Integration Issues of CMP

  • K. M. Robinson
  • K. DeVriendt
  • D. R. Evans
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 69)


When CMP was introduced, its first role was to planarize ILD films to enable multiple levels beyond two or three of metal interconnects. As with any other step in semiconductor processing, the presence of any CMP step comes with a significant number of integration issues, and their associated performance tradeoffs. This chapter addresses those issues and tradeoffs. Though there are a number of integration issues that are common to all CMP steps, such as defect reduction, in general, each type of CMP, such as tungsten CMP or STI CMP, has issues that are specific to that specific step. For that reason the chapter is grouped into the major CMP process types: oxide, tungsten, STI and copper. There are other CMP processes, but these four areas cover most of the issues with the more uncommon processes, such as poly-silicon CMP.


Chemical Mechanical Polishing Integration Issue Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process Shallow Trench Isolation Dummy Gate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. Nakamura, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp 272–282.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.Y. Lu and W.Y. Lee, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp 510–512.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Liu, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp 412–433.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.E. Braun, Semiconductor International, 23 (12), 71, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Peters, Semiconductor International, 25 (2), 64, 2002.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Burggraaf, Semiconductor International, 18 (13), 74, 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.R. Divecha, B.E. Stine, D.O. Ouma, E.C. Chang, D.S. Boning, J.E. Chung, O.S. Nakamura, H. Aoki, G. Ray, D. Bradbury and S.Y. Oh, J. Electrochem. Soc., 145 (3), 1052, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Pramanik and M. Weiling, in Chemical Mechanical Planarization I, (eds.) I. Ali and S. Raghavan, ECS Proceedings, 96–22, 47, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.M. Steigerwald, S.P. Muraka and R.J. Gutmann, “Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1197, pp 173–174.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.J. Patrick, W.L. Guthrie, C.L. Standley and P.M. Schiable, J. Electrochem. Soc., 138 (6), 1778, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Oji, B. Lee, D. Ouma, T. Smith, J. Yoon, J. Chung and D. Boning J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (11), 4307, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.E. Stine, D. Ouma, R.R. Divecha, D.S. Boning, J.E. Chung, D.L. Hetherington, C.R. Harwood, O. S Nakayama and S.Y. Oh, IEEE, 11 (1), 128, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Ouma, D. Boning, J. Chung, G. Shinn, L. Olsen and J. Clark, in Proceedings of IITC, pp 67–69, 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.H. Yao, D.L. Feke, K.M. Robinson and S. Meikle, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (4), 1502, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.H. Yao, D.L. Feke, K.M. Robinson and S. Meikle, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (8), 3094, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.A. Burke, Proceedings 1991 VMIC Conference, 379, IMIC, Tampa, 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.R. Runnels, J. Electrochem. Soc., 141, 1900, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Warnock, J. Electrochem. Soc., 138, 2398, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.P. Tuinlot and M. Vertregt, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manufact., 14 (4), 302, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W.J. Schaffer, J.W. Westphal, H.W. Fry, P.J. Parikh and J.D. Lee, Proceedings 1996 CMP—MIC Conference, 299, IMIC, Tampa, 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.J. Fang, S. Garza, H. Guo, T.H. Smith, G.B. Shinn, J.E. Campbell and M.L. Hartsell, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (2), 682, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Castillo—Mejia, A. Perlov and S. Beaudoin, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (12), 4671, 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Wang, J. Lee, K. Holland, T. Bibby, S. Beaudoin and T. Cale, J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 1121, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Srinivasa—Murthy, D. Wang, S.P. Baudoin, T. Bibby, K. Holland and T.S. Cale, J. Electrochem. Soc., 308–309, 533, 1997.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.R. Runnels, I. Kim, J. Schleuter, C. Karlsru and M. Desai, IEEE Trans. Semicon. Manuf., 11 (3), 501, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Jairath, A. Pant, T. Mallon, B. Withers and W. Krussell, Solid State Technol., 39, 107, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.E. Braun, Semiconductor International, 24 (6), 70, 2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    L.C. Klein, “Thin Film Processes II”, 537, J.L. Vossen and W. Kern (eds.), Academic Press Inc., Boston, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Sakaguchi,T. Yonehara, Solid State Technology, 43 (6), 88, 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.F. Miner, W.Y-C. Lai and M. Hoffman, Proceedings 1995 VMIC Conference, 478, IMIC, Tampa, 1995.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y. Zhang, P. Parikh, B. Stephenson, M. Bonsaver, J. Ling and M. Li, Proceedings 1996 VMIC Conference, 424, IMIC, Tampa, 1996.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.T. Tseng, Y. H, Wang and J.H. Chin, J. Electrochem. Soc., 146 (11), 4273, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. Sukharev J. Electrochem. Soc., 148 (3), G172, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W.T. Tseng, Y.T. Hsieh, C.F. Lin, M.S. Tsai and M.S. Feng, J. Electrochem. Soc., 144 (3), 1100, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Shi, L. Veltman, B. Zhang, U. Winkler, F. Verstraete and R. Schreutelkamp, Semiconductor International, 24 (8), 183, 2001.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Shadwick, B. Cote, W. Landers, D. Miura, B. Vollmer, K. Feldner, R. Cheek and M. Rutten, Proceedings 1995 VMIC Conference, 511, IMIC, Tampa, 1995.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Nicholes, R. Singh, D. Grant and M. Litchy, Semiconductor International, 24 (8), 201, 2001.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Teshima, Semiconductor International, 24 (8), 171, 2001.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C.Y. Yang and T.S. Chao, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), 60, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    K.J. Cen, H.B. Lu and J.T. Lin, Proceeding 1997 VMIC Conference, 339, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    W. Kroeninger, W. Redl, U. Hoeckele, M. Frank, M. Deshpande, W.F. Yau, W. Krogner and W. Rausch, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 606, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S.K. Tang, V.Y. Vassiliev, S. Mridha and L.H. Chan, Thin Solid Films, 352, 77, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.A. Jaso, J.P. Gambino, D.M. Dobuzinsky, M. Armacost and T. Ohiwa, Proceedings 1996 VMIC Conference, 407, IMIC, Tampa, 1996.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.H. Han, D.U. Choi, H.S. Kim, B.H. Roh and J.W. Park, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 331, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Z. Lin, C.J. Sparos, L.S. Milon and Y.T. Lin, IEEE Trans. Semi. Manuf., 11 (4), 557, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. Renteln and J. Coniff, Proceedings Mat. Res. Soc. Symp., 337, 105, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Y.J.T. Li, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), 363, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    W.C. Chen, S.C. Lin, B.T. Dai and M.S. Tsai, J. Electrochem. Soc, 146 (8) 3004, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Cui, I.B. Bhat, S.P. Muraka, H. Lu, W. Li, W.J. Hsia and W. Cataby, J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 (10), 3816, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    C.L. Borst, D.G. Thakurta, W.N. Gill and R.J. Gutmann, J. Electrochem. Soc., 149 (2), G118, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Y.D. Kim, C.W. Nam, S.B. Kim, S.D. Kim and S.H. Yu, Conference Proceedings USI XIII, 747, MRS, Warrendale, PA, 1998.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A. Ishii, A. Ohsaki, Y. Takata, N. Morimoto, K. Maekawa, K. Mori, T. Tsutumi, Y. Mashiko, M. Hirayama and A. Inuishi, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 19, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. Atakov, T.S. Sriram, D. Dunnel, S. Pizzanello, A. Ohsaki and K. Maekawa, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 473, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. Liu, “ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), 371, McGraw—Hill, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Z. Wang, W. Catabay, J. Yuan, J. Ku, N. Krishna, V. Pavate, A. Sudararajan, S. Saigal, B. Chang, M. Narashimhan, J. Egermeier and S. Ramswami, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 258, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    G.F. Hudson and R.L. Elliott, Proceedings 1995 VMIC Conference, 514, IMIC, Tampa, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    J.B. Choi, S. Hahn, J.W. Park and J.J. Kim, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 319, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. Streinz, S. Frumbine, C. Yu, A. Zutshi, D. Schey and P. Meyers, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 313, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    K. Wijekoon, R. Lin, S. Yang, F. Redeker, S. Nanjangud, M. Bakshi and S. Ghanayem, Proceedings 1998 VMIC Conference, 451, IMIC, Tampa, 1998.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    D.J. Stein, D. Hetherington, R. Guilinger and J.L. Cecchi, J. Electrochem. Soc., 145 (9), 3190, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    E.A. Kneer, C. Raghunath, V. Mathew, S. Raghavan and J.S. Jeon, J. Electrochem. Soc, 144 (9), 3041, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. Zabasajja, R. Merchant, B. Ng, S. Banerjee, D. Green, S. Lawing and H. Kura, J. Electrochem. Soc., 148 (2), G73, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G.C. Lee, M. Weling, C. Drill and A. Hu, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 304, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    E. Sicurani, M. Fayolle, Y. Gobil, Y. Morand and F. Tardif, Conference Proceedings USI XII, 561, MRS, Warrendale, PA, 1997.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    C. Yu, T. Meyers and C. Streinz, Conference Proceedings USI XII, 519, MRS, Warrendale, PA, 1997.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. Mendonca, C. Dang, C. Pettinato, J. Cope, H. Garcia, J. Saravia, J. Farkas, D. Watts and J. Klein, Proceedings of the 1998 IITC, 196, IEEE Electron Devices Society.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. Rutten, P. Feeney, R. Cheek and W. Landers, Proceedings 1995 VMIC Conference, 491, IMIC, Tampa, 1995.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    P. Holzapfel, K. Murella, J. Schlueter and C. Johnson, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 307, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    S.H. Li, V. Bucha, B. Miller and K. Wooldridge, Proceedings 1998 VMIC Conference, 490, IMIC, Tampa, 1998.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J.T. Yue, “ ULSI Technology”, C.Y. Chang and S.M. Sze (eds.), 656, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    S. Melosky, S. Li, J. Ling and C. Spinner, Proceedings 1997 VMIC Conference, 523, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    S. Nag, A. Chatterjee, Solid State Technology, 129, Sept. 1997.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    N. Balasubramanian, E. Johnson, I.V. Peidous, S. Ming-Jr and R. Sundarean, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 (2), 2000.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Y.S. Chung, C.W. Jeon, J.H. Kim, S.K. Han, J.W. Hwang, S.Y. Kim, J.G. Lee, I.S. Hyun, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 (1), 2000.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Nandakumar, A. Chatterjee, S. Sridhar, K. Joyner, M. Rodder, I.C. Chen, 133, IEDM, 1998.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. Shaymirian, IMEC, Private Communication, 2000.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    S. Lassig, C.S. Xu, A.J. Miller, S. Kamath, A. Romano and T. Kudo, Solid State Technology, 157, July 2000.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    A. Chatterjee, I. Ali, K. Joyner, D. Mercer, J. Kuehne, M. Mason, A. Esquivel, D. Rogers, S. O’Brien, P. Mei, S. Murtaza, S.P. Kwok, K. Taylor, S. Nag and G. Hames, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 1936, 1997.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    C.P. Chang, C.S. Pai, F.H. Baumann, C.T. Liu, C.S. Rafferty, M.R. Pinto, E.J. Lloyd, M. Bude, F.P. Klemens, J.F. Miner, K.P. Cheung, J.I. Colonell, W.Y.C. Lai, H. Vaidya, S.J. Hillenius, R.C. Liu and J.T. Clemens, Tech. Dig. Int. Electron Devices Meeting, 661, 1997.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    G. Badenes, IMEC, Private Communication, 2000.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    S. Matsuda, T. Sato, H. Yoshimura, Y. Takegawa, A. Sudo, I. Mizushima, Y. Tsunashima and Y. Toyoshima, 137, IEDM 1998.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    P. Van Cleemput, H.W. Fry, B. van Schravendijk and W. van den Hoek, Semiconductor International, 179, July 1997.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. Schaekers and E. Sleeckx, IMEC, Private Communication, 2000.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J.T. Pan, P. Li, F. Redeker, J. Whitby, D. Ouma, D. Boning and J. Chung, Proceedings 1998 VMIC Conference, 467, IMIC, Tampa, 1998.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    G.H. Koh, D.W. Ha, C.H. Cho, H.S. Jeong, G.T. Jeong, W.S. Yang, K.H. Lee, J.G. Lee, B.J. Park, J.K. Lee, J.S. Bae, J.H. Sim and K.N. Kim, Proceedings 1998 CMP-MIC Conference, 15, IMIC, Tampa, 1998.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    K. Smekalin, Solid State Technology, 187, July 1997.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    J. Grillaert, M. Meuris, N. Heylen, D. DeVriendt, E. Vrancken and M. Heyns, Proceedings 1998 CMP-MIC Conference, 79, IMIC, Tampa, 1998.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    N. Heylen et al., Proceedings of 2nd Int. Symp. on CMP, ECS, 1998.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    B. Davari, C.W. Koburger, R. Schultz, J.D. Warnock, T. Furukawa, M. Jost and Y. Taur, W.G. Schwittek, J.K. DeBrosse, M.L. Kerbaugh and J.L. Mauer, IEDM Tech. Digest, 61, 1989.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    S.S. Cooperman, A.I. Nasr and G.J. Grula, J. Electrochem. Soc, 142, 3180, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    J.M. Boyd and J.P. Ellul, J. Electrochem. Soc, 143, 3718, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    J.M. Boyd and J.P. Ellul, J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 1838, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    S.M. Yang, Y.H. Chen, C.L. Chang, C.H. Yu and J.Y. Chen, Proceedings 1997 CMP-MIC Conference, 186, IMIC, Tampa, 1997.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    T. Vo, T. Buley and J. Gagliardi, Solid State Technology, June 2000, 123.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    B. Luther, J.F. White, C. Uzoh, T. Cacouris, J. Hummel, W. Guthrie, N. Lustig, S. Greco, N. Greco, S. Zuhoski, P. Agnello, E. Colgan, S. Mathad, L. Saraf, E.J. Weitzman, C.K. Hu, F. Kaufman, M. Jaso, L.P. Buchwalter, S. Reynolds, C. Smart, D. Edelstein, E. Baran, S. Cohen, C.M. Knoedler, J. Malinowski, J. Horkans, H. Deligianni, J. Harper, P.C. Andricacos, J. Paraszczak, D.J. Pearson and M. Small, Proc. VMIC X, 15 (1993).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    W. Lee, H. Yang and J. Lee, Proc. of the Electrochem. Soc., 2000–27, 63, 2001Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. Summers, Sol. State Technol., 26 (6), 137 (1983).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    S. Wolf, Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era - vol. 2, 176, Lattice Press, Sunset Beach, CA, 1990.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    R.C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, F-146, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1990.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    M.T. Bohr, Proc. IEEE IEDM, 241, 1995.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    C. Verove, B. Descouts, P. Gayer, M. Guillermet, E. Sabouret, P. Spinelli and E. Van der Vegt, Proceedings 2000 International Interconnect Technology Conference, 267, 2000.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    David R. Evans, AVS 1st Int. Conf. on Microelec. and Interfaces, Santa Clara, CA, Feb. 9, 2000.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    E.P. Barth, T.H. Ivers, P.S. McLaughlin, A. McDonald, E.N. Levine, S.E. Greco, J. Fitzsimmons, I. Melville, T. Spooner, C. DeWan, X. Chen, D. Manger, H. Nye, V. McGahay, G.A. Biery, R.D. Goldblatt and T.C. Chen, Proceedings 2000 International Interconnect Technology Conference, 219, 2000.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    D. Carl, S. Schuchmann, M. Kilgore, R. Swope and W. van den Hoek, Proc. VMIC XII, 97, 1995.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    R.V. Joshi, M. Jaso, H. Ng, L. Hsu, H. Dalai and P. Klymco, Proc. IEEE VMIC VIII, 75, 1991.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    C.K. Hu, M.B. Small, F. Kaufmann and D.J. Pearson, “Tungsten and Other Advanced Metals for VLSI/ULSI Applications V”, 357, MRS, Pittsburg, PA, 2000.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    T.W. Mountsier and D. Kumar, Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 443, 41, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    N.H. Hendricks, B. Wan and A.R. Smith, Proceedings 1995 DUMIC Conference, 283, IMIC, Tampa, 1995.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    R.A. Donaton, F. Iacopi, M.R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, B. Coenegrachts, H. Struyf, M. Lepage, M. Meuris, M. Van Hove, W.D. Gray, H. Meynen, D. De Roest, S. Vanhaelemeersch and K. Maex, Proceedings International Interconnect Technology Conference, 93, 2000.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    D. Pramanik, J.V. Tietz and K. Schiebert, Proc. VMIC X, 329 (1993).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    G. Passemard, J.C. Maisonobe, C. Maddalon, A. Achen, M. Assous, C. Lacour, N. Lardon, R. Blanc and O. Demolliens, “Advanced Metallization Conference 1999”, pg. 357, MRS, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    M.J. Loboda, “Advanced Metallization Conference 1999”, pg. 371, MRS, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    H. Hanata, M. Miyamoto, T. Kamata, S. Matsumo and T. Tanabe, Proceedings International Interconnect Technology Conference, 61, 2000.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    David R. Evans, 2000 Clarkson Univ. Int. CMP Symp., Lake Placid, NY, Aug. 13–17, 2000.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors,2001 Edition, Scholar
  116. 116.
    D. Evans and S.T. Hsu, U.S. Patent 6,133, 106, 2000.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Y. Ma, D.R. Evans, T. Nguyen, Y. Ono and S.T. Hsu, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 20 (5), 254, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    T.K. Li, S.T. Hsu, B.D. Ulrich, L. Stecker, D.R. Evans and J.J. Lee, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., 23 (6), 339, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    D. Evans, U.S. Patent 6,290, 736, 2001.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    D.H. Wang, M. Afnan and S.S. Chiao, Semicond. Fabtech, 13, 255 (2001).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    M.T. Currie, S.B. Samavedam, T.A. Langdo, C.W. Leitz and E.A. Fitzgerald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1718, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Robinson
  • K. DeVriendt
  • D. R. Evans

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations