Lactarius

  • L. J. Hutchison
Chapter

Abstract

Species of Lactarius encompass one of the larger known genera of ectomycorrhiza (ECM)-forming basidiomycetes. Cosmopolitan in distribution, several hundred taxa are currently recognized which collectively play an important role as late-stage ECM colonizers of woody trees and shrubs found in arctic, montane, temperate and tropical ecosystems. Because of their high degree of host specificity, fastidious in vitro growth requirements, and their role as late-stage ECM colonizers, species of Lactarius have not been examined intensively by ECM researchers. Detailed information is lacking on the colonization and development of ECM on host root systems, and the subsequent physiology and ecology of the host-fungus symbiosis. This chapter attempts to summarize current knowledge in order to present a starting point for further studies on members of this important genus.

Keywords

Biomass Nickel Lignin Respiration Bacillus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agerer R (1986) Studies on ectomycorrhizae. III. Mycorrhizae formed by four fungi in the genera Lactarius and Russula on spruce. Mycotaxon 27: 1–59Google Scholar
  2. Agerer R (1987) Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn Verlag, Schwäbish Gmünd Alexander IJ (1981) The Picea sitchensis + Lactarius rufus mycorrhizal association and its effects on seedling growth and development. Trans Br Mycol Soc 76: 417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali NA, Jackson RM (1988) Effects of plant roots and their exudates on germination of spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 91: 253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amiet R, Egli S (1991) Die Ektomykorrhiza des Grubigen Milchlings (Lactarius scrobiculatus (Scop.: Fr.) Fr.) an Fichte (Picea abies Karst.). Schweiz Z Forstwes 142: 53–60Google Scholar
  5. Arnolds E (1988) The changing macromycete flora in the Netherlands. Trans Br Mycol Soc 90: 391–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnolds E (1989) A preliminary red data list of macrofungi in the Netherlands. Persoonia 14: 77–125Google Scholar
  7. Arnolds E, de Vries B (1993) Conservation of fungi in Europe. In: Pegler DN, Boddy L, Ing B, Kirk PM (eds) Fungi of Europe: investigation, recording and conservation. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 211–230Google Scholar
  8. Arnolds E, Jansen E (1992) New evidence for changes in the macromycete flora of the Netherlands. Nova Hedwigia 55: 325–351Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin DR (1995) Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas: a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. WH Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Bills GF (1986) Notes on Lactarius in the high-elevation forests of the southern Appalachians. Mycologia 78: 70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bills GF, Cotter HVT (1989) Taxonomy and ethnomycology of Lactarius sect. Dapetes ( Russulaceae) in Nepal. Mem NY Bot Gard 49: 192–197Google Scholar
  12. Bon M (1980) Clé monographique du genre Lactarius (Pers. ex Fr.) S. E Gray. Doc Mycol 10:1–85 Brand F (1991) Ektomykorrhizen an Fagus sylvatica - Charakterisierung and Identifizierung, ökologische Kennzeichnung and unsterile Kultivierung. Libri Bot 2: 1–229Google Scholar
  13. Brand F, Agerer R (1986) Studien an Ektomykorrhizen. VIII. Die Mykorrhizen von Lactarius subdulcis, Lactarius vellereus and Laccaria amethystina an Buche. Z Mykol 52: 287–320Google Scholar
  14. Backing E (1979) Fichten-Mykorrhizen auf Standorten der Schwäbischen Alb and ihreGoogle Scholar
  15. Beziehung zum Befall durch Fomes annosus Eur J For Pathol 9:19–35Google Scholar
  16. Burlingham GS (1908) A study of the Lactariae of the United States. Mem Torrey Bot Club 14: 1–109Google Scholar
  17. Buyck B, Verbeken A (1995) Studies in tropical African Lactarius species. 2. Lactarius chromospermus Pegler. Mycotaxon 56: 427–442Google Scholar
  18. Camazine S, Lupo AT (1984) Labile toxic compounds of the Lactarii: the role of the lactiferous hyphae as a storage depot for precursors of pungent dialdehydes. Mycologia 76: 355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Camazine SM, Resch JF, Eisner T, Meinwald J (1983) Mushroom chemical defense: pungent sesquiterpenoid dialdehyde antifeedant to opossum. J Chem Ecol 9: 1439–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chakravarty P, Unestam T (1987) Differential influence of ectomycorrhizae on plant growth and disease resistance in Pinus sylvestris seedlings. J Phytopathol 120: 104–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coker WC (1918) The Lactarias of North Carolina. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 34: 1–61Google Scholar
  22. Coleman MD, Bledsoe CS, Lopushinky W (1989) Pure culture response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to imposed water stress. Can J Bot 67: 29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dahlberg A, Jonsson L, Nylund J-E (1997) Species diversity and distribution of biomass above and below ground among ectomycorrhizal fungi in an old-growth Norway spruce forest in south Sweden. Can J Bot 75: 1323–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Danielson RM (1984) Ectomycorrhizal associations in jack pine stands in northeastern Alberta. Can J Bot 62: 932–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Danielson RM, Visser S (1989) Host response to inoculation and behaviour of introduced and indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi of jack pine grown on oil-sands tailings. Can J For Res 19: 1412–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Daniewski WM, Gumulka M, Ptaszynska K, Skibicki P, Bloszyk E, Drozdz B, Stromberg S, Norin T, Holub M (1993) Antifeedant activity of some sesquiterpenoids of the genus Lactarius ( Agaricales: Russulaceae). Eur J Entomol 90: 65–70Google Scholar
  27. Daniewski WM, Gumulka M, Przemycka D, Ptaszynska K, Bloszyk E, Drozdz B (1995) Sesquiterpenes of Lactarius origin, antifeedant structure-activity relationships. Phytochemistry 38: 1161–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deacon JW, Donaldson SJ, Last FT (1983) Sequences and interactions of mycorrhizal fungi on birch. Plant Soil 71: 257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dighton J, Horrill AD (1988) Radiocaesium accumulation in the mycorrhizal fungi Lactarius rufus and Inocybe longicystis, in upland Britain, following the Chernobyl accident. Trans Br Mycol Soc 91: 335–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duddridge JA, Malibari A, Read DJ (1980) Structure and function of mycorrhizal rhizomorphs with special reference to their role in water transport. Nature 287: 834–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finlay RD, Frostegärd A, Sonnerfeldt A-M (1992) Utilization of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources by ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis with Pin us contorta Dougl. ex Loud. New Phytol 120: 105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fleming LV (1983) Succession of mycorrhizal fungi on birch: infection of seedlings planted around mature trees. Plant Soil 71: 263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fleming LV (1985) Experimental study of sequences of ectomycorrhizal fungi on birch (Betula sp.) seedling root systems. Soil Biol Biochem 17: 591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fox FM (1983) Role of basidiospores as inocula of mycorrhizal fungi of birch. Plant Soil 71: 269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fries N (1978) Basidiospore germination in some mycorrhiza-forming Hymenomycetes. Trans Br Mycol Soc 70: 319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Froidevaux L (1973) The ectomycorrhizal association, Alnus rubra + Lactarius obscuratus. Can J For Res 3: 601–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson F, Deacon JW (1990) Establishment of ectomycorrhizas in aseptic culture: effects of glucose, nitrogen and phosphorus in relation to successions. Mycol Res 94: 166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giltrap NJ (1982) Production of polyphenol oxidases by ectomycorrhizal fungi with special reference to Lactarius spp. Trans Br Mycol Soc 78: 75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giollant M, Guillot J, Damez M, Dusser M, Didier P, Didier E (1993) Characterization of a lectin from Lactarius deterrimus. Plant Physiol 101: 513–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gronbach E (1988) Charakterisierung und Identifizierung von Ektomykorrhizen in einem Fichtenbestand mit Untersuchungen zur Merkmalsvariabilität in sauer beregneten Flächen. Bibl Mycol 125: 1–216Google Scholar
  41. Guevara G, Garcia J, Castillo J, Miller OK (1987) New records of Lactarius in Mexico. Mycotaxon 30: 157–176Google Scholar
  42. Guillot J, Giollant M, Damez M, Dusser M (1991) Isolation and characterization of a lectin from the mushroom, Lactarius deliciosus. J Biochem 109: 840–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Guillot J, Giollant M, Damez M, Dusser M (1994) Intervention des lectines fongiques dans les événements précoces de reconnaissance arbre/champignon au cours de la formation des ectomycorhizes. Acta Bot Gall 141: 443–447Google Scholar
  44. Haug I, Pritsch K (1992) Ectomycorrhizal types of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the black forest - a microscopical atlas. Kernforschungszentrum, KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  45. Heim R (1955) Les Lactaires d’Afrique intertropicale. Bull Jard Bot Etat Brux 25:1–91 Heinemann P (1960) Les Lactaires. Bull Nat Belg 41: 133–156Google Scholar
  46. Hesler LR, Smith AH (1979) North American species of Lactarius. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  47. Hintikka V (1988) On the macromycete flora in oligotrophic pine forests of different ages in south Finland. Acta Bot Fenn 136: 89–94Google Scholar
  48. Homola RL, Czapowskyj MM (1981) Ectomycorrhizae of Maine. 2. A listing of Lactarius with the associated hosts (with additional information on edibility). Maine Agric Exp Sta Bull No 779Google Scholar
  49. Horan DP, Chilvers GA (1990) Chemotropism–the key to ectomycorrhizal formation? New Phytol 116: 297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hutchison LJ (1989) The absence of conidia as a morphological character in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 81: 587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hutchison LJ (1990a) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. II. The enzymatic degradation of selected carbon and nitrogen compounds. Can J Bot 68: 1522–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hutchison LJ (1990b) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. III. Patterns of polyphenol oxidase activity. Mycologia 82: 424–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchison LJ (1990c) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. IV. The effect of some selected fungitoxic compounds upon linear growth. Can J Bot 68: 2172–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hutchison LJ (1990d) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. V. Linear growth response to standard extreme temperatures used as a taxonomic character. Can J Bot 68: 2179–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hutchison LJ (1991) Description and identification of cultures of ectomycorrhizal fungi found in North America. Mycotaxon 42: 387–504Google Scholar
  56. Hutchison LJ, Piché Y (1995) Effects of exogenous glucose on mycorrhizal colonization in vitro by early-stage and late-stage ectomycorrhizal fungi. Can J Bot 73: 898–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hutchison LJ, Summerbell RC (1990) Studies on the systematics of ectomycorrhizal fungi in axenic culture. Reactions of mycelia to diazonium blue B staining. Mycologia 82: 36–42Google Scholar
  58. Hyppel A (1968) Antagonistic effects of some soil fungi on Fomes annosus in laboratory experiments. Stud For Suec 64: 1–17Google Scholar
  59. Ingleby K, Mason PA, Last FT, Fleming LV (1990) Identification of ectomycorrhizas. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Jayko LG, Baker TI, Stubblefield RD, Anderson RF (1962) Nutrition and metabolic products of Lactarius species. Can J Microbiol 8: 361–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones MD, Hutchinson TC (1986) The effect of mycorrhizal infection on the response of Betula papyrifera to nickel and copper. New Phytol 102: 429–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jones MD, Hutchinson TC (1988a) The effects of nickel and copper on the axenic growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Can J Bot 66: 119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones MD, Hutchinson TC (1988b) Nickel toxicity in mycorrhizal birch seedlings infected with Lactarius rufus or Scleroderma flavidum. I. Effects on growth, photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. New Phytol 108: 451–459Google Scholar
  64. Kalamees K, Silver S (1988) Fungal productivity of pine heaths in north west Estonia. Acta Bot Fenn 136: 95–98Google Scholar
  65. Keller G (1996) Utilization of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources by high-subalpine ectomycorrhizal fungi of Pinus cembra in pure culture. Mycol Res 100: 989–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kernaghan G, Currah RS, Bayer RJ (1997) Russulaceous ectomycorrhizae of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii. Can J Bot 75: 1843–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Knudsen H, Borgen T (1982) Russulaceae in Greenland. In: Laursen GA, Ammirati JF (eds) Arctic and alpine mycology. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 216–238Google Scholar
  68. Knudsen H, Borgen T (1994) The Lactarius torminosus-group in Greenland. Mycol HeIv 2:49–56 Konrad P (1935) Les Lactaires. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 51: 160–191Google Scholar
