Brain Biopsy

  • J. H. Garcia
  • J. Cervós-Navarro


Because of ethical implications, a decision to biopsy the brain must be considered carefully by the patient (if capable of making the decision), the next of kin, the neurologist, the surgeon, and the pathologist. A careful appraisal must be made as to whether the purpose of the biopsy is diagnostic, as in the case of organic dementia, or therapeutic. Persistent deficits or death as a complication of brain biopsies are extremely unlikely (less than 1.0%), but the probability of arriving at a conclusive diagnosis through a brain biopsy is not high, especially when the evaluation is done only with the light microscope. In some patients, the brain may be biopsied during the early stages of a disease, (i.e., when the lesion is difficult to recognize by light microscopy alone). Moreover, expectations for therapeutic benefits in the cases where the diagnosis is feasible are relatively low.103


Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Giant Cell Arteritis Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Arachnoid Cyst Pompe Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adachi M, Volk BW, Schneck L, et al: Fine structure of myenteric plexus in various lipidoses. Arch Pathol 87: 228–236, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adornato BT, O’Brien JS, Lampert PW, et al: Cerebral spongy degeneration of infancy. A biochemical and ultrastructural study of affected twins. Neurology 22: 202–210, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander CB, Burger PC, Gore JA: Dissecting aneurysms of the basilar artery in two patients. Stroke 10: 294–299, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anzil AP, Blinzinger K, Mehraein P, et al: Niemann-Pick disease type C: A case report with ultrastructural findings. Neuropediatrie 4: 207–225, 1973Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Averback P: Dense microspheres in normal human brain. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 61: 148–152, 1983Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ball MI: Alzheimer’s disease. A challenging enigma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 106: 157–162, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baringer JR, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ, et al: Transmissible dementias: Current problems in tissue handling. Neurology 30: 302–303, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Becker LE, Yates A: Inherited Metabolic disease. In: Textbook of Neuropathology (eds) RL Davis and DM Robertson. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1985, 284–371Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bentz MS, Towfighi J, Greenwood S, et al: Sturge-Weber syndrome. A case with thyroid and choroid plexus hemangiomas and leptomeningeal melanosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 106: 75–78, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berger MS, Wilson CB: Epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa. J Neurosurg 62: 214–219, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bostrom K, Liliequist B: Primary dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial part of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Neurology 17: 179–186, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brady RO: Biochemical genetics in neurology. Arch Neurol 33: 145–151, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brierley JB: Pathology of cerebral ischemia, in McDowell FH, Brennan RH (eds): Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Eighth Princeton Conference. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1973, 59–66Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brightman MW, Broadwell RD: The morphological approach to the study of the normal and abnormal brain permeability. Adv Exp Med Biol 69: 41–54, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brion S, Mikol J, Psimaras A: Recent findings in Pick’s disease, in HM Zimmerman (ed): Progress in Neuropathology, Vol 2, New York, Grune & Stratton, 1973, 421–452Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bunge RP: Glial cells and the central myelin sheath. Physiol Rev 48: 197–251, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burger P, Burch JG, Kunze U: Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger’s disease) A vascular etiology of dementia. Stroke 7: 626–631, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Butzler JF, Schochet SS, Bell WE: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 31: 35–43, 1975Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cammermeyer J: Is the solitary dark neuron a manifestation of postmortem trauma to the brain inadequately fixed by perfusion? Histochem 56: 97–115, 1978Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Caplan LR, Schoene WC: Clinical features of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease). Neurology 29: 1206–1215, 1978Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carpenter S, Karpati G, Wolfe LS: A type of juvenile cerebromacular degeneration characterized by granular osmiophilic deposits. J Neurol Sci 18: 67–87, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen EB, Pappas GD: Dark Profiles in apparently normal central nervous system: A problem in the electron microscopic identification of early anterograde axonal degeneration. J Comp Neurol 1136: 375395, 1969Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cowdry EV: The problem of intranuclear inclusions in virus diseases. Arch Pathol 18: 527–542, 1934Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Daniel PF, DeFeudis DF, Lott IT, et al: Quantitative microanalysis of oligosaccharides by high performance liquid chromatography. Carbohydrate Res 97: 161–180, 1981Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dastur DK, Lalitha VS: The many facets of neurotuberculosis: An epitome of neuropathology, in Zimmerman HM (ed): Progress in Neuropathology, Vol 2, New York, Grune & Stratton, 1973, 351–408Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeBaecque CM, Pollack MA, Suzuki K: Late infantile neuronal storage disease with curvilinear bodies. Systemic pathologic features. Arch Pathol Lab Med 100: 139–144, 1976Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deraksham I, Bahmanyar M, Noorsalehi S, et al: Light-microscopic diagnosis of rabies. A reappraisal. Lancet 1: 302–303, 1978Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dolman CL: Diagnosis of neurometabolic disorders by examination of skin biopsies and lymphocytes. Semi Diagn Pathol 1: 82–97, 1984Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dorfman, Matalon R: The mucopolysaccharidoses, in Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden, JB, Frederickson, DS, et al (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1972, 1218–1272Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    DuPont JR, Earle KM: Human rabies encephalitis. A study of forty-nine fatal cases with a review of the literature. Neurology 15: 1023–1034, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elfenbein IB Cantor HE: Late infantile amaurotic idiocy with multilamellar cytosomes: An ultrastructural study. J Pediatr 75: 353–364, 1969Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Erkinjuntti T, Haltia M, Palo J, et al: Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of vascular dementia: A prospective clinical and post mortem neuropathological diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 51: 1037–1044, 1988Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Escobar E: The pathology of neurocysticercosis, in Palacios E, Rodriguezcarbajal J, Taveras JM (eds): Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System, Springfield, Illinois, Charles C. Thomas, 1983Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Farrell DF, MacMartin MP, Clark AF: Multiple molecular forms of arylsulfatase A in different forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Neurology 29: 16–20, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Farrell DF, Sumi SM: Skin punch biopsy in the diagnosis of juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis. A comparison with leukocyte peroxidase assay. Arch Neurol 34: 39–44, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fetter BF, Klintworth GK, Hendry WF: Mycoses of the Central Nervous System. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1967Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Flament-Durand J, Rouck AM: Spongiform alterations in brain biopsies of presenile dementia. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 46: 159–162, 1979Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Flechsig P: Anatomie des Menschlichen Gehirns and Rueckenmarks auf Myelogenetischer Grundlage, Band 1, Leipzig, 1920Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fredrickson DS, Sloan HR: Sphingomyelin lipidoses: Niemann-Pick disease, in Stanbury JB, et al (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1972, 783–799Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    French BN, Rewcastle, NB: Sequential morphological changes at the site of carotid endarterectomy. J Neurosurg 4: 745–754, 1974Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gambetti P, DiMauro S, Baker SL: Nervous system in Pompe disease: Ultrastructure and biochemistry. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 412–430, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gambetti P, DiMauro S, Hirt L, et al: Myoclonic epilepsy with Lafora bodies. Some ultrastructural, histochemical, and biochemical aspects. Arch Neurol 25: 483–493, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garcia JH Mitchem HL, Briggs L, et al: Transient focal ischemia in subhuman primates: Neuronal injury as a function of local cerebral blood flow. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:44 60, 1983Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garcia JH, Kamijyo Y, Kalimo H, et al: “Dark” neurons and red neurons: Ultrastructural evaluation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 37: 84, 1975Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garda JH, Lossinsky AS, Kauffman FC, et al: Neuronal ischemic injury: Light microscopy, ultrastructure and biochemistry. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 43: 85–95, 1978Google Scholar
  46. 45a.
    Garda JH: Experimental ischemic stroke: A review. Stroke 15: 5–14, 1984Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Garcia JH, Colon LE, Whitley RJ, Wilmes FJ: Diagnosis of viral encephalitis by brain biopsy, in Santa Cruz DJ (ed): Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, San Diego, Grune & Stratton, 1984, 78–81Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Garcia JH: The neuropathology of stroke. Hum Pathol 6: 583–598, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Garcia JH: Circulatory disorders of the brain, in Davis RL, Robertson D (eds): Textbook of Neuropathology, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1985, 548–631Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Garcia JH, Kamijyo Y: Cerebral infarction. Evolution of histopathological changes after occlusion of a middle cerebral artery in primates. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 33: 409–421, 1974Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Garcia JH, Kamijyo Y, Kalimo H, et al: Cerebral ischemia. The early structural changes and correlations of these with known metabolic and dynamic abnormalities, in Whisant JP, Sandok B (eds): Cerebral Vascular Disease Ninth Conference, JP Whisnant, B Sandok (eds), New York, Grune & Stratton, 1975, 313–323Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Garret R, Ames RP: Alexander disease. Case report with electron microscopical studies and review of the literature. Arch Pathol 98: 379–385, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Geer JC, McGill HC, Strong JP: The fine structure of human atherosclerotic lesions. Am J Pathol 38: 263271, 1961Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Geer JC, Garcia JH: Atherosclerosis, in Wilkins RH, SS Rengachary (eds): Neurosurgery. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1985, 1189–1192Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Ghatak NR, Mushrush GJ: Supratentorial intra-arachnoid cyst. Case report. J Neurosurg 35: 477–482, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Gibson PH, Stones M, Tomlinson BE: Senile changes in the human neocortex and hippocampus compared by the use of the electron and light microscopes. J Neurol Sci 27: 289–406, 1976Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Gil DR, Ratto GD: Contribution to the study of the origin of the leptomeninges in the human embryo. Acta Anat (Basel) 85: 620–623, 1973Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Glenner GG: Amyloid deposits and amyloidosis. The 13-fibrilloses. N Engl J Med 302: 1283–1344, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Go KG, Houthoff HJ, Blaaw EH, et al: Arachnoid cysts of the sylvian tissue. Evidence of fluid secretion. J Neurosurg 60: 803–810, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 58a.
    Goebel HH, Argyrakis A, Shimokawa K, et al: Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy. IV. Ultrastructural studies on the central and peripheral nervous system. Eur Neurol 19: 294–307, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 59.
    Goebel HH, Bode G, Caesar R, et al: Bulbar palsy with Rosenthal fibers formation in the medulla of a 15-year-old girl. Localized form of Alexander’s disease? Neuropediatrics 12: 382–391, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Goebel HH, Schulz F: The ultrastructural variability of nonspecific lipopigments. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 48: 227–230, 1979Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Gold AP, Ransohoff J, Carter S: Vein of Galen malformation. Acta Neurol Scan (Suppl 11) 40: 5–31, 1964Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Gonatas NK, Gonatas J: Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on a case of systemic late infantile lipidosis its relationship to Tay-Sachs disease and gargoylism. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24: 318–340, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Gonatas NK, Moss A: Pathologic axons and synapses in human neuropsychiatric disorders. Hum Pathol 6: 571–582, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Hannieh A, Simpson DA, North JB: Arachnoid cysts: A critical review of 41 cases. Child’s Nery Syst 4: 92–96, 1988Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    Harsh GR, Edwards MSB, Wilson CB: Intracranial arachnoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg 64: 834–842, 1986Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Herndon RM, Rubinstein LJ, Freeman JM, et al: Light and electron microscopic observations on Rosenthal fibers in Alexander’s disease and in multiple sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29: 524–551, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Herring AB, Urich H: Sarcoidosis of the central nervous system. J Neurol Sci 9: 405–522, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Hinton DR, Dolan E, Sima AAF: The value of histopathologic examination of surgically removed blood clots in determining the etiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 15: 517–520, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Hirano A: Neurons, Astrocytes and Ependyma, in Davis RL, Robertson DM eds: Textbook of Neuropathology Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1985, 30–32Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Hirano A, Zimmerman HM, Levine S, et al: Cytoplasmic inclusions in Chediak-Higashi and wobbler mink. An electron microscopic study of the nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 470–487, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Hirano A, Terry RD: Aneurysm of the vein of Galen. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 17: 424–429, 1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Hirano A, Ghatak NR: The fine structure of colloid cysts of the third ventricle. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 33: 333–341, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Ho K-C, Roessmann U, Straumford JV, et al: Analysis of brain weight. II. Adult brain weight in relation to body height, weight and surface area. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104: 640–645, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Ho K-C, Roessmann U, Straumford JV, et al: Analysis of brain weight. I. Adult brain weight in relation to sex, race, and age. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104: 635–639, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 75.
    Holmes EW, O’Brien JS: Separation of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides by thin layer chromatography. Anal Biochem 93: 167–170, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Hooper MW, Vogel FS: The limbic system in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropathologic investigation. Am J Pathol 85: 1–20, 1976Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    Hudgins RW, Garda JH: The effect of electrocautery, atmospheric exposure and surgical retraction on the permeability of the blood brain barrier. Stroke 1: 375–380, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Huntington G: On chorea. Med Surg Rep, (Phila) 26: 317–321, 1872Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Husain MM, Garcia JH: Cerebral “radiation necrosis”: vascular and glial features. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 36: 381–385, 1976Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    Jabbour JT, Garcia JH, Lemmi H, et al: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis—a multidisciplinary study of eight cases. JAMA 207: 2248–54, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Jellinger K: Neuroaxonal dystrophy: Its natural history and related disorders, in Zimmerman HM (ed): Progress in Neuropathology Vol 2New York, Grune & Stratton, 1973, 129–180 Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    Jenkins LW, Povlishock JT, Becker DP, et al: Complete cerebral ischemia: An ultrastructural study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 48:113–125, 1979 Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Kalimo H, Garcia JH, Kamijyo Y, et al: The ultrastructure of “brain death”: II. Electron microscopy of feline cortex after complete ischemia. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 25: 207–220, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Kistler JP, Ropper AH, Heros RC: Therapy of ischemic cerebral vascular disease due to atherothrombosis (first of two parts) N Engl J Med 311: 100–105, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Kolodny EH, Cable WJL: Inborn errors of metabolism. Ann Neurol 11: 221–232, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Krawchenko J, Collins GH: Pathology of an arachnoid cyst. Case report. J Neurosurg 50: 224–228, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Kumpe DA, Rao CVG, Garcia JH, et al: Intracranial neurosarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 324330, 1979Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Lampert PW, Gajdusek DC, Gibbs CJ: Subacute spongiform virus encephalopathies Scrapie, Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A review. Am J Pathol 68: 626–652, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Leech RW, Olafson R: Epithelial cysts of the neuroaxis: Presentation of three cases and a review of the origins and classification. Arch Pathol Lab Med 101: 196–202, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Lillie RD: Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry. New York, Blakiston Company, 1954, 239240Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Little JR, Gomez MR, MacCarty CS: Infratentorial arachnoid cysts. J Neurosurg 39: 380–386, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    Long DM, Hartmann JF, French LA: The ultrastructure of human cerebral edema. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 25: 373–385, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    MacGregor DL, Humphrey RP, Armstrong DL, et al: Brain biopsy for neurodegenerative disease in children. J Pediatrics 92: 903–905, 1978Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Marin-Padilla M: Structural abnormalities of the cerebral cortex in human chromosome aberrations. A Golgi study. Brain Res 44: 625–630, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    Markesbery WR, Shield LK, Engel RT, et al: Late-infantile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis. An ultrastructural study of lymphocyte inclusions. Arch Neurol 33: 630–635, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    Martin JJ, Jacobs K: Skin biopsy as a contribution to diagnosis in late infantile amaurotic idiocy with curvilinear bodies. Eur Neurol 10: 281–291, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    Martinez AJ, Ohya T, Jabbour JT, et al: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) reappraisal of nuclear, cytoplasmic and axonal inclusions. Ultrastructural study of eight cases. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 28: 113, 1974Google Scholar
  100. 97a.
    Mena H, Garcia JH, Velandia F: Central and peripheral myelinopathy associated with systemic neoplasia and chemotherapy. Cancer 48: 1724–1737, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 98.
    McCormick GF, Zee C-S, Heiden J: Cysticercosis cerebri. Review of 127 cases. Arch Neurol 39: 534–539, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 99.
    McCormick WF: The pathology of vascular (arteriovenous) malformations. J Neurosurg 24: 807–816, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 100.
    McCormick WF: Vascular disorders of nervous tissue: Anomalies, malformations, and aneurysms, in Bourne GH (ed): Structure and Function of the Nervous System, (Vol 3 ) New York, Academic Press, 1969, 537–596Google Scholar
  104. 101.
    Merei FT, Gallyas R, Horvath Z: Elastic elements in the media and adventitia of human intracranial extracerebral arteries. Stroke 11: 329–337, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 102.
    Miller JR, Barrett RE, Britton CB, et al: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a male homosexual with T-cell immune deficiency. N Engl J Med 307: 1436–1437, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 103.
