Primary and adjuvant radiation therapy has contributed significantly to the successful management of gynecologic malignancies. Traditionally, radiation therapy is often performed through either anterior-posterior parallel-opposed fields or a four-field technique consisting of an anterior, a posterior and two lateral portals. Although different authors have varying criteria to classify the severity of side effects, with these conventional techniques severe complications may develop in 8% to 10% of patients. It appears that the incidence of complications requiring surgical management is approximately 5% (Perez 1997).
KeywordsCorn Depression Adenocarcinoma Radium Oncol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Boie H, Jakobsen A, Petersen J et al (1989) Diagnostic value of lymphography in cervical cancer stage Ib. Eur J Cancer 10: 393–395Google Scholar
- Creasman WT, Morrow CP, Bundy BN et al (1987) Surgical pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol Group Study Cancer 60 [Suppl]: 2035–2041Google Scholar
- Gray H, Clemente ED (1985) The lymphatic system. Gray’s anatomy, 30th edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 896–917 Greenlee RT (2001) Cancer statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin 51:15–36Google Scholar
- Harrison DA, Clouse ME (1985) Normal anatomy. Lymphatic imaging, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 15–94Google Scholar
- Perez CA (1997) Uterine cervix. Principles and practice of radiation oncology, 3rd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadephia, pp 1733–1834Google Scholar
- Perez CA, Garipagaoglu M (1998) Vagina. In: Perez CA, Brady LW (eds) Principles and practice of radiation oncology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 1891–1914Google Scholar
- Plentl AA, Friedman EA (1971) Lymphatic system of the female genitalia. The morphologic basis of oncologic diagnosis and therapy. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Rouviere H, Tobias MJ (1938) Lymphatic system of the abdomen and pelvis. Anatomy of the human lymphatic system. Edwards, Ann Arbor, pp 158–237Google Scholar
- Sedlis A, Bundy BN, Rotman MZ et al (1999) A randomized trial of pelvic radiation therapy versus no further therapy in selected patients with IB carcinoma of the cervix after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol 73: 177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Swart E, Bouma J, Schuur K (1989) The clinical value of lymphography in cervical cancer, FIGO-stage Ib-IIa. Eur J Cancer 10: 85–90Google Scholar
- Yang WT, Lam WWM, Cheung TH et al (2000) Comparison of dynamic helical CT and dynamic MR imaging in the evaluation of pelvic lymph. Am J Radiol 175: 759–766Google Scholar