Abstract

After World War I, the Near East was divided into zones of influence between Britain and France. Egypt remained under British control. Britain obtained the mandate over Iraq and Palestine on both banks of the Jordan, France over Syria and Lebanon. In Turkey, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and others tried to occupy large parts of Anatolia, until an army officer named Mustafa Kemal Pasha stopped them in battle. In 1923, he established a modern democratic independent republic and was awarded the title Ataturk (Father of the Turks). None of the other Muslim nations of the region followed his example, which are still ruled by conservative autocratic and often oppressive regimes.

Keywords

Dioxide Europe Syria Turkey Egypt 

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Reference

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arie S. Issar
    • 1
  • Mattanyah Zohar
    • 2
  1. 1.J. Blaustein Institute for Desert ResearchBen Gurion University of the NegevIsrael
  2. 2.Maoz Zion/Mevaseret JerusalemIsrael

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