    Moossy J: Diagnostic cerebral biopsy, in Toole JF (ed): Special Techniques for Neurologic Diagnosis. Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Company, 1969, 183–191.Google Scholar
  107. 104.
    Morawetz RB, Whitley RJ, Murphy DM: Experience with brain biopsy for suspected herpes encephalitis: A review of forty consecutive cases. Neurosurg 12: 654–657, 1983Google Scholar
  108. 105.
    Moser HW, Moser AB, Kawamura M, et al: Adrenoleukodystrophy: Elevated C-26 fatty acid in cultured skin fibroblasts. Ann Neurol 7: 542–549, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 106.
    Moser HW, Moser AE, Singh I, et al: Adrenoleukodystrophy: survey of 303 cases: biochemistry, diagnosis, and therapy. Ann Neurol 16: 628–641, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 107.
    Munoz-Garcia D, Ludwin SK: Classic and generalized variants of Pick’s disease: A clinicopathological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical study. Ann Neurol 16: 467–480, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 108.
    Neuwelt EA, Garcia JH, Kolar O, et al: Elevated CSF gamma globulins with cerebral “glioma.” Surg Neurol 9: 107–109, 1977Google Scholar
  112. 109.
    Noonan SM, Weiss L, Riddle JM: Ultrastructural observations of cytoplasmic inclusion in Tay-Sachs lymphocytes. Arch Pathol 100: 595–600, 1976Google Scholar
  113. 110.
    Nystrom SHM: Development of intracranial aneurysms as revealed by electron microscopy. J Neurosurg 20: 329–335, 1963Google Scholar
  114. 111.
    Okazaki H, Lipkin LE, Aronson SM: Diffuse intracytoplasmic ganglionic inclusions (Lewy type) associated with progressive dementia and quadriparesis in flexion. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 20: 237–244, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 112.
    Paillas JE, Berard M, Sedan R: The relative importance of atheroma in the clinical course of arteriovenous angioma of the brain. Prog Brain Res 30: 419, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    Paljärvi L, Garcia JH, Kalimo H: The efficiency of aldehyde fixation for electron microscopy: Stabilization of rat brain tissues to withstand osmotic stress. Histochem J 11: 267–276, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Parker JC, Dyer ML: Neurologic infections due to bacteria, fungi, and parasites, in Davis RL, Robertson DM eds: Textbook of Neuropathology. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1986, 673–675.Google Scholar
  118. 115.
    Parker F, Healey LA, Wilske KR, et al: Light and electron microscopic studies on human temporal arteries with special reference to alterations related to senescence, atherosclerosis, and giant cell arteritis. Am J Pathol 79: 57–80, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 116.
    Pascual-Castroviejo I: The association of extracranial and intracranial vascular malformations in children. Can J Neurol Sci 12: 139–148, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 117.
    Perl DP: The pathology of rabies in the central nervous system, in Baer GM (ed): The Natural History of Rabies, Vol 1, New York, Academic Press, 1975, 235–269Google Scholar
  121. 118.
    Peters A, Palay SL, Webster HF: The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: The Neurons and Supporting Cells. Philadelphia, W.B. Sanders Co., 1976Google Scholar
  122. 118a.
    Powers JM, Schaumburg HH: Adrenoleukodystrophy (sex-linked Schilder’s disease). Am J Pathol 76: 481–500, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 119.
    Prineas J: Pathology of the early lesion in multiple sclerosis. Hum Pathol 6: 531–554, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 120.
    Purpura DP: Dendritic spine “dysgenesis” and mental retardation. Science 186: 1126–1128, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 121.
    Raimondi AJ, Shimojo T, Gutierrez FA: Suprasellar cysts: Surgical treatment and results. Child Brain 7: 57–72, 1980Google Scholar
  126. 122.
    Ramsey HI: Ultrastructure of corpora amylacea. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24: 24–39, 1965Google Scholar
  127. 123.
    Regli F, Vonsattel J-P, Perentes E, Assal G: L’angiopathie amyloid cerebrale, Une maladie cerebro-vasculaire peu connue. Etude d’une observation anatomo-clinique. Rev Neurol (Paris) 137: 181–194, 1981Google Scholar
  128. 124.
    Resch JA, Baker AB: Etiologic mechanisms in cerebral atherosclerosis. Preliminary study of 3,839 cases. Arch Neurol 10:617–628, 1964 Google Scholar
  129. 125.
    Richardson EP: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. N Engl J Med 265: 815–823, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 126.
    Roggendorf W, Cervós-Navarro J: Ultrastructure of arterioles in the cat brain. Cell Tiss Res 178: 495–515, 1977Google Scholar
  131. 127.
    Rorke LB, Riggs HE: Myelination of the Brain in the Newborn. Philadelphia, JB Lippincot Company, 1969Google Scholar
  132. 128.
    Rubinstein LJ, Herman MM, Long TF, et al: Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy: A complication of treated central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma. Cancer 3: 291–300, 1975Google Scholar
  133. 129.
    Sagar JH, Warlow CP, Sheldon PWE, et al: Multiple sclerosis with clinical and radiologic features of brain tumor. JNNS Psycho! 45: 802–808, 1982Google Scholar
  134. 130.
    Sandbank U, Lerman P, Gelfan M: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Cortical axonic and presynaptic changes. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 16: 342–352, 1970Google Scholar
  135. 131.
    Schaumburg, H, Powers, JM, Raine CB, et al: Adrenoleukodystrophy: A clinical and pathological study of 17 cases. Arch Neurol 32: 577–591, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 132.
    Schochet SS, Jr, McCormick WF; Ultrastructure of Hirano bodies. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 21: 50–60, 1972Google Scholar
  137. 133.
    Schochet SS: Neuronal inclusions, in Bourne GH (ed): Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue, Vol 4, New York, Academic Press, 1965, 129–177Google Scholar
  138. 134.
    Schoene WC: Degenerative Disease of the Nervous System, in Davis RL, Robertson, DM (eds): Textbook of Neuropathology Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1985, 788–823Google Scholar
  139. 135.
    Schwartz GA, Yanoff M: Laforé s disease. Distinct clinicopathological form of Unverricht’s syndrome. Arch Neurol 12: 172–188, 1965Google Scholar
  140. 136.
    Shuangshoti J, Netsky MG, Nashold BS: Epithelial cysts related to sella turcica: Proposed origin from neuroepithelium. Arch Pathol 90: 444–450, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 137.
    Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Frederickson DS, et al: The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. Part 3. Disorders of amino acid metabolism, 5th Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1983, 231–250Google Scholar
  142. 138.
    Starkman SP, Brown TC, Line EA: Cerebral arachnoid cysts. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 17: 484–500, 1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 139.
    Stehbens WE: Pathology of the Cerebral Blood Vessels. St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1972, 351–456 Google Scholar
  144. 140.
    Stehbens WE: Histopathology of cerebral aneurysms. Arch Neurol 8: 272–276, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 141.
    Stein BM, Wolpert SM: Arteriovernous malformations of the brain: I. Current concepts and treatment. Arch Neurol 37: 1–5, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 142.
    Sung JH, Okada K: Neuropathological changes in mink with Chediak-Higashi disease. A light and electron microscopic study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 33–62, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 142a.
    Suzuki K: Ultrastructural studies of multiple sclerosis. Lab Invest 20: 444–450, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 143.
    Suzuki K, Suzuki Y, Chen GC: GM-1 gangliosidosis (generalized gangliosidosis) morphology and chemical pathology. Pathol Eur 3: 389–408, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 144.
    Suzuki K, Suzuki Y: Galactosylceramide lipidosis: Globoid cell leukodystrophy, in Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Frederickson DS, et al. (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. New York, McGraw Hlll, 1983, 857–874Google Scholar
  150. 145.
    Tanaka J, Garcia JH, Khurana R, et al: Unusual demyelinating disease. A form of diffuse-disseminated sclerosis. Neurology 25: 588–593, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 146.
    Tanaka J, Garcia JH, Max SR, et al: Cerebral sponginess and GM-3 gangliosidosis: Ultrastructure and probable pathogenesis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 34: 249–62, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 147.
    Tellez-Nagel I, Johnson AB, Terry RD: Studies on brain biopsies of patients with Huntington’s chorea. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 33: 308–332, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 148.
    Tellez-Nagel I, Harter DH: Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis. I. Clinico Pathological, electron microscopic and virological observations. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 25: 560–581, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 149.
