Binaural Hearing — Listening with Both Ears
Although, at present, telephone speech is mostly monaural, the future promises much binaural business. Think of tele-conferences and virtual acoustic spaces. The following informal overview of binaural hearing covers directional hearing (in the horizontal and vertical planes), the precedence and Haas effects (and their applications in public-address and “assisted-resonance” systems), artificial reverberation, pseudo-stereophony, binaural release from masking, the cocktail-party effect, central-pitch phenomena, Deutsch’s octave illusion, the creation of virtual sound images, and the faithful reproduction of concert hall recordings in an anechoic environment for acoustical quality studies. The chapter concludes with a brief review of sound-diffusing surfaces based on number theory that have become standard equipment in sound recording studios, including those for speech signals.
KeywordsMicrowave Europe Parkin Acoustics Haas
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 10.1D. Lehnhardt: Physiologie der Schalleitung (G. Thieme, Stuttgart 1979)Google Scholar
- 10.2J. Blauert: Sound localization in the median plane. Acustica 22, 205–213 (1969)Google Scholar
- 10.5J. Blauert: Spatial Hearing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1983)Google Scholar
- 10.7aSee also P. Laws: Zum Problem des Entfernungshorens und der Im-Kopf-Lokalisation von Horereignissen (Ph.D. thesis, Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany, 1972)Google Scholar
- 10.8M.R. Schroeder, B.S. Atal: Computer simulation of sound transmission in rooms. IEEE International Conventive Record, Part 7 (1963)Google Scholar
- 10.10N.I. Durlach: Binaural signal detection: Equalization and cancellation theory. In J.V. Tobias (ed.): Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. 2 (Academic Press, New York 1972)Google Scholar
- 10.11M.R. Schroeder: Speech Privacy System (U.S. Patent 3,328,526, filed Decem-ber 20, 1963, issued June 27, 1967)Google Scholar
- 10.12A.J. Fourcin: Central pitch and auditory lateralization. In R. Plomp, G.F. Smoorenburg (eds.): Frequency Analysis and Periodicity Detection in Hearing 319–328 (Sijthoff, Leiden 1970)Google Scholar
- 10.13D. Deutsch: The octave illusion and auditory perceptual integration. In J.V. Tobias, E.D. Schubert (eds.): Hearing Research and Theory, Vol. 1 (Academic Press, New York 1981) pp. 99–142Google Scholar
- 10.15H. Lauridsen: Some experiments on a system of stereophonic sound (in Danish with English summary). Ingenioren 47, 906 (December 1954)Google Scholar
- 10.16M.R. Schroeder: An artificial stereophonic effect obtained from a single audio signal. J. Audio Eng. Soc. 6, 74–79 (1958)Google Scholar
- 10.19J. Chowning: Methods of synthesizing a musical sound. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1002 (1978)Google Scholar