal development of the truffle fungus in the field using plants inoculated in nurseries. Agric Ecosyst Environ 28: 75–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chevalier G, Grente J, Pollacssek A (1973) Obtention de mycorhizes de différents Tuber par synthèse à partir de spores en conditions gnotoxéniques et à partir de cultures pures de mycélium en conditions axéniques et gnotoxéniques. Ann Phytopathol 5: 107–108Google Scholar
  34. Chevalier G, Mousain D, Couteaudier Y (1975) Ectomycorrhizal associations between Tuberaceae and Cistaceae. Ann Phytopathol 7: 355–356Google Scholar
  35. Chevalier G, Giraud M, Bardet MC (1982) Interactions entre les mycorrhizes de Tuber melanosporum et celles d’autres champignons ectomycorhiziens en sol favorables à la truffe. In: Gianinazzi S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Trouvelot A (eds) Mycorrhizae, an integral part of plants: biology and perspectives for their use. INRA Publ Colloq INRA 13: 313–321Google Scholar
  36. Chu-Chou M, Grace LJ (1983) Characterization and identification of mycorrhizas of Douglas fir in New Zealand. Eur J For Pathol 13: 251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Citterio B, Cardoni P, Potenza L, Amicucci A, Stocchi V, Gola G, Nuti M (1995) Isolation of bacteria from sporocarps of Tuber magnatum Pico, Tuber borchii Vitt. and Tuber maculatum Vitt. Identification and biochemical characterization. In: Stocchi V, Bonfante P, Nuti M (eds) Biotechnology of ectomycorrhizae. Plenum Press, New York, pp 241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Comandini O, Pacioni G (1997) Mycorrhizae of Asian black truffles, Tuber himalayense and T. indicum. Mycotaxon 63: 77–86Google Scholar
  39. Condamy A (1876) Étude sur l’histoire naturelle de la truffe. Angoulême, FranceGoogle Scholar
  40. Corocher N, Polimeni C, Girausi G, Papa G (1992) Sviluppo di un metodo immunoenzimatico (ELISA) per la caratterizzazione di ectomicorrize di Tuber magnatum e Tuber albidum. Micol Veg Med 7: 151–158Google Scholar
  41. De Angelis F, Arcadi A, Marinelli F, Paci M, Botti D, Pacioni G, Miranda M (1996) Partial structures of truffle melanins. Phytochemistry 43: 1103–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deffieux G,Vercauteren J, Baute MA, Neveu A, Baute R (1994) Bacterial conversion of the fungal ascopyrone T to 2(s)-dihydroascopyrone T (haliclonol). Phytochemistry 36:849–852 Donnini D, Bencivenga M (1995) Micorrize inquinanti frequenti nelle piante tartufigene. Nota 2–Inquinanti in campo. Micol Ital 24: 185–207Google Scholar
  43. Dupré C, Chevalier G (1991) Analyse électrophorétique des protéines fungiques de différents Tuber en association ou non avec Corylus avellana. Cryptogam Mycol 12: 243–250Google Scholar
  44. Dupré C, Chevalier G, Palenzona M, Ferrara AM, Nascetti G, Mattiucci S, D’Amelio S, La Rosa G, Biocca E (1992) Differenziazione genetica di ascocarpi, miceli e micorrize di differenti specie di Tuber. Micol Ital 21: 139–144Google Scholar
  45. Dupré C, Chevalier G, Palenzona M, Biocca E (1993) Caractérisation des mycorhizes de différents Tuber par l’étude du polymorphisme enzymatique. Cryptogam Mycol 14:163–170Google Scholar
  46. Fasolo-Bonfante P, Brunel A (1972) Caryological feature in a mycorrhizal fungus: Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Allionia 18: 5–11Google Scholar
  47. Fasolo-Bonfante P, Fontana A, Montacchini F (1971) Studi sull’ecologia del Tuber melanosporum. I. Dimostrazione di un effetto fitotossico. Allionia 17: 7–54Google Scholar
  48. Fasolo-Bonfante P, Ceruti-Scurti J, Obert F (1972) Interazione di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. con miceli di altri funghi. Allionia 18: 53–59Google Scholar
  49. Fassi B, Fontana A (1967) Sintesi micorrizica tra Pinus strobus e Tuber maculatum. I. Micorrize e sviluppo dei semenzali nel secondo anno. Allionia 13: 177–186Google Scholar
  50. Fogel R (1992) Evolutionary processes in truffles and false-truffles: evidence from distribution of hypogeous fungi in the Great Basin, USA. Micol Veg Med 7: 13–30Google Scholar
  51. Fogel R, Trappe JM (1978) Fungal consumption (mycophagy) by small animals. Northwest Sci 52: 1–31Google Scholar
  52. Fontana A (1971) Il micelio di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. in coltura pura. Allionia 17: 19–23Google Scholar
  53. Fontana A, Bonfante-Fasolo P (1971) Sintesi micorrizica di Tuber brumale Vitt. con Pinus nigra Arnold. Allionia 17: 15–18Google Scholar
  54. Fontana A, Giovannetti G (1979) Simbiosi micorrizica fra Cistus incanus ssp. incanus e Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Allionia 23: 5–11Google Scholar
  55. Fontana A, Palenzona M (1969) Sintesi micorrizica di Tuber albidum in coltura pura con Pinus strobus e pioppo americano. Allionia 15: 99–104Google Scholar
  56. Fonvieille JL, Touze-Soulet JM, Kulifaj M, Montant C, Dargent R (1990) Composition des ascospores de Tuber melanosporum et de leur paroi isolée. C R Acad Sci Paris 310 (Sér III): 557–563Google Scholar
  57. Frank AB (1885) Über die auf Wurzelsymbiose beruhende Ernährung gewisser Bäume durch unterirdische Pilze. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 3: 128–145Google Scholar
  58. Fusconi A (1983) The development of the fungal sheath on Cistus incanus short roots. Can J Bot 61: 2546–2553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gandeboeuf B, Henrion B, Dupré C, Drevet P, Nicolas P, Chevalier G, Martin F (1995) Molecular identification of Tuber species and isolates by PCR-based techniques. In: Stocchi V, Bonfante P, Nuti M (eds) Biotechnology of ectomycorrhizae. Molecular approaches. Plenum Press, New York, pp 151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gandeboeuf D, Dupré C, Roeckel-Drevet P, Nicolas P, Chevalier G (1997) Grouping and identification of Tuber species using RAPD markers. Can J Bot 75: 36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gea L, Normand L, Vian B, Gay G (1994) Structural aspects of ectomycorrhiza of Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol. formed by an IAA overproducer mutant of Hebeloma cylindrosporum Romagnesi. New Phytol 128: 659–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Genet P, Pargney JC (1994) Calcium localization in walls of Tuber melanosporum associated with Corylus avellana: advantages and limits of different techniques. J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 331–342Google Scholar
  63. Giovannetti G, Fontana A (1981) Simbiosi micorrizica di Tuber macrosporum Vitt. con alcune Fagales. Allionia 24: 13–17Google Scholar
  64. Granetti B (1987) Micorrizazione di alcune specie di Salice con Tuber magnatum Pico. Ann Fac Agrar Univ Perugia 41: 875–888Google Scholar
  65. Granetti B (1994) I tartufi: biologia e tecniche di coltivazione. Micol Ital 23: 63–68Google Scholar
  66. Granetti B (1995) Caratteristiche morfologiche, biometriche e strutturali delle micorrize di Tuber di interesse economico. Micol Ital 24: 101–117Google Scholar
  67. Granetti B, Angelini P, Rubini A (1995a) Morfologia e struttura delle micorrize di Tuber magnatum Pico e Tuber borchii Vitt. con Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Micol Ital 24: 27–34Google Scholar
  68. Granetti B, Rubini A, Angelini P (1995b) Analisi comparativa morfo-biometrica e strutturale delle micorrize di Tuber aestivum Vitt. con alcune piante forestali. Micol Ital 24: 48–63Google Scholar
  69. Granetti B, Rubini A, Angelini P (1995c) Un parametro biometrico idoneo alla caratterizzazione delle micorrize di Tuber borchii Vitt. e di Tuber magnatum Pico. Micol Ital 24: 17–23Google Scholar
  70. Gregori G, De Paoli G (1992) Sintesi micorrizica con Tuber magnatum per “innesto radicale” su piante micropropagate di Tiglio e Pioppo. Inf Agrar 50: 49–54Google Scholar
  71. Gregori G, Tocci A (1985) Possibilità di produzione di piantine di Alnus cordata, micorrizate con Tuber melanosporum e T. aestivum. Ital For Montana 40: 262Google Scholar
  72. Grente J, Chevalier G, Pollacsek A (1972) La germination de l’ascospore de Tuber melanosporum et la synthèse sporale des mycorrhizes. CR Acad Sci Paris 275: 743–746Google Scholar
  73. Grente J, Delmas J (1974) Perspectives pour une trufficulture moderne. Grente and Delmas, Clermond-Ferrand, FranceGoogle Scholar
  74. Guillemaud T, Raymond M, Callot G, Cleyetmarel JC, Fernandez D (1996) Variability of nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA of a truffle species (Tuber aestivum). Mycol Res 100: 547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Guiochon P (1959) Germinations monospermes de la truffe Tuber melonosporum Vitt. Mushroom Sci 4: 294–297Google Scholar
  76. Guttenberger M (1995) The protein complement of ectomycorrhizas. In: Varma A, Hock B (eds) Mycorrhiza. Structure, function, molecular biology and biotechnology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 59–78Google Scholar
  77. Henrion B, Chevalier G, Martin F (1994) Typing truffle species by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA spacers. Mycol Res 98: 37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Krupa S, Fontana A, Palenzona M (1973) Studies on the nitrogen metabolism in ectomycorrhizae: I. Status of free and bound amino acids in mycorrhizal root systems of Pinus nigra and Corylus avellana. Physiol Plant 28: 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lanfranco L, Wyss P, Marzachì C, Bonfante P (1993) DNA probes for identification of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber magnatum Pico. FEMS Microbiol Lett 114: 245–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lanfranco L, Garnero L, Delpero M, Bonfante P (1995) Chitin synthase homologs in three ectomycorrhizal truffles. FEMS Microbiol Lett 134: 109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Le Disquet I, Pargney C (1994) Characterization of the spinules wall of the truffle ectomycorrhizae and ultrastructural cytochemistry. J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 209–221Google Scholar
  82. Li CY, Castellano MA (1985) Nitrogen-fixin bacteria isolated from within sporocarps of three ectomycorrhizal fungi. Proc VI North American Conf on Mycorrhizae, Bend, Oregon, pp 264Google Scholar
  83. Lindsay WL (1974) Role of chelation in micronutrient availability. In: Corson EW (ed) The plantroot and its environment. University Press, Charlottesville, pp 507–527Google Scholar
  84. Longato S, Bonfante P (1997) Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi by direct amplification of microsatellite regions. Mycol Res 101: 425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Luppi-Mosca AM (1972) La microflora della rizosfera delle tartufaie. III. Analisi micologiche di terreni tertufiferi francesi. Allionia 18: 33–40Google Scholar
  86. Luppi-Mosca AM, Fontana A (1977) Studi sull’ecologia del Tuber melanosporum. IV. Analisi di terreni tartufiferi dell’Italia centrale. Allionia 22: 105–113Google Scholar
  87. Luppi-Mosca AM, Gribaldi L, Jaredi-Sodano G (1970) La micoflora della rizosfera nelle tartufaie. II. Analisi micologiche di terreni tartufiferi piemontesi. Allionia 16: 115–132Google Scholar
  88. Maia LC, Yano AM, Kimbrough JW (1996) Species of Ascomycota forming ectomycorrhizae. Mycotaxon 52: 371–390Google Scholar
  89. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1989) Dynamique des populations fongiques et bactériennes de la rhizosphère des noisetiers truffiers. II. Chélation du fer et répartition taxonomique chez les Pseudomonas fluorescents. Agronomie 9: 345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1990) Dynamique des populations fongiques et bactériennes de la rhizosphère de noisetiers truffiers. III. Effet du régime hydrique sur la mycorhization et la microflore associée. Agronomie 10: 77–84Google Scholar
  91. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1991) Effect of carbon and nitrogen-sources on the in vitro growth of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Application to mycelial biomass production. Agronomie 11: 521–527Google Scholar
  92. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1992) Effect of soil Pseudomonads on colonization of hazel roots by the ectomycorrhizal species Tuber melanosporum and its competitors. Plant Soil 139: 265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1996) Receptivity of cloned hazels to artificial infection by Tuber melanosporum and symbiotic competitors. Mycorrhiza 6: 15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mamoun M, Olivier JM (1997) Mycorrhizal inoculation of cloned hazels by Tuber melanosporum: effect of soil disinfestation and co-culture with Festuca ovina. Plant Soil 188: 221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mamoun M, Poitou N, Olivier JM (1985) Étude des interactions fongiques entre Tuber melanosporum Vitt. et son environnement biotique. In: Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (eds) Aspects physiologiques et génétiques des mycorrhizes. INRA, Paris, pp 761–765Google Scholar
  96. Mannervik B (1980) Glyoxalate I. In: Jakoby WB (ed) Enzymatic basis of detoxification. Academic Press, New York, pp 263–273Google Scholar
  97. Marchisio V (1964) Sulla cariologia degli aschi e delle spore di Tuber maculatum Vitt. Allionia 10: 105–113Google Scholar
  98. Martin F, Stewart GR, Genetet I, Mourot B (1988) The involvement of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in ammonia assimilation by the rapidly growing ectomycorrhizal ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum Fr. New Phytol 110: 541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mehmann B, Brunner I, Braus GH (1994) Nucleotide sequence variation of chitin synthase genes among ectomycorrhizal fungi and its potential use in taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 3105–3111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mello A, Nosenzo C, Meotto F, Bonfante P (1996) Rapid typing of truffle mycorrhizal roots by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA spacers. Mycorrhiza 6: 417–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Miranda M, Bonfigli A, Zarivi O, Aimola P, Lanza B, Pacioni G, Botti D, Ragnelli AM (1992) Biochemical and morphological correlation between melanogenesis and development in truffles. Micol Veg Med 7: 75–80Google Scholar
  102. Montacchini F, Caramiello-Lomagno R (1977) Studi sull’ecologia del Tuber melanosporum. II. Azione inibitrice su specie erbacee della flora spontanea. Allionia 22: 81–85Google Scholar
  103. Napoliello A, Pintozzi P, Verdoliva A (1990) Il tartufo in Campania. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 539–544Google Scholar
  104. Nylund JE (1980) Symplastic continuity during Hartig net formation in Norway spruce ectomycorrhizae. New Phytol 86: 373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nylund JE (1987) The ectomycorrhizal infection zone and its relation to acid polysaccharides of cortical cell walls. New Phytol 106: 505–516Google Scholar
  106. Nylund JE, Unestam T (1982) Structure and physiology of ectomycorrhizae. I. The process of mycorrhizal formation in Norway spruce in vitro. New Phytol 91: 63–79Google Scholar
  107. Obert F (1973) Interazione del carpoforo di Tuber melanosporum con miceli di altri funghi. Allionia 19: 43–44Google Scholar
  108. Olivier JM, Mamoun M (1988) Dynamique des populations fongiques et bactérienne de la rhizosphère des noisetiers truffiers. I. Relation avec le status hydrique du sol. Agronomie 8: 711–717Google Scholar
  109. Pacioni G (1985) La coltivazione moderna e redditizia del tartufo.Google Scholar
  110. De Vecchi, Milano Pacioni G (1989) Biology and ecology of the truffles. Acta Med Rom 27: 104–117Google Scholar
  111. Pacioni G (1990) Scanning electron microscopy of Tuber sporocarps and associated bacteria. Mycol Res 94: 1086–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pacioni G (1991) Effects of Tuber metabolites on the rhizospheric environment. Mycol Res 95: 1355–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pacioni G (1992) Il ruolo dello zolfo nel metabolismo dei tartufi. Micol Ital 21: 71–76Google Scholar
  114. Pacioni G, Pomponi G (1989) Chemotaxonomy of some Italian species of Tuber. Micol Veg Med 4: 63–72Google Scholar
  115. Pacioni G, Pomponi G (1991) Genotypic patterns of some Italian populations of the Tuber aestivum-T. mesentericum complex. Mycotaxon 42: 171–179Google Scholar
  116. Pacioni G, Bologna MA, Laurenzi M (1991) Insect attraction by Tuber: a chemical explanation. Mycol Res 95: 1359–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pacioni G, Frizzi G, Miranda M, Visca C (1993) Genetics of a Tuber aestivum population. Mycotaxon 47: 93–100Google Scholar
  118. Pacioni G, Ragnelli AM, Miranda M (1995) Truffle development and interactions with the biotic environment. Molecular aspects. In: Stocchi V, Bonfante P, Nuti M (eds) Biotechnology of ectomycorrhizae. Molecular approaches. Plenum Press, New York, pp 213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Palenzona M (1969) Sintesi micorrizica tra Tuber aestivum Vitt., Tuber brumale Vitt., T. melanosporum Vitt. e semenzali di Corylus avellana L. Allionia 15: 121–131Google Scholar
  120. Palenzona M, Chevalier G, Fontana A (1972) Sintesi micorrizica tra i miceli in coltura di Tuber brumale, T. melanosporum, T. rufum e semenzali di conifere e latifoglie. Allionia 18: 41–52Google Scholar
  121. Palenzona M, Biocca E, Nascetti G, Ferrara AM, Mattiucci S, D’Amelio S, Balbo T (1990) Studi preliminari sulla tipizzazione genetica (sistema gene-enzima) di specie del genere Tuber. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 53–58Google Scholar
  122. Paolocci F, Cristofari E, Angelini P, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1995a) The polymorphism of the rDNA region in typing ascocarps and ectomycorrhizae of truffle species. In: Stocchi V, Bonfante P, Nuti M (eds) Biotechnology of ectomycorrhizae. Plenum Press, New York, pp 171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Paolocci F, Angelini P, Cristofari E, Granetti B, Arcioni S (1995b) Identification of Tuber spp. and corresponding ectomycorrhizae throught molecular markers. J Sci Food Agric 69: 511–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Papa G, Botolo R, Cassani G (1992a) Componenti di Tuber melanosporum con attività fitotossica. Micol Veg Med 7: 109–110Google Scholar
  125. Papa G, Polimeni C, Mischiati P, Cantini Cortellazzi G (1992b) Immunological aspects of the characterization of Tuber magnatum and Tuber albidum. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH, Alexander IJ (eds) Mycorrhizas in ecosystem: 395. CAB International, Cambridge, 395Google Scholar
  126. Pargney JC (1990) Essais de caractérisation cytochimique des structures de l’interface au niveau du réseau de Hartig dans l’association ectomycorhizienne entre la truffe (Tuber melanosporum) et le noisetier (Corylus avellana) Can J Bot 68: 2722–2728Google Scholar
  127. Pargney JC, Brimont A (1993) L’interface plante-champignon dans les ectomycorhizes de truffes: étude ultrastructurale et microanalyses par perte d’énergie des électrons et par rayons X. Acta Bot Gall 140: 803–818Google Scholar
  128. Pargney JC, Brimont A (1995) Production of concentrated polyphenols by the root cap cells of Corylus avellana associated with Tuber: ultrastructural study and element localization using electron energy loss spectrometry and imaging. Trees 9: 149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pargney JC, Kottke I (1994) Microlocalization of calcium in the walls of truffle mycorrhizae by analytical transmission electron microscopy. J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 305–321Google Scholar
  130. Pargney JC, Leduc JP, Dexheimer J, Chevalier G (1988) Etude ultrastructurale et cytochimique de l’association mycorhizienne Tuber melanosporum/Corylus avellana. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 129–133Google Scholar
  131. Parguey-Leduc A, Montant C, Kulifaj M (1987) Morphologie et structure de l’ascospore adulte du Tuber melanosporum Vitt. Cryptogam Mycol 2: 173–202Google Scholar
  132. Pasquini S, Panara F, Antonielli M (1991) Acid phosphate activity in Pinus pinea-Tuber albidum ectomycorrhizal association. Can J Bot 70: 1377–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pirazzi R (1990a) Micorrizazione artificiale con miceli isolati “in vitro” di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. e T. magnatum Pico. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 173–184Google Scholar
  134. Pirazzi R (1990b) Produzione naturale di Tuber spp. in rimboschimento di cedro e prove di sintesi. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 303–311Google Scholar
  135. Pirazzi R (1992) Influenza delle ectomicorrize sull’accrescimento in serra e in campo di piante di pioppo. Micol Ital 21: 27–36Google Scholar
  136. Pirazzi R (1993) Studio dell’adsorbimento, accumulo, traslocazione di differenti metalli in alcune simbiosi micorriziche. Studi Sassar Sez III 35: 405–414Google Scholar
  137. Pirazzi R (1994) Sintesi micorrizica di Tuber melanosporum Vitt. e T. aestivum Vitt. con Carya illinoensis (wangenh) K. Loch. G Bot Ital 128: 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Pirazzi R, Di Gregorio A (1987) Accrescimento di conifere micorrizate con specie diverse di Tuber spp. Micol Ital 16: 49–62Google Scholar
  139. Pirazzi R, Lubrano L (1994) Micorrizzazione artificiale di Populus alba L. micropropagato e da talea con Tuber magnatum Pico. Micol Ital 23: 78–82Google Scholar
  140. Plattner I, Hall IR (1995) Parasitism of non-host plants by the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum. Mycol Res 99: 1367–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Plattner I, Grabher T, Hall I, Haselwandter K, Stöffier G (1991) Identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi by use of immunological techniques. In: Abstr 3rd Eur Symp on Mycorrhizas, Sheffield, p 206Google Scholar
  142. Ragnelli AM, Pacioni G, Aimola P, Lanza B, Miranda M (1992) Truffle melanogenesis: correlation with reproductive differentiation and ascocarp ripening. Pigment Cell Res 5: 205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rauscher T, Agerer R, Chevalier G (1995) Ektomykorrhizen von Tuber melanosporum, Tuber mesentericum und Tuber rufum (Tuberales) an Corylus avellana. Nova Hedwigia 61: 281–322Google Scholar
  144. Reid CPP, Szanislo PJ, Crowley DE (1986) Siderophore involvement in plant iron nutrition. In: Swinburne TR (ed) Iron, siderophores and plant diseases. NATO-Plenum Publishers, London, pp 29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rouquerol T, Payre H (1974–75) Observations sur le comportement de Tuber melanosporum dans un site naturel. Rev Mycol 39: 107–117Google Scholar
  146. Sappa F (1940) Ricerche biologiche sul Tuber magnatum Pico. La germinazione delle spore e caratteri della micorriza. Nuovo G Bot Ital 47: 155–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Scannerini S (1968) Sull’ultrastruttura delle ectomicorrize. II. Ultrastructura di una micorriza di Ascomicete: Tuber albidum x Pinus strobus. Allionia 14: 77–95Google Scholar
  148. Scannerini S, Bonfante-Fasolo P (1983) Comparative analysis of mycorrhizal association. Can J Bot 61: 917–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Scannerini S, Palenzona M (1967) Ricerche sulle ectomicorrize di Pinus strobus in vivaio. 3. Micorrize di Tuber albidum Pico. Allionia 13: 187–194Google Scholar
  150. Sequi P (1989) La fase gassosa. In: Sequi P (ed) Chimica del suolo. Pàtron Editore, Bologna, pp 215–219Google Scholar
  151. Shaw PJA, Lankey K, Jourdan A (1996) Factors affecting yield of Tuber melanosporum in a Quercus ilex plantation in southern France. Mycol Res 100: 1186–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stocchi V (1997) Un progetto per incrementare la produzione di tartufi. Ric Soc 6: 32–39Google Scholar
  153. Strullu DC (1976) Recherches de biologie et de microbiologie forestières. Étude des relations nutrition-développement et cytologie des mycorrhizes chez le Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.) et les Abiétacées. PhD Thesis, Rennes University, RennesGoogle Scholar
  154. Strullu DC, Gourret JP (1980) Données ultrastructurales sur l’intégration cellulaire de quelques parasites ou symbiotes de plantes. II. Champignons mycorhiziens. Bull Soc Bot Fr Actual Bot 127: 97–106Google Scholar
  155. Talou T, Gaset A, Delmas M, Kulifaj M, Montant C (1990) Dimethyl sulphide: the secret for black truffle hunting by animals? Mycol Res 94: 277–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Thornalley PJ (1990) The glyoxalase system: new developments towards functional characterization of a metabolic pathway fundamental to biological life. Biochem J 269: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Tirillini B, Granetti B (1995) Composti cumarino-simili in micorrize di Quercus pubescens Willd. con Tuber magnatum Pico and T. borchii Vitt. Micol Ital 24: 179–184Google Scholar
  158. Tirillini B, Stoppini AM (1996) Coumarins distribution in four truffle species. Mycotaxon 57: 227–232Google Scholar
  159. Trappe JM (1962) Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae. Bot Rev 28: 538–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Vander Jagt DL (1993) Glyoxalase II: molecular characteristics, kinetics and mechanism. Biochem Soc Trans 21: 522–527Google Scholar
  161. Yun W (1990) First report of a study on Tuber species from China. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 45–50Google Scholar
  162. Zambonelli A, Branzanti MB (1987) Competizione fra due funghi ectomicorrizici: Tuber albidum e Laccaria laccata. Micol Ital 16: 159–164Google Scholar
  163. Zambonelli A, Govi G (1983) Micorrizazione in semenzaio di Quercus pubescens Willd. con specie del genere Tuber. Micol Ital 12: 17–22Google Scholar
  164. Zambonelli A, Govi G (1990) Studi sulle ectomicorrize di Tuber aestivum var. uncinatum Chatin. In: Bencivenga M, Granetti B (eds) Atti del II Congr Int sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana dei Monti Martani e del Serano, Spoleto, pp 247–255Google Scholar
  165. Zambonelli A, Govi G (1991) Competizione fra Tuber albidum ed altri funghi. 3° contributo. Micol Ital 20: 5–12Google Scholar
  166. Zambonelli A, Govi G, Previati A (1989) Micorrizazione in vitro di piantine micropropagate di Populus alba con micelio di Tuber albidum in coltura pura. Micol Ital 18: 105–111Google Scholar
  167. Zambonelli A, Giunchedi L, Poggi Pollini C (1993a) An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Tuber albidum ectomycorrhiza. Symbiosis 5: 71–76Google Scholar
  168. Zambonelli A, Poggi Pollini C (1991) Possibilità di applicazione del metodo E.L.I.S.A. peril riconoscimento delle micorrize di Tuber albidum. Micol Veg Med 7: 172Google Scholar
  169. Zambonelli A, Salomoni S, Pisi A (1993b) Caratterizzazione anatomorfologica delle micorrize di Tuber spp. su Quercus pubescens Willd. Micol Ital 22: 73–90Google Scholar
  170. Zambonelli A, Salomoni S, Pisi A (1995) Caratterizzazione anato-morfologica delle micorrize di Tuber borchii, Tuber aestivum, Tuber mesentericum, Tuber brumale, Tuber melanosporum, su Pinus pinea. Micol Ital 24: 119–137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Pacioni
    • 1
  • O. Comandini
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze AmbientaliUniversitàL’AquilaItaly

Personalised recommendations