  69. Korhonen M (1984) Suomen rouskut. Otava, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  70. Kraigher H, Agerer R, Javornik B (1995) Ectomycorrhizae of Lactarius lignyotus on Norway spruce, characterized by anatomical and molecular tools. Mycorrhiza 5: 175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kropp BR (1982) Fungi from decayed wood as ectomycorrhizal symbionts of western hemlock. Can J For Res 12: 36–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kropp BR, Albee S (1996) The effects of silvicultural treatments on occurrence of mycorrhizal sporocarps in a Pinus contorta forest: a preliminary study. Biol Consery 78: 313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kropp BR, Fortin JA (1986) Formation and regeneration of protoplasts from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. Can J Bot 64: 1224–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Krywolop GN (1971) Production of antibiotics by certain mycorrhizal fungi. In: Hacskaylo E (ed) Mycorrhizae. USDA Forest Service Misc Publ No 1189. US Government Printing Office, Washington, pp 219–221Google Scholar
  75. Kühner R (1975) Agaricales de la zone alpine. Genre Lactarius. Bull Soc Mycol Fr 91:5–69 Kuiters AT (1990) Role of phenolic substances from decomposing forest litter in plant-soil interactions. Acta Bot Neerl 39: 329–348Google Scholar
  76. Lamb RJ (1974) Effect of D-glucose on utilization of single carbon sources by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 63: 295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lange JE (1928) Studies in the Agarics of Denmark. Part VII. Volvaria, Flammula, Lactarius. Dan Bot Ark 5: 1–44Google Scholar
  78. Lange M (1987) Mykorrhiza-svampenes afhaengighed of vaertstrae og jordbund. Svampe 16: 57–59Google Scholar
  79. Last FT, Fleming LV (1985) Factors affecting the occurrence of fruitbodies of fungi forming sheathing (ecto-) mycorrhizas with roots of trees. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Plant Sci) 94: 111–127Google Scholar
  80. Last FT, Mason PA, Pelham J, Ingleby K (1984a) Fruitbody production by sheathing mycorrhizal fungi: effects of “host” genotypes and propagating soils. For Ecol Manage 9: 221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Last FT, Mason PA, Ingleby K, Fleming LV (1984b) Succession of fruitbodies of sheathing mycorrhizal fungi associated with Betula pendula. For Ecol Manage 9: 229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Last FT, Dighton J, Mason PA (1987) Successions of sheathing mycorrhizal fungi. Trends Ecol Evol 2: 157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laursen GA, Ammirati JF (1982) Lactarii in Alaskan Arctic tundra. In: Laursen GA, Ammirati JF (eds) Arctic and alpine mycology. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 245–276Google Scholar
  84. Lindeberg G (1948) On the occurrence of polyphenol oxidases in soil-inhabiting Basidiomycetes. Physiol Plant 1: 196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lundeberg G (1970) Utilisation of various nitrogen sources, in particular bound soil nitrogen, by mycorrhizal fungi. Stud For Suec 79: 1–95Google Scholar
  86. Luppi AM, Gautero C (1967) Richerche sulle micorrize di Quercus robur, Q. petraea e Q. pubes-cens in Piemonte. Allonia 13: 129–148Google Scholar
  87. Malajczuk N (1987) Ecology and management of ectomycorrhizal fungi in regenerating forest ecosystems in Australia. In: Sylvia DM, Hung LL, Graham JH (eds) Mycorrhizae in the next decade: practical applications and research priorities. University of Florida, Gainesville, pp 118–120Google Scholar
  88. Malajczuk N, Molina R, Trappe JM (1982) Ectomycorrhiza formation in Eucalyptus. I. Pure culture synthesis, host specificity and mycorrhizal compatibility with Pinus radiata. New Phytol 91: 467–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Marx DH (1969) The influence of ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections. I. Antagonism of mycorrhizal fungi to root pathogenic fungi and soil bacteria. Phytopathology 59: 153–163Google Scholar
  90. Marx DH (1972) Ectomycorrhizae as biological deterrents to pathogenic root infections. Annu Rev Phytopathol 10: 429–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McNabb RFR (1971) The Russulaceae of New Zealand. 1. Lactarius DC. ex S. F. Gray. NZ J Bot 9: 46–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Melin E (1924) Zur Kenntnis der Mykorrhizapilze von Pinus montana Mill. Bot Not 77:69–92 Mikola P (1954) Metsämaan kantasienien kyvystä hajoittaa neulas-ja lehtikarikkeita. Comm Inst For Fenn 42: 1–17Google Scholar
  93. Miller OK, Hilton RN (1986) New and interesting agarics from Western Australia. Sydowia 39: 126–137Google Scholar
  94. Miller SL, Koo CD, Molina R (1991) Characterization of red alder ectomycorrhizae: a preface to monitoring below ground ecological responses. Can J Bot 69: 516–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller SL, Torres P, McClean TM (1994) Persistence of basidiospores and sclerotia of ectomycorrhizal fungi and Morchella in soil. Mycologia 86: 89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Modess 0 (1941) Zur Kenntnis der Mykorrhizabildner von Kiefer und Fichte. Symb Bot Ups 5: 1–146Google Scholar
  97. Molina R, Trappe JM (1982a) Patterns of ectomycorrhizal host specificity and potential among Pacific Northwest conifers and fungi. For Sci 28: 423–458Google Scholar
  98. Molina R, Trappe JM (1982b) Lack of mycorrhizal specificity by the ericaceous hosts Arbutus menziesii and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. New Phytol 90: 495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Montoya L, Bandala VM (1996) Additional new records on Lactarius from Mexico. Mycotaxon 57: 425–450Google Scholar
  100. Montoya L, Guzman G, Bandala VM (1990) New records of Lactarius from Mexico and discussion of the known species. Mycotaxon 38: 349–395Google Scholar
  101. Montoya L, Bandala VM, Guzmán G (1996) New and interesting species of Lactarius from Mexico including scanning electron microscope observations. Mycotaxon 57: 411–424Google Scholar
  102. Moser M (1983) Keys to Agarics and Boleti (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales). Roger Phillips, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Münzenberger B, Metzler B, Kottke I, Oberwinkler F (1986) Morphologische und anatomische Charakterisierung der Mykorrhiza Lactarius deterrimus-Picea abies in vitro. Z Mykol 52: 407–422Google Scholar
  104. Münzenberger B, Heilemann J, Strack D, Kottke I, Oberwinkler F (1990) Phenolics of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots of Norway spruce. Planta 182: 142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neuhoff W (1956) Die Milchlinge (Lactarii). In: Die Pilze Mitteleuropas, Bd Iib. Julius Klinkhardt, Bad HeilbrunnGoogle Scholar
  106. Ohenoja E (1988) Behaviour of mycorrhizal fungi in fertilized forests. Karstenia 28:27–30 Ohenoja E (1993) Effect of weather conditions on the larger fungi at different forest sites in northern Finland in 1976–1988. Acta Univ Oulu A 243: 1–69Google Scholar
  107. Ohenoja E, Ohenoja M (1993) Lactarii of the Franklin and Keewatin Districts of the Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Bibl Mycol 150: 179–192Google Scholar
  108. Oort AJP (1981) Nutritional requirements of Lactarius species, and cultural characters in relation to taxonomy. North-Holland Publishing, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  109. Pachlewski R (1968) Badania nad grzybami mikoryzowymi sosny-Lactarius rufus (Scop. ex Fr.) Fr. i Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. et Nordh.-W naturalnych warunkach I w czystych kulturach. Pr Inst Badaw Lesm 365: 173–187Google Scholar
  110. Palfner G,Agerer R (1996) Die Ektomykorrhizen von Lactarius chrysorrheus and L. serifluus an Quercus robur. Sendtnera 3: 119–136Google Scholar
  111. Park JY (1970) Antifungal effect of an ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungus, Lactarius sp., associated with basswood seedlings. Can J Microbiol 16: 798–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Parke JL, Linderman RG, Black CH (1983) The role of ectomycorrhizas in drought tolerance of Douglas-fir seedlings. New Phytol 95: 83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Paulus W, Reisinger A (1990) Die Auswikungen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl auf den Gehalt an radioaktiven Cäsium in den Fruchtkörpern der Mykorrhizapilzarten Lactarius rufus und Xerocomus badius in Fichtelgebirge. Z Mykol 56: 279–284Google Scholar
  114. Pegler DN, Fiard JP (1978) Taxonomy and ecology of Lactarius ( Agaricales) in the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bull 33: 600–628Google Scholar
  115. Pegler DN, Young TWK (1979) The gasteroid Russulales. Trans Br Mycol Soc 72: 353–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pratt BH (1971) Isolation of Basidiomycetes from Australian eucalypt forest and assessment of their antagonism to Phytophthora cinnamomii. Trans Br Mycol Soc 56: 243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prevost A, Pargney JC, (1995) Comparaison des ectomycorhizes naturelles entre le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) et 2 lactaires (Lactarius blennius var. viridis et Lactarius subdulcis). I. Caracteristiques morphologiques et cytologiques. Ann Sci For 52: 131–146Google Scholar
  118. Pritsch K, Munch JC, Buscot F (1997) Morphological and anatomical characterization of black alder Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. ectomycorrhizas. Mycorrhiza 7: 201–216Google Scholar
  119. Rao CS, Sharma GD, Shukla AK (1997) Distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure stands of different age groups of Pinus kesiya. Can J Microbiol 43: 85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rendall D-L (1980) The genus Lactarius occurring in the southern boreal forest region of Ontario and Québec. M Sc Thesis, University of Toronto, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  121. Riffle JW (1973) Pure culture synthesis of ectomycorrhizae on Pinus ponderosa with species of Amanita, Suillus and Lactarius. For Sci 19: 242–250Google Scholar
  122. Romell L-G (1938) A trenching experiment in spruce forest and its bearing on problems of mycotrophy. Sven Bot Tidskr 32: 89–99Google Scholar
  123. Saini SS, Atri NS (1993) Studies on genus Lactarius from India. Indian Phytopathol 46: 360–364Google Scholar
  124. Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  125. Sirrenberg A, Salzer P, Hager A (1995) Induction of mycorrhiza-like structures and defence reactions in dual cultures of spruce callus and ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 130: 149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stenström E, Ek M (1990) Field growth of Pinus sylvestris following nursery inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. Can J For Res 20: 914–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Szklarz GD, Antibus RK, Sinsabaugh RL, Linkins AE (1989) Production of phenol oxidases and peroxidases by wood-rotting fungi. Mycologia 81: 234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Termorshuizen AJ (1991) Succession of mycorrhizal fungi in stands of Pinus sylvestris in the Netherlands. J Veg Sci 2: 555–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Termorshuizen AJ (1993) The influence of nitrogen fertilisers on ectomycorrhizas and their fungal carpophores in young stands of Pinus sylvestris. For Ecol Manage 57: 179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Torres P, Honrubia M (1994) Basidiospore viability in stored slurries. Mycol Res 98:527–530 Tyler G (1980) Metals in sporophores of Basidiomycetes. Trans Br Mycol Soc 74: 41–49Google Scholar
  131. Tyler G (1991) Effects of litter treatments on the sporophore production of beech forest macrofungi. Mycol Res 95: 1137–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tuomikoski R (1953) Die Lactarius-Arten Finnlands. Karstenia 2: 9–25Google Scholar
  133. Verbeken A (1995) Studies in tropical African Lactarius species. 1. Lactarius gymnocarpus R. Heim ex Singer and allied species. Mycotaxon 55: 515–542Google Scholar
  134. Verbeken A (1996a) Studies in tropical African Lactarius species. 3. Lactarius melanogalus R. Heim and related species. Persoonia 16: 209–223Google Scholar
  135. Verbeken A (1996b) New taxa of Lactarius (Russulaceae) in tropical Africa. Bull Jard Bot Natl Belg 65: 197–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Verbeken A (1998a) Studies in tropical African Lactarius species. 5. A.synopsis of the subgenus Lactifluus (Burl.) Heller & A. H. Sm. Emend. Mycotaxon 66: 363–386Google Scholar
  137. Verbeken A (1998b) Studies in tropical African Lactarius species. 6. A synopsis of the subgenus Lactariopsis (Henn.) R. Heim Emend. Mycotaxon 66: 387–418Google Scholar
  138. Visser S (1995) Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in jack pine stands following wildfire. New Phytol 129: 389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Voiry H (1981) Classification morphologique des ectomycorhizes du chêne et du hêtre dans le nord-est de la France. Eur J For Pathol 11: 284–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Watling R (1992) Macrofungi associated with British willows. Proc R Soc Edinb 98B:135–147 Weiss M (1991) Studies on ectomycorrhizae. XXXIII. Description of three mycorrhizae synthesized on Picea abies. Mycotaxon 40: 53–77Google Scholar
  141. Wiklund K, Nilsson L-O, Jacobsson S (1995) Effect of irrigation, fertilization, and artificial drought on basidioma production in a Norway spruce stand. Can J Bot 73: 200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilkins DA (1991) The influence of sheathing (ecto-) mycorrhizas of trees on the uptake and toxicity of metals. Agric Ecosyst Environ 35: 245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wilkinson DM, Dickinson NM (1995) Metal resistance in trees: the role of mycorrhizae. Oikos 72: 298–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wilson JM, Griffin DM (1979) The effect of water potential on the growth of some soil Basidiomycetes. Soil Biol Biochem 11: 211–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yamada A, Katsuya K (1995) Mycorrhizal association of isolates from sporocarps and ectomycorrhizas with Pinus deniflora seedlings. Mycoscience 36: 315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zak B (1976) Pure culture synthesis of bearberry mycorrhizae. Can J Bot 54: 1297–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. e1 J, Dermastia M, Gogala N (1989) The isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from the mycorrhizal fungi Lactarius piperatus and Suillus variegatus. Biol Vestn 37: 93–100Google Scholar
  148. Zhao Z, Guo X (1989) Study on hyphal hyperparasitic relationships between Rhizoctonia solani and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Acta Microbiol Sin 29: 170–173Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. J. Hutchison
    • 1
  1. 1.Agriculture Canada Research StationLethbridgeCanada

Personalised recommendations