    Terry RD: Dementia. A brief and selective review. Arch Neurol 33: 1–4, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 150.
    Terry RD: Alzheimer’s disease, in, Davis RL, Robertson DM eds: Textbook of Neuropathology. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1985, 824–841Google Scholar
  156. 151.
    Tierney MC, Fisher RH, Lewis AJ, et al: The NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group criteria for the clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease: A clinicopathologic study of 57 cases. Neurology 38: 359–364, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 152.
    Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Roth M: Observations on the brains of nondemented old people. J Neurol Sci 11:205–242, 1970 Google Scholar
  158. 153.
    Tomlinson BE: The pathology of dementia, in Wells CE (ed): Dementia ( 2nd ed ), Philadelphia, F.A. Davis Company, 1977, 113–153Google Scholar
  159. 154.
    Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Roth M: Observations on the brains of non-demented old people. J Neurol Sci 7:331–356, 1968 Google Scholar
  160. 154a.
    Tomlinson BE: The pathology of dementia, in Wells CE (ed): Dementia ( 2nd ed ), Philadelphia, F.A. Davis Company, 1977, pp. 113–153Google Scholar
  161. 155.
    Trump BF, Arstila AU; Cellular reaction to injury, in LaVia M, Hill R, (eds): Principles of Pathobiology (2nd ed) New York, Oxford University Press, 1975, 9–96Google Scholar
  162. 156.
    Vanderhaeghen JJ, Logan WJ: The effect of the pH on the in vitro development of Spielmeyer’s ischemic neuronal changes. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 30: 99–104, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 157.
    Victor M, Banker BQ: Brain abscesses. Med Clin North Am 47: 1355–1370, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 158.
    Volk BW, Adachi M, Schneck L: The gangliosidoses. Hum Pathol 6: 555–569, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 159.
    Vonsattel JP, Myers RH, Stevens TJ, et al: Neuropathological Classification of Huntington’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 44: 559–577, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 160.
    Weiner LP, Narayan O, Penney JB, et al: Papovavirus of JC type in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Arch Neurol 29: 1–3, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 161.
    Whitley RJ, Song SF, Linneman E: Herpes simplex encephalitis: Clinical assessment. ’AMA 247: 317320, 1982Google Scholar
  168. 162.
    Whitley R: Diagnosis and treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Am Rev Med 32: 335–340, 1981Google Scholar
  169. 163.
    Wiener J, Spiro D, Lattes RG: The cellular pathology of experimental hypertension. II. Arteriolar hyalinosis and fibrinoid change. Am J Pathol 47: 457–485, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 164.
    Wilkinson MS, Russell RWR: Arteries of the head and neck in giant cell arteritis. Arch Neurol 27: 278391, 1972Google Scholar
  171. 165.
    Wisniewski HM, Coblentz JM, Terry RD: Pick’s disease. A clinical and ultrastructural study. Arch Neurol 26: 97–108, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 166.
    Wisniewski H: The pathogenesis of some cases of cerebral hemorrhage (a morphological study of the margins of hemorrhagic foci and areas of the brain distant from the hemorrhage). Acta Med Polona 2: 379, 1961Google Scholar
  173. 166a.
    Wisniewski HM, Ghetti B, Terry RD: Neuritic (senile) plaques and filamentous changes in aged Rhesus monkeys. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 32: 566–584, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 167.
    Witzleben CL, Smith K, Nelson JS, et al: Ultrastructural studies in late-onset amaurotic idiocy: Lymphocyte inclusions as a diagnostic marker. J Pediatr 79: 285–293, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 168.
    Woodard JS: Alzheimer’s disease in late adult life. Am J Pathol 49: 1157–1169, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 169.
    Yang SY: Brain abscess: A review of 400 cases. J Neurosurg 55: 794–799, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 170.
    Yamamoto T, Imai T: A case of diffuse Lewy body and Alzheimer’s diseases with periodic synchronous discharges. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 47: 536–548, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 171.
    Yunis EH, Lee RE: Further observations on the fine structure of globoid leukodystrophy. Peripheral neuropathy and optic nerve involvement. Hum Pathol 3: 371–388, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 172.
    Zeman W: Studies in the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 33: 1–12, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Garcia
  • J. Cervós-Navarro

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations