Hierarchies of Machines

  • M. Holcombe
Part of the Natural Computing Series book series (NCS)


Computational models have been of interest in biology for many years and have represented a particular approach to trying to understand biological processes and phenomena from a systems point of view. One of the most natural and accessible computational models is the state machine. These come in a variety of types and possess a variety of properties. This Chapter discusses some useful ones and looks at how machines involving simpler machines can be used to build plausible models of dynamic, reactive and developing biological systems which exhibit hierarchical structures and behaviours.


State Machine Model Check Turing Machine Finite State Machine Hybrid Machine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. Krohn, R. Langer & J. Rhodes, Algebraic principles for the analysis of a biochemical system, J. Comp, and System Sci. 1, 119 - 136, 1967.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Holcombe, Algebraic Automata Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Eilenberg, Automata, languages and machines, volume, B, Academic Press, New York, USA. 1976.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Holcombe & F. Ipate, Correct systems - building a business process solution, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1998.MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N.J. Talbot, Trends in Microbiology, 9, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Balanescu, M. Holcombe, A. J. Cowling, H. Gheorgescu, M. Gheorghe, C. Vertan, “Communicating Stream X-machines Systems are no more than X-machines”. Journal of Universal Computer Science, Volume 5, no. 9, 494 - 507, 1999.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Duan, M. Holcombe, A. Bell, A logic for biological systems, BioSystems, 55, 93105, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Clarke, E. Emerson & A. Sistla, Automatic verification of finite state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications, ACM Trans. Prog., Lang., 0026 Systems, 8, 244 - 263, 1986.MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Holcombe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations