Indikationen für Calcium-Antagonisten

  • Helmut Lydtin
  • Peter Trenkwalder

Zusammenfassung

Im nachfolgenden Kapitel werden die verschiedenen Indikationen für Calcium-Antagonisten besprochen. Die ursprünglich als „Koronardilatatoren“ entwickelten Medikamente besitzen eine gesicherte Wirkung bei der Behandlung der stabilen Angina pectoris. Zusätzlich werden sie bei anderen Manifestationsformen der koronaren Herzkrankheit eingesetzt. Die antihypertensive Wirkung der Calcium-Antagonisten wurde bereits in den 60er Jahren beschrieben, erst in den letzten Jahren jedoch haben sich Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie weltweit durchgesetzt. Auch bei der Behandlung von Herzrhythmusstörungen (überwiegend supraventrikuläre Tachykardien, Vorhofflimmern und Vorhofflattern) und der hypertrophen Kardiomyopathie liegen umfangreiche Erfahrungen mit Calcium-Antagonisten vor. Demgegenüber sind der Einsatz von Calcium-Antagonisten als Vasodilatatoren bei Herzinsuffizienz und Aorteninsuffizienz sowie ihre Anwendung im Rahmen der Herzchirurgie, der Koronarangiographie und der Ballonkatheterdilatation relativ junge Indikationsgebiete.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Referenzen

  1. Abrams J (1986) Tolerance to organic nitrates Circulation 74: 1181–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarado E, Pineros J (1976) The efficacy of adalat in angina pectoris patients. Results of a 6-month trial In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 261–267Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JL, Wagner JM, Datz FL, Christian PE, Bray BE, Taylor AT (1984) Comparative effects of diltiazem, propranolol and placebo on exercise performance using radionuclide ventriculography in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: results of a double-blind, randomized, crossover study Am Heart J 107: 698–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amman K, Rydén L (1982) Comparsion of metoprolol and verapamil in the treatment of angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 49: 821–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A Arznei-Telegramm (1985) Betablocker plus Verapamil Arzneitelegramm 6: 48Google Scholar
  6. Bassan MM, Weiler-Ravell D, Shalev O (1983) Comparison of the antiangial effectiveness of nifedipine, verapamil and isosorbide dinitrate in patients receiving propranolol: a double-blind study Circulation 68: 568–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker HJ, Kaltenbach M, Kober G (1975) Comparison of the effects of adalat with other substances on myocardial ischemia under loading conditions In: Lochner W, Braasch W, Kroneberg G (eds) 2nd International Adalat Symposium Springer Berlin pp 156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bobba P (1975) Nifedipine, long-acting nitrates and betablockers in the treatment of angina pectoris — a clinical comparative study In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 190–191Google Scholar
  9. Boden WE, Bough EW, Reichmann MJ, Rich VB, Young PM, Korr KS, Shulman RS (1985) Beneficai effects of high-dose diltiazem in patients with persistent effort angina on β-blockers and nitrates: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled cross-over study Circulation 71: 1197–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouzo H (1983) Gallopamil und Propranolol bei stabiler belastungsinduzierter Angina pectoris Therapiewoche 33: 6465–6468Google Scholar
  11. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium channel blocking agents N Engl J Med 307: 1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broustet JP, Guern P, Cherrier JF, Pic A (1980a) Nifedipine and glyceryl trinitrate in the prevention of exertional angina In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Asterdam pp 64–72Google Scholar
  13. Broustet JP, Rumeau P, Guern P, Cherrier JF, Picand A, Bonnet J (1980b) Comparsion of the combination of nifedipine and atenolol with the combination of nitroglycerine and atenolol in patients with angina pectoris Eur Heart J 1 (Suppl B): 59–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brügmann U, Dirschinger J, Blasini R, Rudolph W (1982a) Antiischämische Wirksamkeit unterschiedlicher Nifedipin Dosen Herz 7: 235–242Google Scholar
  15. Brügmann U, Blasini R, Goebel G, Mannes A, Dirschinger J, Rudolph W (1982b) Unterschiedliches Ansprechen von Patienten mit stabiler Belastungs-Angina-pectoris auf Nifedipin Herz 7: 117–125Google Scholar
  16. Brügmann U, Blasini R, Rudolph W (1983) Antiischämische Wirkung von Nifedipin in Retard-Form Herz 8: 206–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cherchi A, Fonzo R, Bina M (1975) Influence of nifedipine on the effort tolerance test in angina patients In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 85–95Google Scholar
  18. Chierchia S, Gallino A, Smith G, Deanfield J, Morgan M, Croom M, Maseri A (1984) Role of heart rate in pathophysiology of chronic stable angina Lancet 2: 1353–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choong CYP, Roubin GS, Shen WF, Harris JP, Kelly DT, (1983) Hemodynamic basis of improved exercise capacity with addition of metoprolol to nifedipine in patients with exercise angina Circulation 68 (Suppl III) III-53Google Scholar
  20. Cieslinski G, Hopf R, Kober G, Kaltenbach M (1987) Können β-Rezeptorenblocker Koronarspasmen auslösen? Dtsch Med Wschr 112: 593–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohn PF, Braunwald E (1984) Chronic ischemic heart disease In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease — a textbook of cardiovascular medicine Saunders Philadelphia pp 1334–1383Google Scholar
  22. Dargie HJ, Lynch PG, Krikler DM, Harris L, Krikler S (1981) Nifedipine and propranolol: a beneficial drug interaction Am J Med 71: 676–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deanfield J, Wright C, Fox K (1983) Treatment of angina pectoris with nifedipine: importance of dose titration Br Med J 286: 1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deanfield J, Wright C, Krikler S, Ribeiro P, Fox K (1984) Cigarette smoking and the treatment of angina with propranolol, atenolol, and nifedipine N Engl J Med 310: 951–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebner F, Dünschede HB (1976) Heamodynamics, therapeutic mechanism of action and clinical findings of adalat use based on worldwide clinical trials In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 283–300Google Scholar
  26. Ebner F, Leisten L, Lejeune P, Donath M, Ramsch KD (1983) Administration of nifedipine to patients treated with digitalis-glycosides, anti-diabetic agents and betablockers In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 328–338Google Scholar
  27. Eichstädt H (1984) Calcium Antagonisten In: Roskamm H (ed) Handbuch der inneren Medizin Bd IX/3 Springer Berlin pp 1069–1113Google Scholar
  28. Ekelund LG, Atterhög JH, Melin AL (1975) Effect of nifedipine on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 144–149Google Scholar
  29. Ekelund LG, Orö L (1976) Antianginal efficiency of adalat with and without a beta-blocker. A subacute study with exercise tests In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 218–225Google Scholar
  30. Ellrodt G, Chew CYC, Singh BN (1980) Therapeutic implications of slow-channel blockade in cardiocirculatory disorders Circulation 62: 669–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Emanuelsson H, Holmberg S (1983) Mechanisms of angina relief after nifedipine: a hemodynamic and myocardial metabolic study Circulation 68: 124–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Emanuelsson H, Hjalmarson A, Holmberg S, Waagstein F (1984) Effects of felodipine on systemic and coronary haemodynamics in patients with angina pectoris Eur Heart J 5: 308–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Engel HJ, Lichtlen PR (1981) Beneficai enhancement of coronary blood flow by nifedipine Am J Med 71: 658–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fach WA, Becker HJ (1985) Kalzium-Antagonisten in der Therapie der stabilen Angina pectoris Herz und Gefäße 5: 347–358Google Scholar
  35. Fagher B, Svenson SE, Persson S (1977) Double-blind comparison of verapamil and propranolol in the treatment of angina pectoris Postgrad Med J 53: 61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Folle LE, Ortiz A, Artucio R, Dighiero J (1976) Efficacy of adalat in angina pectoris patients in a controlled clinical trial compared with placebo In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 200–205Google Scholar
  37. Fox K, Jonathan A, Selwyn AP (1980) Combined high-dosage administration of nifedipine and propranolol in patients with angina pectoris In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 147–153Google Scholar
  38. Fox KM, Deanfield J, Selwyn A, Krikler S, Wright C (1983) Treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris with nifedipine In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 197–204Google Scholar
  39. Frishman WH, Klein NA, Strom JA, Willens H, LeJemtel TH, Jentzer J, Siegel L, Klein P, Kirschen N, Silverman R, Pollack S, Doyle R, Kirsten E, Sonnenblick EH (1982) Superiority of verapamil to propranolol in stable angina pectoris: A double-blind, randomized crossover trial Circulation 65 (Suppl I): 51–59Google Scholar
  40. Gibson RS, Boden WE, Theroux P, Strauss HD, Pratt CM, Gheorghiade M, Capone RJ, Crawford MH, Schlant RC, Kleiger RE, Young PM, Schechtman K, Perryman B, Roberts R, Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Group (1986) Diltiazem and reinfarction in patients with non-Q-wave myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 315: 423–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Go Jr M, Hollenberg M (1984) Improved effiacacy of high-dose versus medium and low-dose diltiazem therapy for chronic stable angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 53: 669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gottlieb SO, Ouyang P, Achuff SC, Baughman KL, Trail TA, Mellits ED, Weisfeldt ML, Gerstenblith G (1984) Acute nifedipine withdrawal: consequences of preoperative and late cessation of therapy in patients with prior unstable angina J Am Coll Cardiol 4: 382–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heepe W, Stura B (1984) Stabile Belastungs-Angina Münch med Wschr 126: 908–911Google Scholar
  44. Hill JA, O’Brian JT, Alpert JS, Gore JM, Zusman RM, Christensen D, Boucher CA, Vetrovec G, Borer JS, Friedman C, Mack R, Conti CR, Pepine CJ (1985) Effect of bepridil in patients with chronic stable angina: results of a multicenter trial Circulation 71: 98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hopf R, Becker HJ, Kober G, Dowinsky S, Kaltenbach M (1982) Therapie der Angina pectoris mit Calcium-Antagonisten Herz 7: 221–234Google Scholar
  46. Hopf R, Drews H, Kaltenbach M (1983a) Die antianginöse Wirkung von Gallopamil im Vergleich zu Nifedipin In: Kaltenbach M, Hopf R (eds) Gallopamil Springer Berlin pp 127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hopf R, Pietruska M, Downisky S, Kaltenbach M (1983b) Combined administration of various doses of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in patients with angina pectoris In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 209–216Google Scholar
  48. Hopf R, Drews H, Kaltenbach M (1984) Die antianginöse Wirkung von Gallopamil im Vergleich mit einem anderen Calciumantagonisten und Placebo Z Kardiol 73:578–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hossack KF, Bruce RA, Ritterman JB, Kusumi F, Trimble S (1982a) Divergent effects of diltiazem in patients with exertional angina Am J Cardiol 49: 538–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hossack KF, Pool PE, Steele P, Crawford MH, DeMaria AN, Cohen LS, Ports TA (1982b) Efficacy of diltiazem in angina on effort: A multicenter trial Am J Cardiol 49: 567–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hossack KF, Kannagi T, Day B, Bruce RA (1984) Long-term study of high-dose diltiazem in chronic stable exertional angina Am Heart J 107: 1215–1220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hugenholtz PG, Michels R, Serruys PW, Simoons ML (1984) Behandlung der instabilen Angina pectoris mit CalciumAntagonisten In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 138–156Google Scholar
  53. Hugenholtz PG (1985) Calcium Antagonists In: Abshagen U (ed) Clinical pharmacology of antianginal drugs. Springer Berlin pp 459–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Humen DP, O’Brien P, Purves P, Johnson D, Kostuk WJ, (1986) Effort angina with adequate beta-receptor blockade: comparison with diltiazem alone and in combination J Am Coll Cardiol 7: 329–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hung J, Lamb IH, Conally SJ, Jutzy KR, Goris ML, Schroeder JS (1983) The effect of diltiazem and propranolol, alone and in combination, on exercise performance and left ventricular function in patients with stable affort angina: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study Circulation 68: 560–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jee LD, Opie LH (1984) Nifedipine for hypertension and angina pectoris: interactions during combination therapy In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 339–346Google Scholar
  57. Johnston DL, Lesoway R, Humen DP, Kostuk WJ (1985) Clinical and hemodynamic evaluation of propranolol in combination with verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem in exertional angina pectoris: a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized, crossover study Am J Cardiol 55: 680–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Julian DG (1985) Comparisons and combinations in anti-anginal therapy Eur Heart J 6 (Suppl A): 37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaltenbach M (1975) Assessment of antianginal substances by means of ST depression in the exercise EKG In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine “Adalat” Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 126–135Google Scholar
  60. Katz RI, Weintraub WS, Bodenheimer MM (1982) Failure of low dose nifedipine to improve exercise tolerance in stable angina Am J Cardiol 49: 895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Keefe JC, Maltz MB, Butrous GS, Camm AJ (1986) Efficacy of incremental doses of tiapamil on exercise performance in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris Eur Heart J 7: 843–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kenmure ACF, Scruton JH (1976) A double-blind controlled trial of the antianginal efficacy of nifedipine compared with propranolol In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 268–271Google Scholar
  63. Kenny J, Daly K, Bergman G, Kerkez S, Jewitt DE (1985) Beneficial effects of diltiazem combined with beta blokkade in angina pectoris Eur Heart J 6: 418–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Khurmi NS, O’Hara M J, Bowles J, Subramanian VB, Raftery EB (1984a) Randomized doubleblind comparison of gallopamil and propranolol in stable angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 53: 684–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Khurmi NS, Bowles M J, O’Hara M J, Subramanian B, Raftery EB (1984b) Long-term efficacy of diltiazem assessed with multistage graded exercise tests in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 54: 738–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Klein W, Brandt D, Fluch N, Maurer E (1982) Therapie der stabilen Belastungsangina mit Calcium-Antagonisten — ein Vergleich von Diltiazem und Nifedipin Z Kardiol 71: 398–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kober G, Berlad T, Hopf R, Kaltenbach M (1981) Die Wirkung von Diltiazem und Nifedipin auf ST-Senkung und Herzfrequenz im Belastungs-EKG bei Patienten mit koronarer Herzerkrankung Z Kardiol 70: 59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kober G, Kästner R, Hopf R, Kaltenbach M (1986) Die direkte myokardiale antiischämische Wirkung von Diltiazem beim Menschen Z Kardiol 75: 386–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kozeny GA, Ragona BP, Bansal VK, Hurley RM, Dixon DW, Vertuno LL, Hano JE (1986) Myocardial infarction with normal results of coronary angiography following diltiazem withdrawal Am J Med 80: 1184–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kroesen P (1983) Vergleich der antianginösen Wirksamkeit von Gallopamil zu Isosorbiddinitrat bei Langzeitmedikation Med Welt 34: 1437–1440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kupper W (1984) Betarezeptorenblocker und Koronarspasmus In: Lohmann FW (ed) Die klinische Bedeutung der Beta-1- Selektivität Verlag für angewandte Wissenschaften pp 99–112Google Scholar
  72. Leon MB (1984) Verapamil alone and combined with propranolol in treating patients with chronic stable angina pectoris In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antago-nismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 181–189Google Scholar
  73. Leon MB, Rosing DR, Bonow RO, Epstein SE (1985) Combination therapy with calcium-channel blockers and beta blockers for chronic stable angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 55: 69 B-80 BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Livesley B, Catley PF, Campbell RC, Oram S (1973) Doubleblind evaluation of verapamil, propranolol, and isosorbide dinitrate against a placebo in the treatment of angina pectoris Br Med J 1: 375–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lochner W (1975) Present basis of coronary therapy In: Lochner W, Braasch W, Kroneberg G (eds) 2nd International Adalat Symposium Springer Berlin pp 2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lohmöller G, Lydtin H (1984) Betarezeptorenblocker In: Roskamm H (ed) Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Bd IX/3 Koronarerkrankungen. Springer Berlin pp 1007–1067Google Scholar
  77. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Lohmöller R, Walter I (1975) Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 97–106Google Scholar
  78. Lydtin H, Schieri W, Lohmöller G (1980) Exercise pulmonary wedge pressure after acute and chronic administration of nifedipine in ischemic heart disease In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) Proceedings of the 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 249–254Google Scholar
  79. Lydtin H, Trenkwalder P (1985) Gibt es eine Differentialtherapie mit Beta-Rezeptorenblockern? Herz und Gefäße 5: 68–76Google Scholar
  80. Lydtin H (1988) Konservative Therapie der stabilen und instabilen Angina pectoris (Im Druck)Google Scholar
  81. Lynch P, Dargie H, Krikler S, Krikler D (1980) Objective assessment of antianginal treatment: a double-blind comparsion of propranolol, nifedipine and their combination Br Med J 281: 184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. MacAlpin RN (1980) Contribution of dynamic vascular wall thickening to luminal narrowing during coronary arterial constriction Circulation 61: 296–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Maseri A, Chierchia S (1981) A new rationale for the clinical approach to the patient with angina pectoris Am J Med 71: 639–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Meyer J (1983) Der Einsatz von Calciumantagonisten in der Therapie der koronaren Herzkrankheit Internist 24: 408–414Google Scholar
  85. Mitrovic V, Niemelä L, Neuss H, Schlepper M (1983) Zur antianginösen Wirkung des Kalziumantagonisten Gallopamil In: Kaltenbach M, Hopf R (eds) Gallopamil Springer Berlin pp 109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mueller HS, Chahine RA (1981) Interim report of multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of nifedipine in chronic stable angina Am J Med 71: 645–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nesto RW, White HD, Ganz P, Koslowski J, Wynne J, Holman BL, Antman E (1985) Addition of nifedipine to maximal betablocker-nitrate-therapy: effects on exercise capacity and global left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise Am J Cardiol 55: 3EPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oesterle SN, Schroeder JS (1982) Editoral: calcium-entry blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade and the reflex control of circulation Circulation 65: 669–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Opie LH (1984) Angina pectoris In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 338–350Google Scholar
  90. Packer M, Meller J, Medina N, Yushak M, Smith H, Holt J, Guererro J, Todd GD, McAllister G, Gorlin R (1982) Hemodynamic consequences of combined beta-adrenergic and slow calcium channel blockade in man Circulation 65: 660–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Panel discussion (1975) In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 299–304Google Scholar
  92. Pfisterer M, Müller-Brand J, Burkart F (1982) Combined acebutolol/nifedipine therapy in patients with chronic coronary artery disease: additional improvement of ischemia induced left ventricular dysfunction Am J Cardiol 49: 1259–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pine MB, Citron PD, Bailly DJ, Butman S, Plasencia GD, Landa DW, Wong RK (1982) Verapamil versus placebo in relieving stable angina pectoris Circulation 65: 17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pool PE, Seagren SC (1982) Long-term efficacy of diltiazem in chronic stable angina associated with atherosclerosis: effect on treadmill exercise Am J Cardiol 49: 573–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Quyyumi AA, Wright CA, Mockus LJ, Fox KM (1984) Mechanisms of nocturnal angina pectoris: importance of increased myocardial oxygen demand in patients with severe coronary artery disease Lancet 1: 1207–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rettig G, Sen S (1983) Akut- und Langzeiteffekte von Gallopamil bei Patienten mit stabiler Angina pectoris In: Kaltenbach M, Hopf R (eds) Gallopamil Springer Berlin pp 141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rizzon P, Scrutinio D, De Toma L, Mangini S, Lagioia R, Accettura D, Mitrotti S (1983) Effects of nifedipine, isosorbide dinitrate, and acebutolol alone and in combination on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 218–231Google Scholar
  98. Rouleau JL, Chatterjee K, Ports TA, Doyle MB, Hiramatsu B, Parmley WW (1983) Mechanism of relief of pacing-induced angina with oral verapamil: reduced oxygen demand Circulation 67: 94–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rudolph W, Dirschinger J, Kraus F, Hall D (1985) Behandlung der belastungsinduzierten Angina pectoris mit Nifedipin Med Klin 80: 548–554Google Scholar
  100. Sandler G, Clayton GA, Thornicroft SG (1968) Clinical evaluation of verapamil in angina pectoris Br Med J 3: 224–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schneider W, Mehlhorn C, Kaltenbach M, Bussmann WD (1985) Die antianginöse Wirksamkeit des Calciumantagonisten Bepridil bei der stabilen Angina pectoris Z Kardiol 74: 341–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Schnellbacher K, Kalusche D, Roskamm H (1980) Hämodynamik während belastungsinduzier-ter Angina pectoris nach einmaliger Gabe von Fendilin und Nifedipin In: Fleckenstein A, Roskamm H (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus Springer Berlin pp 314–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schroeder JS, Hung J, Lamb IH, Connolly SJ, Jutzy KR, Goris ML (1985) The effect of diltiazem and propranolol, alone and in combination, on exercise performance and left ventricular function in patients with stable exertional angina In: Just H, Schroeder JS (eds) Advances in clinical applications of calcium antagonist drugs Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 115–123Google Scholar
  104. Schulz W, Jost S, Kaltenbach M, Kober G (1983) Antianginöse Wirksamkeit des Kalziumantagonisten Nifedipin in Abhängigkeit vom Koronarbefall Z Kardiol 72: 657–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shen WF, Roubin GS, Choong CYP, Hutton BF, Harris PJ, Fletcher PJ, Kelly DT (1985) Left ventricular response to exercise in coronary artery disease: relation to myocardial ischaemia and effects of nifedipine Eur Heart J 6: 1025–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sherman LG, Liang CS (1983) Nifedipine in chronic stable angina: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial Am J Cardiol 51: 706–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Silber S (1986) Nitrat-Therapie Hohe oder niedrige Plasmaspiegel? Retardierte oder unre-tardierte Präparate? Konsequenzen des fehlenden 24-Stundenschutzes Herz und Gefäße 6: 372–380Google Scholar
  108. Silke B, Verma SP, Frais MA, Reynolds G, Jackson N, Taylor SH (1985) Haemodynamic analysis of the effects of nicardipine and metoprolol alone and in combination in coronary artery disease Eur Heart J 6: 930–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Specchia G, De Servi S, Falcone C, Angoli L, Gavazzi A, Bramucci E, Mussini A, Ferrano M, Salerno J, Montemartini C (1983) Effects of nifedipine on coronary hemodynamic findings during exercise in patients with stable exertional angina Circulation 68: 1035–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stone PH, Antman EM, Muller JE, Braunwald E (1980) Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders Part II: hemodynamic effects and clinical application Ann Intern Med 93: 886–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Strauss WE, McIntyre KM, Parisi AF, Shapiro W (1982) Safety and efficacy of diltiazem hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris: report of a cooperative clinical trial Am J Cardiol 49: 560–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Strauss WE, Parisi AF (1985) Superiority of combined diltiazem and propranolol therapy for angina pectoris Circulation 71: 951–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Subramanian VB (1982a) Calcium channel blockers in chronic stable angina Herz 7: 211–220Google Scholar
  114. Subramanian VB, Bowles MJ, Davies AB, Raftery EB (1982b) Combined therapy with verapamil and propranolol in chronic stable angina Am J Cardiol 49: 125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Subramanian VB, Bowles MJ, Khurmi NS, Davies AB, O’Hara MJ, Raftery EB (1983) Calcium antagonist withdrawal syndrome: objective demonstration with frequency-modulated ambulatory ST-segment monitoring Br Med J 286: 520–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Subramanian VB (1984) Comparative evaluation of seven calcium ion antagonists with placebo and propranolol in patients with chronic stable angina In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universamed Frankfurt/Main pp 162–180Google Scholar
  117. Subramanian VB (1986) Combined therapy with calcium-channel and beta blockers: facts, fiction, and practical aspects Cardiovascular Reviews & Reports 7: 259–274Google Scholar
  118. Tan ATH, Sadick N, Kelly DT, Harris PJ, Freedman SB, Bautovich G (1982) Verapamil in stable effort angina: effects on left ventricular function evaluated with exercise randionuclide ventriculography Am J Cardiol 49: 425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Theisen F, Jahrmärker H (1983) Wirkung von Gallopamil (D 600) auf das Belastungs-EKG bei koronarer Herzerkrankung In: Kaltenbach M, Hopf R (eds) Gallopamil Springer Berlin pp 120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tolins M, Weir EK, Chesler E, Pierpont GL (1984) „Maximal“ drug therapy is not necessarily optimal in chronic angina pectoris J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 1051–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tweddel AC, Beattie JM, Lawrie TDV, Hutton I (1980) Effects of nifedipine on physical performance in patients with angina on β-blockers In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 143–146Google Scholar
  122. Waters DD, McCans JL, Crean PA (1985) Serial exercise testing in patients with effort angina: variable tolerance, fixed threshold J Am Coll Cardiol 6: 1011–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weiner DA, McCabe CH, Cutler SS, Ryan TJ, Klein MD (1984) The efficacy and safety of high-dose verapamil and diltiazem in the long-term treatment of stable exertional angina Clin Cardiol 7:648–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. White HD, Polak JF, Wynne J, Holman BL, Antman EM, Nesto RW (1985) Addition of nifedipine to maximal nitrate and betaadrenoreceptor blocker therapy in coronary artery disease Am J Cardiol 55: 1303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. W.H.O. (1980) cooperative trial on primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease using Clofibrate to lower serum cholesterol: mortality follow-up: report of the Committee of Principal Investigators Lancet 2: 379–385Google Scholar
  126. Wilcox RG, Hampton JR, Banks DC, Birkhead JS, Brooksby IAB, Burns-Cox CJ, Hayes MJ, Joy MD, Malcolm AD, Mather HG, Rowley JM (1986) Trial of early nifedipine in acute myocardial infarction: the Trent study Br Med J 293: 1204–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Winniford MD, Hillis LD (1982) Combined therapy with betaadrenergic blockers and calcium-antagonists in patients with ischemic heart disease Herz 7: 243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Winniford MD, Huxley RL, Hillis LD (1983) Randomized, double-blind comparison of propranolol alone and a propranolol-verapamil combination in patients with severe angina of effort J Am Coll Cardiol 1: 492–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P (1985) Beta blockade during and after myokardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials Progr Cardiovasc Dis 27: 335–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Andre-Fouet X, Gayet C, Wilner C, Viallet M, Thizy JF, Apoil E, Pont M (1983) Comparison of short-term efficacy of diltiazem and propranolol in unstable angina. A randomized trial in 30 patients with spontaneous chest pain Eur Heart J 4: 691–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Antmann W, Muller J, Goldberg S, MacAlpin R, Rubenfire M, Tababsnik B, Liang C, Heupler F, Achuff St, Reichek N, Geltman E, Kerin NZ, Neff RK, Braunwald E (1980) Nifedipine therapy for coronary-artery spasm N Engl J Med 302: 1269–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Araki H, Hayata N, Matsuguchi T, Takeshita A, Nakamura M (1986) Diagnosis of important fixed coronary stenosis in patients with variant angina by exercise tests after treatment with calcium antagonists Br Heart J 56: 138–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Bertrand ME, Lablanche JM, Rousseau MF, Warembourg Jr HH, Stankowtak C, Soots G (1980) Surgical treatment of variant angina: Use of plexectomy with aortocoronary bypass Circulation 61: 877–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Blaustein AS, Heller GV, Kolman BS (1983) Adjunctive nifedipine therapy in high risk, medically refractory, unstable angina pectoris Am J Cardiol 52: 950–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium channel blocking agents N Engl J Med 307: 1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Cohn PF, Braunwald E, (1984a) Unstable angina In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease — a textbook of cardiovascular medicine Saunders Philadelphia pp 1355–1360Google Scholar
  137. Cohn PF, Braunwald E (1984b) Variant angina pectoris (Prinzmetal’s angina) In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease — a textbook of cardiovascular medicine Saunders Philadelphia pp 1360–1362Google Scholar
  138. De Feyter PJ, Serruys PW, van den Brand M, Balakumaran K, Mochtar B, Soward AL, Arnold AER, Hugenholtz PG (1985) Emergency coronary angioplasty in refractory unstable angina N Engl J Med 313: 342–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Delahaye JP, Touboul P, Cassagnes J, Gaspard P, Milon H (1979) The long-term treatment of Prinzmetal’s angina with nifedipine In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 87–93Google Scholar
  140. Ellrodt G, Chew CY, Singh BN (1980) Therapeutic implications of slow-channel blockade in cardiocirculatory disorders Circulation 62: 669–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Eichstätt H (1984) Calciumantagonisten In: Roskamm H (ed) Handbuch der inneren Medizin IX/3 Koronarkrankheiten Springer Berlin pp 1069–1113Google Scholar
  142. Fach WA, Becker HJ (1985) Kalzium-Antagonisten in der Therapie der stabilen Angina pectoris Herz und Gefäße 5: 347–358Google Scholar
  143. Feldman RL, Pepine CJ, Whittle J, Conti CR (1982) Shortand long-term responses to diltiazem in patients with variant angina Am J Cardiol 49: 554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Fitzgerald DJ, Roy L, Catella F, Fitzgerald GA (1986) Platelet activation in unstable coronary disease N Engl J Med 315: 983–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Fuster V, Chesebro JH (1986) Mechanisms of unstable angina N Engl J Med 315: 1023–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Gerstenblith G, Ouyang P, Achuff SC, Bulkley BH, Becker LC, Mellits ED, Baughman KL, Weiss JL, Flaherty JT, Kallman CH Llewellyn M, Weisfeldt ML (1982) Nifedipine in unstable angina N Engl J Med 306: 885–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Gottlieb SO, Weisfeldt ML, Ouyang P, Achuff SC, Baughman KL, Traill TA, Brinker JA, Shapiro EP, Chandra NC, Mellits ED, Townsend ST, Gerstenblith G (1986) Effect of the addition of propranolol to therapy with nifedipine for unstable angina pectoris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Circulation 73: 331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hagemeijer F, van Mechelen R (1983) Effects of nifedipine in unstable angina persisting despite conventional medical therapy In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 255–261Google Scholar
  149. Hill JA, Feldman RL, Pepine CJ, Conti CR (1982) Randomized double-blind comparison of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in patients with coronary arterial spasm Am J Cardiol 49: 431–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Hillis LD, Braunwald E (1978) Coronary-artery spasm N Engl J Med 299: 695–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Hillis LD, Winniford MD (1984) Verapamil and nifedipine in the therapy of variant angina pectoris In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus-Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 147–151Google Scholar
  152. Hugenholtz PG, Michels R, Serruys PW, Simoons ML (1984) Behandlung der instabilen Angina pectoris mit CalciumAntagonisten In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-An-tagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 138–186Google Scholar
  153. Hugenholtz PG (1985) Calcium antagonists In: Abshagen U (ed) Clinical pharmacology of antianginal drugs Springer Berlin pp 459–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Hugenholtz PG (1986) Unstable angina revisited once more Eur Heart J 7: 1010–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Johnson SM, Mauritson DR, Willerson JT, Hillis LD (1981) A controlled trial of verapamil for Prinzmetal’s variant angina N Engl J Med 304: 862–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Julian DG (1983) Is the use of beta-blockade contraindicated in the patient with coronary spasm? Circulation 57 (Suppl 1): 92–96Google Scholar
  157. Kern MJ, Ganz P, Horowitz JD, Gaspar J, Barry WH, Lorell BH, Grossman W, Mudge Jr GH (1983) Potentiation of coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with coronary artery disease Circulation 67: 1178–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Kugiyama K, Yasue H, Horio Y, Morikami Y, Fujii H, Koga Y, Kojima A, Takahashi M (1986) Effects of propranolol and nifedipine on exercise-induced attack in patients with variant angina: assessment by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy with quantitative rotational tomography Circulation 74: 374–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Kupper W (1984) Betarezeptorenblocker und Koronarspasmus In: Lohmann FW (ed) Die klinische Bedeutung der ß-1-Selektivität Verlag für angewandte Wissenschaften pp 99–112Google Scholar
  160. Lichtlen P (1984) Klinik und medikamentöse Therapie der koronaren Herzkrankheit Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag KölnGoogle Scholar
  161. Lubsen J, Tijssen JGP, Kerkkamp HJJ (1986) Early treatment of unstable angina in the coronary care unit: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of recurrent ischaemia in patients treated with nifedipine or metoprolol or both (Report of the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/Metoprolol Trial — HINT — Research group) Br Heart J 56: 400–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Luchi RJ, Chahine RA, Raizner AE (1979) Coronary artery spasm Ann Intern Med 91: 441–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lydtin H (1988) Konservative Therapie der stabilen und instabilen Angina pectoris (im Druck)Google Scholar
  164. Mabuchi G, Kishida H, Suzuki K (1975) Clinical effect of nifedipine on variant form of angina pectoris In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine Adalat Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 177–184Google Scholar
  165. Maseri A, Severi S, Parodi O, Distante A, Biagini A (1980) Application of calcium antagonists in patients with vasospastic angina pectoris In: Fleckenstein A, Roskamm H (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus Springer Berlin pp 243–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mauritson DR, Johnson SM, Winniford MD, Cary JR, Willerson JT, Hillis LD (1983) Verapamil for unstable angina at rest: a short-term randomized double-blind study Am Heart J 106: 652–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mehta J, Conti CP, Pepine CJ (1983) Long-term oral verapamil therapy in patients with rest angina Am Heart J 106: 1133–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Meyer J (1983) Der Einsatz von Calciumantagonisten in der Therapie der Koronaren Herzkrankheit Internist 24: 408–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Miller D, Waters DD, Warnica W, Szlachcic J, Kreeft J, Théroux P (1981) Is variant angina the coronary manifestation of a generalized vasospastic disorder? N Engl J Med 304: 763–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Moses J, Feldman MS, Helfart RH (1980) Efficacy of nifedipine in the intermediate syndrome refractory to propranolol and nitrate therapy Am J Cardiol 45: 390 (abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Muller JE, Gunther SJ (1978) Nifedipine therapy for Prinzmetal’s angina Circulation 57: 137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Muller JE, Turi ZG, Pearle DL, Schneider JF, Serfas DH, Morrison J, Stone PH, Rude RE, Rosner B, Sobel BE, Tate C, Scheiner E, Roberts R, Hennekens CH, Braunwald E (1984) Nifedipine and conventional therapy for unstable angina pectoris: a randomized, double-blind comparison Circulation 69: 728–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Opie LH (1984) Angina at rest In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 346–349Google Scholar
  174. Parodi O, Maseri A, Simonetti I (1979) Management of unstable angina at rest by verapamil, a double-blind crossover study in the coronary care unit Br Heart J 41: 167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Parodi O, Simonetti I, L’Abbate A (1980) Treatment of unstable angina: verapamil Hosp Physician 12: 12–21Google Scholar
  176. Pepine CJ, Feldman RL, Whittle J, Curry RC, Conti CR (1981) Effects of the calcium antagonist diltiazem in patients with variant angina Am Heart J 101: 719–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Pepine CJ, Feldman RL, Hill JA, Conti CR, Mehta J, Hill C, Scott E (1983) Clinical outcome after treatment of rest angina with calcium blockers: comparative experience during the initial year of therapy with diltiazem, nifedipine and verapamil Am Heart J 106: 1341–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Previtali M, Salerno JA, Tavazzi L, Ray M, Medici A, Chimienti M, Specchia G, Bobba P (1980) Treatment of angina at rest with nifedipine: a short term controlled study Am J Cardiol 45: 825–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Prinzmetal M, Kennamer R, Merlis R, Wada T, Bor N (1959) Angina pectoris. 1. A variant form of angina pectoris Am J Med 27: 375–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rafflenbeul W, Bossaller C, Lichtlen PR (1985) Intravenöse Infusion von Nifedipin bei Patienten mit instabiler Angina pectoris In: Meyer J, Erbel R (eds) Intravenöse und intrakoronare Anwendung von Adalat Springer Heidelberg pp 125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Robertson RM, Wood AJJ, Vaughn WK, Robertson D (1982) Exacerbation of vasotonic angina pectoris by propranolol Circulation 65: 281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Schroeder JS, Lamb IH, Bristow MR, Ginsburg R, Hung J, McAuley BJ (1983) Prevention of cardiovascular events in variant angina by long-term diltiazem therapy J Am Coll Cardiol 1: 1507–1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sellers TD, Gibson RS, Taylor GJ, Beller GA, Martin RP, McGuire LB, Carabello BA, Gascho JA, Ayers CR, DiMarco JP, Beckwith JR, Burwell LR, Craddock GA, Crampton RS (1983) Relation of therapeutic response to nifedipine to coronary anatomy and motion of ST segment during unstable angina pectoris Am J Med 75: 57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Selzer A, Langston M, Ruggeroli C, Cohn K (1976) Clinical syndrome of variant angina with normal coronary arteriogram N Engl J Med 295: 1343–1347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Severi S, Davies GJ, Maseri A, Marzullo P, L’Abbate A (1980) Long-term prognosis of variant angina with medical treatment Am J Cardiol 46: 226–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Stone PH, Antmann EM, Muller JE, Braunwald E (1980) Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Part II: Hemodynamic effects and clinical application Ann Intern Med 93: 886–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Stone PH, Muller JE, Turi ZG, Geltman E, Jaffe AS, Braunwald E (1983) Efficacy of nifedipine therapy in patients with refractory angina pectoris: significance of the presence of coronary vasospasm Am Heart J 106: 644–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Théroux P, Tacymans Y, Marissette JM, Bosch X, Pelletier GB, Waters DD (1985) A randomized study comparing propranolol and diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina J Am Coll Cardiol 5: 717–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tilmant PY, Lablanche JM, Thieuleux FA, Dupuis BA, Bertrand ME (1983) Detrimental effect of propranolol in patients with coronary arterial spasm countered by combination with diltiazem Am J Cardiol 52: 230–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Tzivoni D, Keren A, BenHorin J, Gottlieb S, Atlas D, Stern S (1983) Prazosin therapy for refractory variant angina Am Heart J 105: 262–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Winniford MD, Filipchu KN, Hillis LD (1983) Alpha-adrenergic blockade for variant angina: A long-term, double-blind, randomized trial Circulation 67: 1185–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Winniford MD, Gabliani G, Johnson SM, Mauritson DR, Fulton KL, Hillis LD (1984) Concomitant calcium antagonist plus isosorbide dinitrate therapy for markedly active variant angina Am Heart J 108: 1269–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Yasue H, Touyama M, Kato H, Tamaka S, Akiyama F (1976) Prinzmetal’s variant form of angina as a manifestation of alpha-adrenergic receptor-mediated coronary artery spasm: Documentation by coronary arteriography Am Heart J 91: 148–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yasue H (1984) Coronary artery spasm and calcium ions In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 117–128Google Scholar
  195. Zähringer J (1985) Variant-Angina: Pathophysiologie und Therapie mit Calcium-Antagonisten Kolloquium 3: Nr 28Google Scholar
  196. Bleifeld W (1974) Physiologische Grundlagen der medikamentösen Therapie der Koronarinsuffizienz Inn Med 1: 100Google Scholar
  197. Bleifeld W, Mathey D, Hanrath P, Buss H, Effert S (1977) Infarct size estimated from serial serum creatine Phosphokinase in relation to left ventricular hemodynamics Circulation 55: 303–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Branagan JP, Walsh K, Kelly P, Collins WC, McCafferty D, Walsh MJ (1986) Effect of early treatment with nifedipine in suspected acute myocardial infarction Eur Heart J 7: 859–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium-channelblocking agents N Engl J Med 307: 1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Bussmann WD, Seher W, Grüngras M (1983) Reduktion der CKund CKMB-Infarktgröße durch Verapamil Dtsch Med Wschr 108: 1047–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Bussmann WD (1984) Akute und chronische Herzinsuffizienz Springer Berlin pp 104–115Google Scholar
  202. Cyran J, Kuthan P, Remien P, Fischer J, Henslemann L (1987) Kalzium-Antagonisten bei akutem Myokardinfarkt? Nifedipindauerinfusion bei Präinfarktangina und akutem Myokardinfarkt Internist 28: 100–107Google Scholar
  203. DeLeiris J, Richard V, Pestre S (1984) Calcium antagonists and eperimental myocardial ischemia and infarction In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium Antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 105–115Google Scholar
  204. DeWood MA, Stifter WF, Simpson CS, Spores J, Eugster GS, Judge TP, Hinnen ML (1986) Coronary arteriographic findings soon after non-Q-wave myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 315: 417–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Eichler HG, Mabin TA, Commerford PJ, Loyd EA, Beck W, Opie LH (1985) Tiapamil, a new calcium antagonist: hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction Circulation 71: 779–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Eichstätt H (1984) Calcium-Antagonisten In: Roskamm H (ed) Hanbbuch der inneren Medizin Band 9/3 Koronarerkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 1069–1113Google Scholar
  207. Endo T, Nejima J, Fujita S, Kiuchi K, Iida N, Kikuchi K, Hayakawa H, Okumura H (1986) Comparative effects of nicardipine, a new calcium antagonist, on size of myocardial infarction after coronary artery occlusion in dogs Circulation 74: 420–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Epstein SE, Palmeri ST (1984) Mechanisms contributing to precipitation of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction: implications regarding therapy Am J Cardiol 54: 1245–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Evans AE (1986) Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction Lancet 2: 150–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ferlinz J (1986) Nifedipine in myocardial ischemia, systemic hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders Ann Intern Med 105: 714–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Geary GG, Smith GT, Suehiro GT, McNamara JJ (1982) Failure of nifedipine therapy to reduce myocardial infarct size in the baboon Am J Cardiol 49: 331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Gibson RS, Boden WE, Theroux P, Strauss HD, Pratt CM, Gheorghiade M, Capone RJ, Crawford MH, Schlant RC, Kleiger RE, Young PM, Schechtman K, Perryman MB, Roberts R, the Diltiazem Reinfarction Study Group (1986) Diltiazem and reinfarction in patients with non-Q-wave myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 315: 423–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. GISSI (Gruppo italiano per lo studio della streptochinasi nell’infarto miocardico) (1986) Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction Lancet 1: 397–402Google Scholar
  214. GISSI (Gruppo italiano per lo studio della streptochinasi nell’infarto miocardico) (1987) Long-term effects of intravenous thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: final report of the GISSI study. Lancet 2: 871–874Google Scholar
  215. Gordon GD, Mabin TA, Lloyd EA, Eichler HG, Commerford PJ, Opie LH (1986) Nifedipine in acute myocardial infarction In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International adalat symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 271–277Google Scholar
  216. Gottlieb SO, Gerstenblith G, Shapiro EP, Chandra N, Healy B, Weisfeldt ML, Weiss JL (1985) Nifedipine reduces early infarct expansion: results of a double blind, randomized trial Circulation 72 (Suppl 3): III 274Google Scholar
  217. Henry PD, Shuchleib R, Clark RE, Perez JE (1980) Protection of ischemic myocardium by nifedipine In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International adalat symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 189–196Google Scholar
  218. Hugenholtz PG, Serruys PW, Fleckenstein A, Nayler W (1986) Why Ca2+ a antagonists will be most useful before or during early myocardial ischaemia and not after infarction has been established Eur Heart J 7: 270–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. ISIS-1 (First International Study of Infarct Survival) (1986) Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16 027 Cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1 Lancet II: 57–66Google Scholar
  220. Just H, Heidelbach I, Jäckie B, Wollschläger H (1986) Nifedipin bei akutem Myokardinfarkt: Ist ein myokardprotektiver Effekt in einer doppeltblinden, placebokontrollierten Untersuchung nachweisbar? Intensivmed 23: 159–164Google Scholar
  221. Kennedy JW (1986) Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 315: 451–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Klein HH, Schubothe M, Nebendahl K, Kreuzer H (1984) The effect of two different diltiazem treatments on infarct size in ischemic, reperfused porcine hearts Circulation 69: 1001–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Kozeny GA, Ragona BP, Bansal VK, Hurley RM, Dixon DW, Vertuno LL, Hano JE (1986) Myocardial infarction with normal results of coronary angiography following diltiazem withdrawal Am J Med 80: 1184–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Laffel GL, Braunwald E (1984) Thrombolytic therapy: a new strategy for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 311: 710–717 and 770–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Lange RL, Reid MS, Tresch DD, Kleelan MH, Berhard VM, Coolidge G (1977) Non-atheromatous ischemic heart disease following withdrawal from chronic industrial nitroglycerin exposure Circulation 56: 366–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Lohmöller G, Lydtin H (1984) Betarezeptorenblocker In: Roskamm H (ed) Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Bd. IX/3 Koronarerkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 1007–1067Google Scholar
  227. Maseri A, L’Abbate A, Baroldi G, Chierchia S, Marzilli M, Ballestra AM, Severi S, Parodi O, Biagini A, Distante A, Pesola A (1978) Coronary vasospasm as a possible cause of myocardial infarction-A conclusion derived from the study of „preinfarction“ angina N Engl J Med 299: 1271–1277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Muller JE, Morrison J, Stone PH, Rude RE, Rosner B, Roberts R, Pearle DL, Turi ZG, Schneider JF, Serfas DH, Tate C, Scheiner E, Sobel BE, Hennekens CH, Braunwald E (1984) Nifedipine therapy for patients with threatened and acute myocardial infarction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparsion Circulation 69: 740–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Nakamura M, Koiwaya Y (1983) Effect of diltiazem on recurrent spontaneous angina after acute myocardial infarction Circ Res 52 (Suppl 1): 158–162Google Scholar
  230. Naumann d’Alnoncourt C, Zierhut W, Lüderitz B (1982) Wirkung von Diltiazem auf abnorme Reizbildung in Purkinje-Fasern bei Ischämie In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Calciumantagonisten zur Behandlung der Angina pectoris, Hypertonie und Arrhythmie. Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 270–277Google Scholar
  231. Nayler WG, Ferrari R (1980) The use of nifedipine in the protection of the ischemic heart. In: Puech P, Krebs R (eds) 4th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 197–205Google Scholar
  232. Opie LH (1984) Myocardial infarction In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 351–371Google Scholar
  233. Peter T, Fujimoto T, Hamamoto H, McCullen A, Mandel WJ (1982) Electrophysiologic effects of diltiazem in canine myocardium with special reference to conduction delay during ischemia Am J Cardiol 49: 602–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Singh BW, Josephson MA, Nademanee K (1984) Elektrophysiologische und hämodynamische Wirkungen von Calcium-Antagonisten: klinischer Überblick In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus Internat. Symosium Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 57–85Google Scholar
  235. Sirnes PA, Overskeid K, Pedersen TR, Bathen J, Drivenes A, Froland GS, Kjekshus JK, Landmark K, Rokseth R, Sirnes KE, Sundoy A, Torjussen BR, Westlund KM, Wik BA (1984) Evolution of infarct size during the early use of nifedipine in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the norwegian nifedipine multicenter trial Circulation 70: 638–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Stone PH, Antman EM, Muller JE, Braunwald E (1980) Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders Part 2: Hemodynamic effects and clinical applications Ann Intern Med 93: 886–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction (1984) Verapamil in acute myocardial infarction Eur Heart J 5: 516–528Google Scholar
  238. Wilcox RG, Hampton JR, Banks DC, Birkhead JS, Brooksby IAB, Burns-Cox CJ, Hayes MJ, Joy MD, Malcolm AD, Mather HG, Rowley JM (1986) Trial of early nifedipine in acute myocardial infarction: the Trent study Br Med J 293: 1204–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Wolf R, Habel F, Witt E, Nötges A, Everling F, Hochrein H (1977) Wirkung von Verapamil auf die Hämodynamik und Größe des akuten Myokardinfarkts Herz 2: 110Google Scholar
  240. Yusuf S, Reto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P (1985) Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomised trials Progr Cardiovasc Dis 27: 335–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. v. Arnim T (1986) ST-Segment-Analyse im Langzeit-EKG Dtsch Med Wschr 110: 1047–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. v. Arnim T, Erath A (1986) Medikamentöse Therapie bei transienten — überwiegemd stummen — Ischämie-Episoden. Cross-over-Vergleichsstudie doppelblind zwischen Nifedipin und IS-5-Mononitrat Z Kardiol 75 (Suppl 4): 25 (p 59)Google Scholar
  243. v. Arnim T (1987) Stumme Myokardischämie Dtsch Ärztebl 84: B 332–B 335Google Scholar
  244. Berman DS, Rozanski A, Knoebel SB (1987) The detection of silent ischemia: cautions and precautions Circulation 75: 101–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Califf RM, Pryor DB, Greenfield JC (1986) Beyond randomized clinical trials: applying clinical experience in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease Circulation 74: 1191–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Cohn PF (1983) Silent myocardial ischemia: to treat or not to treat Hosp Pract 18: 125–129 und 133–135Google Scholar
  247. Cohn PF, Brown EJ, Cohn JK (1984) Detection and management of coronary artery disease in the asymptomatic population Am Heart J 108: 1064–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Cohn PF (1985) Silent myocardial ischemia as a manifestation of asymptomatic coronary artery disease: What is appropriate therapy? Am J Cardiol 56: 28 D–34 DGoogle Scholar
  249. Deanfield JE, Selwyn AP, Chierchia S, Meseri A, Ribeiro P, Krikler S, Morgan M (1983) Myocardial ischaemia during daily life in patients with stable angina: its relation to symptoms and heart rate changes Lancet II: 753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Gottlieb SH, Gerstenblith G, Achuff SC, Mellits ED, Gottlieb SO (1986 a) Ischemic ST segment changes by ambulatory Holter predict one year mortality in high risk post-infarct patients Circulation 74 (Suppl II): 58Google Scholar
  251. Gottlieb SO, Weisfeldt ML, Ouyang P, Mellits ED, Gerstenblith G (1986 b) Silent ischemia as a marker for early unfavorable outcomes in patients with unstable angina N Engl J Med 314:1214–1219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Amery A, Birkenhäger W, Brixko P, Bulpitt C, Clement D, Deruyttere M, De Schaepdryver A, Dollery C, Fagard R, Forette F, Forte J, Hamdy R, Henry JF, Joossens JV, Leonetti G, Lund-Johansen P, O’Malley K, Perie J, Strasser T, Tuomilehto J, Williams B (1985) Mortality and morbidity results from the european working party on high blood pressure in the elderly Lancet 1: 1349–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. ANBPS (1980) Management committee:the australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension Lancet 1: 1261–1267Google Scholar
  254. ANBPS (1982) Management committee of the australian therapeutic trial in mild hypertension: untreated mild hypertension Lancet 2: 185–191Google Scholar
  255. ANBPS (1984) Management committee:prognostic factors in the treatment of mild hypertension Circulation 69: 668–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Anlauf M, Weber F, Bock KD (1986) Milde Hypertonie: Risiko und Chance-Ergebnisse kontrollierter Studien Münch Med Wschr 128: 81–86Google Scholar
  257. Aoki K, Yoshida T, Kato S, Tazumi K, Sato I, Takikawa K, Hotta K (1976) Hypotensive action and increased plasma renin activity by Ca2+-antagonist (nifedipine) in hypertensive patients Jap Heart J 17:479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Belz GG (1970) Die Wirkung des a-Isopropyl-a(N-methyl-N-homoveratril)-g-aminopropyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-acetonitril auf den Blutdruckdes Menschen bei oraler Medikation im akuten Versuch Arzneimittelforschung 20: 799–802Google Scholar
  259. Bender F (1970) Die Behandlung der tachykarden Arrhythmien und der arteriellen Hypertonie mit Verapamil Arzneimittelforschung 20: 1301–1316Google Scholar
  260. Brittinger DW, Strauch M, Huber W, Koch WD, von Henning GE, Wittenmeier KW, Twittendorf WD (1969) Iproveratril als Antihypertonikum bei krisenhafter renaler Hypertonie Dtsch Med Wschr 94: 945–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Brittinger WD, Schwarzbeck A, Wittenmeier KW, Twittenhoff WD, Stegaru B, Huber W, Ewald RW, von Henning GE, Fabricius M, Strauch M (1970) Klinisch-experimentelle Untersuchungen über die blutdrucksenkende Wirkung von Verapamil Dtsch Med Wschr 95: 1871–1877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Bühler FR, Hulthen UL, Bolli P (1982 a) Calcium channel inhibitors for identification of mechanisms and treatment of hypertension J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4 (Suppl 3): 267–280Google Scholar
  263. Bühler FR, Hulthen UL, Kiowski W, Müller FB, Bolli P (1982 b) The place of the calcium antagonist verapamil in antihypertensive therapy J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4 (Suppl 3): 350–357Google Scholar
  264. Chobanian AV (1986) Antihypertensive therapy in evolution N Engl J Med 314: 1701–1702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Croog SH, Levine S, Testa MA, Brown B, Bulpitt CJ, Jenkins CD, Klerman GL, Williams GH (1986) The effects of antihypertensive therapy on quality of life N Engl J Med 314: 1657–1664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Cruickshank JM, Thorp JM, Zacharias FJ (1987) Benefits and potential harm of lowering high blood pressure Lancet 1: 581–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. DL (1986 a) Deutsche Liga zur Bekämpfung des hohen Blutdruckes e.V. Empfehlungen zur Hochdruckbehandlung in der Praxis und zur Behandlung hypertensiver Notfälle 7. Auflage HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  268. DL (1986 b) Deutsche Liga zur Bekämpfung des hohen Blutdruckes e.V. Kochsalz und Bluthochdruck 2. Auflage HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  269. Dustan HP (1987) Rational therapies for hypertension-is step 1 of stepped care archaic? Circulation 75: 96–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Editorial (1985) Treatment of hypertension in the over-60s Lancet 1: 1369–1370Google Scholar
  271. Ekelund LG, Orö L (1976) Antianginal efficiency of adalat with and without a beta-blocker. A subacute study with exercise tests In: Jatene AD, Lichtlen PR (eds) 3rd International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 218–225Google Scholar
  272. Frohlich ED (1985) Antihypertensive therapy: newer concepts and agents Cardiology 72:349–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Gifford Jr R W (1986) Essential hypertension: cost effective evaluation and treatment Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6C): 33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Grün G, Fleckenstein A (1972) Die elektromechanische Entkopplung der glatten Gefäß-Muskulatur als Grundprinzip der Coronardilatation durch 4-(2’-Nitrophenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-l,4-di-hydropyridin-3,5-dicarbonsäure-dimethylester (Bay 1040, Nifedipin) Arzneimittelforschung 22: 334–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. HDFP (1979 a) Hypertension detection and follow-up program cooperative group: five year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. I. Reduction in mortality of persons with high blood pressure, including mild hypertension JAMA 242: 2562–2571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. HDFP (1979b) Hypertension detection and follow-up program cooperative group:five year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. II. Mortality by race, sex and age JAMA 242: 2572–2577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. HDFP (1982a) Hypertension detection and follow-up program cooperative group:five year findings of the hypertension detection and follow-up program. III. Reduction in stroke incidence among persons with high blood pressure JAMA 247: 628–633Google Scholar
  278. HDFP (1982 b) Hypertension detection and follow-up program cooperative group: the effect of treatment on mortality in „mild“ hypertension N Engl J Med 307: 976–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Heidland A, Klütsch K, Öbek A (1962) Myogenbedingte Vasodilatation bei Nierenischämie Münch Med Wschr 104: 1636–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Helgeland A (1980) Treatment of mild hypertension: a five-year controlled drug trial — the Oslo study Am J Med 69: 725–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. IPPPSH (1985) Cardiovascular risk and risk factors in a randomized trial of treatment based on the beta blocker Oxprenolol: the international prospective primary prevention study in hypertension. The IPPPSH collaborative group J Hypertens 3: 379–392Google Scholar
  282. Kaplan NM (1984) Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis-therapy In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease-a textbook of cardiovascular medicine, 2nd edition WB Saunders Philadelphia pp 849–927Google Scholar
  283. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Lohmöller R, Walter I (1975) Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo press Tokyo pp 97–106Google Scholar
  284. Moser M (1986) Treating hypertension — a review of clinical trials Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6C): 25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. MRC (1977) Medical research council working party: randomised controlled trial of treatment for mild hypertension: design and pilot trial Br Med J1: 1437–1440Google Scholar
  286. MRC (1985) Medical research council working party: medical research council trial of treatment for mild hypertension: principal results Br Med J 291: 97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Oliver MF (1986) Prevention of coronary heart disease-propaganda, problems and prospects Circulation 73: 1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Opie LH, Jennings AA (1986) Role of calcium channel blockade in chronic hypertension following succesful management of hypertensive emergency Am J Med 81 (suppl 6 A): 35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Ray WA, Schaffner W, Oates JA (1986) Therapeutic choice in the treatment of hypertension initial treatment of newly diagnosed hypertension and secular trends in the prescribing of antihypertensive medications for medicaid patients Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6C): 9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Saunders E (1986) Stepped care and profiled care in the treatment of hypertension: considerations for black americans Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6C): 39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Schmitz H, Schieri W, Beck O, Lydtin H (1975) Über die Wirkung von Nifedipine (Adalat) auf regionale Hirndurchblutung und Unterschenkeldurchblutung In: Schlegel B (ed) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin Bergmann München pp 888–890Google Scholar
  292. The 1984 report of the joint national committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (1984) Arch Int Med 144: 1045–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. VA (1967) Veterans administration cooperative study group in antihypertensive agents: effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. I. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressures averaging 115 through 129 mmHg JAMA 202: 1028–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. VA (1970) Veterans administration cooperative study group on antihypertensive agents . II. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mm Hg JAMA 213: 1143–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Vetter H (1986) Fortschritte in der Therapie der Hypertonie? Münch Med Wschr 128: 823Google Scholar
  296. Williams GH (1987) Quality of life and its impact on hypertensive patients Am J Med 82: 98–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Blaustein MP (1977) Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation and hypertension: a reassessment and a hypothesis Am J Physiol 233: C 165–173Google Scholar
  298. Bolli P, Bühler FR, Kiowski W, Müller FB (1986) Betarezeptorenblocker, Kalziumantagonisten und Diuretika in der Hochdrucktherapie In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Stuttgart 41–52Google Scholar
  299. Bolt GR, Saxena PR (1984) Acute systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of felodipine, a new calcium antagonist, in conscious renal hypertensive rabbits J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6: 707–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Bühler FR, Bolli P, Hulthén UL (1984 a) Calcium influx-dependent vasoconstrictor mechanisms in essential hypertension In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 313–321Google Scholar
  301. Bühler FR, Erne P, Müller FB, Hulthen UL, Kiowski W, Block LH, Bolli P (1984 b) Calcium-antagonists in hypertension — a new therapeutic concept In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus-Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt pp 116–123Google Scholar
  302. Cody RJ (1987) The hemodynamics of calcium-channel antagonists in hypertension: vascular and myocardial responses Circulation 75 (Suppl 1): 175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Cohn JN (1983) Calcium, vascular smooth muscle, and calcium entry blockers in hypertension Ann Intern Med 98 (Part 2): 806–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Editorial (1983) Calcium antagonists and blood-pressure Lancet 2: 22–24Google Scholar
  305. Editorial (1986) Hypertension: Is there a place for calcium Lancet 1: 359–361Google Scholar
  306. Erne P, Bolli P, Bürgisser E, Bühler FR (1984) Correlation of platelet calcium with blood pressure: effect of antihypertensive therapy N Engl J Med 310: 1084–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Ferlinz J (1986) Nifedipine in myocardial ischemia, systemic hypertension, and other cardiovascular disorders Ann Intern Med 105: 714–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Fleckenstein A, Frey M, Zorn J, Fleckenstein-Grün G (1986) Antihypertensive, anticalcinotische und antiarteriosklerotische Effekte von Calcium-Antagonisten In: Distler H (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Schattauer Stuttgart New York pp 3–24AGoogle Scholar
  309. Grobbee DE, Hofman A (1986) Effect of calcium supplementation on diastolic blood pressure in young people with mild hypertension Lancet 2: 703–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Hollenberg NK (1986) Strategies in antihypertensive therapy: implications of the kidney Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6A): 15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Kaplan NM, Meese RB (1986) The calcium deficiency hypothesis of hypertension: A critique Ann Intern Med 105: 947–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Kazda S, Garthoff B, Luckhaus G (1984) Mode of antihypertensive action of nitrendipine J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6: 956–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Kesteloot H, Geboers J (1982) Calcium and blood pressure Lancet 1: 813–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Kingswood JC, Thompson FD (1986) Sodium, blood pressure, and calcium antagonists Lancet 1: 1102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Laragh JH, Pecker MS (1983) Dietary sodium and essential hypertension: some myths, hopes and truths Ann Intern Med 98: 735–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Lindner A, Kenny M, Meacham AJ (1987) Effects of a circulating factor in patients with essential hypertension on intracellular free calcium in normal platelets N Engl J Med 316: 509–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Lydtin H, Lohmöller R (1972) Hämodynamische Wirkungen von Bay a 1040 vor und nach Atropingabe In: Schlegel B (ed) Verhandlungen der deutschen Gesellschaft für innere Medizin Bergmann München pp 1554–1559Google Scholar
  318. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Lohmöller R, Walter I (1975) Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International Nifedipine „Adalat“ Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 97–106Google Scholar
  319. McCarron DA (1985) Calcium in the pathogenesis and therapy of human hypertension Am J Med 78 (Suppl 2B): 27–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. McCarron DA, Morris CD (1985) Blood pressure response to oral calcium in persons with mild to moderate hypertension Ann Intern Med 103: 825–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Rotellar C, Smith SJ, Sagnella GA (1983) Contrasting effects of nifedipine in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: a functional abnormality of smooth muscle in essential hypertension? In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 111–117Google Scholar
  322. Morgan T, Anderson A, Wilson D, Myers J, Murphy J, Nowson C (1986) Paradoxical effect of sodium restriction on blood pressure in people on slow-channel calcium blocking drugs Lancet 1: 793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Muiesan G, Agabiti-Rosei E, Romanelli G, Muiesan ML, Castellano M, Beschi M (1986) Adrenergic activity and left ventricular function during treatment of essential hypertension with calcium-antagonists Am J Cardiol 57:44D–49DPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Muir AL, Wathen CG, Hannan WJ (1985) Effects of felodipine on resistance and capacitance vessels in patients with essential hypertension Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 59–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Nordlander M (1985) Haemodynamic effects of short and long term adminisitration of felodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats Drugs 29 (suppl 2) 90–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Palmer M, Adami HO, Bergström R, Jakobsson S, Akerström G, Ljunghall S (1987) Survival and renal function in untreated hypercalcemia Lancet 1: 59–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Palmieri GMA, Bertorini TE, Nutting DF (1986) Calcium and blood pressure Lancet 2: 1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Resnick LM (1985) Calcium and hypertension: The emerging connection Ann Intern Med 103: 944–946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Resnick LM, Müller FB, Laragh JH (1986) Calcium-regulating hormones in essential hypertension Ann Intern Med 105: 649–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Resnick LM (1986) Calcium metabolism, renin activity, and the antihypertensive effects of calcium channel blockade Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6A): 6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Rosatti F, Cella PL, Fici F, Rossi F, Chieppa S, Marmo E (1984) Diltiazem in the therapy of arterial hypertension: Polygraphic assessment of left ventricular performance Current Therapeutic Research 36: 701–711Google Scholar
  332. Strauer BE, Mahmoud MA, Bayer F, Bohn I, Motz U (1984) Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and improvement of cardiac function in man by nifedipine Eur Heart J5 (Suppl F): 53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Strauer BE (1986) Der Stellenwert pharmakotherapeutischer Maßnahmen in der Rückbildung der Herzhypertrophie In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Stuttgart pp 41–52Google Scholar
  334. Tarazi R (1983) Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy by medical treatment:present status and possible implications Am J Med 75: 80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Vanhoutte PM (1985) Calcium-entry blockers, vascular smooth muscle and systemic hypertension Am J Cardiol 55: 17B–23BPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Wathen CG, Hannan WJ, Turnbull LW, Muir AL (1985) Afterload reduction by nifedipine — the acute haemodynamic response to exercise in hypertensive subjects Eur Heart J 6: 358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Zähringer J (1985) Biochemische Veränderungen bei HerzmuskelhypertrophieRegression Z Kar-diol 74 (Suppl 1): 1–8Google Scholar
  338. Zähringer J, Stangl E, Aschauer W, Motz W, Strauer BE (1986) Stellenwert der Calcium-Antagonisten hinsichtlich Herzmuskelhypertophie-Regression bei arterieller Hypertonie In: Distler A (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Schattauer Stuttgart pp 357–364Google Scholar
  339. Aberg H, Lindsjö M, Mörlin B (1985) Comparative trial of felodipine and nifedipine in refractory hypertension Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 117–123Google Scholar
  340. Abernethy DR, Schwartz JB, Todd EL, Luchi R, Snow E (1986) Verapamil pharmacodynamics and disposition in young and elderly hypertensive patients — altered electrocardiographic and hypotensive responses Ann Intern Med 105: 329–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Amodeo C, Kobrin I, Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Fröhlich ED (1986) Immediate and short-term hemodynamic effects of diltiazem in patients with hypertension Circulation 73: 108–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Belz GG, Spies G (1985) Kontrollierte Studie zur Behandlung der Hypertonie mit Verapamil in Retardform Z Kardiol 74: 453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Black HR, Vlachakis N (1984) Once and twice daily nitrendipine therapy in essential hypertension In: Scriabine A, Vavov S, Deck K (eds) Nitrendipine Urban & Schwarzenberg Baltimore pp 509–518Google Scholar
  344. Brandt D, Klein W (1982) Dosiswirkungsbeziehung von Diltiazem bei Patienten mit essentieller Hypertonie In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Calciumantagonisten zur Behandlung der Angina pectoris, Hypertonie und Arrhythmie Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 202Google Scholar
  345. Bühler FR, Hulthén UL, Kiowski W, Müller FB, Bolli P (1982) The place of the calcium antagonist verapamil in antihypertensive therapy J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4: 350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Bühler FR, Erne P, Müller FB, Hulthen UL, Kiowski W, Block LH Bolli P (1984) Calcium-antagonists in hypertension — a new therapeutic concept In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) CalciumAntagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt pp 116–123Google Scholar
  347. Corea L, Bentivoglio M, Verdecchia P, Bianchini C (1983) Long term verapamil therapy in mild-to-moderate hypertension — randomized study of normal and slowreleaseformulations Acta Ther 9: 263–274Google Scholar
  348. Deeg P, Weiss KH, Schmitz H (1987) Nisoldipin in der Therapie der essentiellen Hypertonie Dtsch Med Wschr 112: 429–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. De Leeuw PW, Birkenhäger WH (1984) Effects of verapamil in hypertensive patients Acta Med Scand Suppl 681: 125–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Doyle AE, Anavekar SN, Oliver LE (1981) A clinical trial of verapamil in the treatment of hypertension In: Zanchetti A, Krikler DM (eds) Calcium antagonism in cardiovascular therapy — experience with verapamil Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 252–258Google Scholar
  351. Edmonds D, Würth JP, Knorr M, Hany S Baumgart P, Vetter H, Vetter W (1986) 24-Stunden-Blutdruckmessung unter Verapamil 240 mg. Effektive Blutdrucksenkung durch eine Einmaldosis? Klin Wschr 64 (Suppl 5): 211–212Google Scholar
  352. Elmfeldt D, Hedner T (1985) Antihypertensive effects of felodipine compared with placebo Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 109–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Ferlinz J (1986) Nifedipine in myocardial ischemia, systemic hypertension, and other cardiovascular disorders Ann Intern Med 105: 714–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Ferrara LA, Fasano ML, Soro S (1985) Age related antihypertensive effect of nitrendipine, a new calcium entry blocking agent Eur J Clin Pharmacol 28: 473–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Franz IW, Wiewel D (1985) Antihypertensive Wirkung von Nitrendipin, Nifedipin und Acebutolol und deren Kombination auf den Ruhe- und Belastungsblutdruck bei Hochdruckkranken Z Kardiol 74: 111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Franz IW, Behr U, Ketelhut R, Wiewel D (1986) Antihypertensive Wirkung von Gallopamil und Metoprolol auf den Ruhe- und Belastungsblutdruck bei Hochdruckkranken Herz Kreislauf 18: 632–637Google Scholar
  357. Giesecke HJ, Guckenbiehl W, Hagemann I (1982) Ergebnisse einer Multicenter-Studie mit Diltiazem bei Hypertonie In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Calciumantagonisten zur Behandlung der Angina pectoris, Hypertonie und Arrhythmie Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 220Google Scholar
  358. Gould BA, Mann S, Kieso H, Bala Subramanian V, Raftery EB (1982) The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profile with verapamil Circulation 65: 22–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Guazzi MD, Polese H, Fiorentini C, Bartorelli A, Moruzzi P (1983) Treatment of hypertension with calcium antagonists Review Hypertension 5 (Suppl 2): 1–85Google Scholar
  360. Hansson L, Andrén L, Orö L, Ryman T (1984) The antihypertensive effects and pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine in patients with essential hypertension In: Scriabine A, Vanov S, Deck K (eds) Nitrendipine Urban & Schwarzenberg Baltimore pp 423–432Google Scholar
  361. Hedbäck B, Hermann LS (1984) Antihypertensive effect of verapamil in patients with newly discovered mild to moderate hypertension Acta Med Scand Suppl 681: 129–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Johnson BF, Romero L, Marwaha R (1986) Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of the calcium channel blocking agent nitrendipine Clin Pharmacol Ther 39: 389–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Klein W, Mlekusch E, Härringer M (1982) Kalziumantagonisten zur Behandlung der chronischen arteriellen Hypertonie. Ein Plazebo-kontrollierter, doppelblinder Vergleich von Diltiazem und Nifedipin Herz Kreislauf 5: 247–255Google Scholar
  364. Leonetti G, Sala C, Bianchini C, Terzoli L, Zanchetti A (1980) Antihypertensive and renal effects of orally administered verapamil Eur J Clin Pharmacol 18: 375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Leonetti G, Pasotti C, Ferrari GP, Zanchetti A (1981) Double-blind comparison of the antihypertensive effects of verapamil and propranolol In: Zanchetti A, Krikler DM (eds) Calcium antagonism in cardiovascular therapy — experience with verapamil Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 260–267Google Scholar
  366. Leonetti G, Fruscio M, Terzoli L, Rupoli L, Gradnik R, Sampieri L, Cuspidi C, Boselli L, Bolla G, Zanchetti A (1985) Antihypertensive and water and sodium balance effects of felodipine, a new vasodilating calcium antagonist, in hypertensive patients Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Lewis GRJ, Stewart DJ, Lewis BM, Bones PJ, Morley KD, Janus ED (1981) The antihypertensive effect of oral verapamil — acute and long-term administrations and its effects on the highdensity lipoproteine values in plasma In: Zanchetti A, Krikler DM (eds) Calcium antagonism in cardiovascular therapy — experience with verapamil Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 270–279Google Scholar
  368. Lorimer AR, McAlpine HM, Rae AP, Simpson IA, Barbour MP, Forret EA, Hill TWK, Lawrie TDV (1985) Effects of felodipine on rest and exercise heart rate and blood pressure in hypertensive patients Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 154–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Lohmöller R, Walter I (1975) Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st international nifedipine „Adalat“ symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 97–106Google Scholar
  370. MacGregor GA (1984) A randomized dose study of verapamil in patients with essential hypertension In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) CalciumAntagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 125–126Google Scholar
  371. M’Buyamba-Kabangu JR, Ditu M, Tshiani KA, Lepira B, Lijnen P, Fagard R, Amery A (1986) Nitrendipine and acebutolol as first line antihypertensive drugs in black patients In: Distler A (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdruck Therapie Schattauer Stuttgart pp 303–310Google Scholar
  372. Midtbo K, Hals O (1980) Verapamil in the treatment of hypertension Current Therapeutic Research 27: 830–838Google Scholar
  373. Muiesan G, Agabiti-Rosei E, Romanelli G, Muiesan ML, Castellano M, Beschi M (1986) Adrenergic activity and left ventricular function during treatment of essential hypertension with calcium antagonists Am J Cardiol 57: 44D–49DPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Müller FB, Bolli P, Erne P, Bock LH, Kiowski W, Bühler FR (1986) Antihypertensive Therapie mit dem langwirkenden Calcium Antagonisten Nitrendipin In: Distler A (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Schattauer Stuttgart pp 133–140Google Scholar
  375. Opie LH, Jee LD (1984) Nifedipine: Expanding indications in hypertension In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 333–337Google Scholar
  376. Pacheco JP, Fan F, Wright RA, Corkadel LK, Horwitz ID (1986) Monotherapy of mild hypertension with nifedipine Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6A): 20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Pool PE, Massie BM, Venkataraman K, Hirsch AT, Samant DR, Seagren SC, Gaw J, Salel AF, Tubau JF (1986) Diltiazem as monotherapy for systemic hypertension: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial Am J Cardiol 57: 212–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Rahn KH (1984) Calciumantagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Dtsch Med Wschr 109: 933–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Rosendorff C (1984) Calcium channel blockers and hypertension In: Opiel LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 323–330Google Scholar
  380. Rosendorff C, Goodman C (1985) Double-blind double-dummy crossover-study of the efficacy and safety of nisoldipine (Bayk 5552) versus nifedipine Curr Ther Res 37: 912–920Google Scholar
  381. Rüddel H, Schmieder R, von Eiff AW (1986) Wirkung einer Langzeit-Monotherapie mit Nitrendipin auf hämodynamische Veränderungen unter psychischer Belastung In: Distler A (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Schattauer Stuttgart pp 165–181Google Scholar
  382. Schulte KL, Meyer-Sabellek WA, Distler A, Gotzen R (1983) Antihypertensive Langzeitbehandlung mit Diltiazem und Nifedipin bei essentieller Hypertonie Therapiewoche 33: 6011–6014Google Scholar
  383. Stoepel K, Deck K, Ingram C, Vanov S (1986) Multizentrische Doppelblind-Studien mit Nitrendipin aus den USA In: Distler A (ed) Calcium-Antagonisten in der Hochdrucktherapie Schattauer Stuttgart pp 121–129Google Scholar
  384. Stone PH, Antman EM, Muller JE, Braunwald E (1980) Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Part II: Hemodynamic effects and clinical applications Ann Intern Med 93: 886–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Sucic M (1983) Die antihypertensive Wirksamkeit von Gallopamil Therapiewoche 33: 6016–6019Google Scholar
  386. Trimarco B, DeLuca N, Ricciardelli B, Volpe M, Veniero A, Cuocolo A, Cicala M (1984) Diltiazem in the treatment fo mild or moderate essential hypertension. Comparison with metoprolol in a crossover double-blind trial J Clin Pharmacol 24: 218–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Ueda K, Murakami M (1983) A controlled, comparative multicenter study on the clinical efficacy of nifedipine in the treatment of severe hypertension In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 146–154Google Scholar
  388. Vitacolonna E, Guagnano MT, Capani F, Sensi S (1986) Nitrendipine treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension Curr Ther Res 39: 414–420Google Scholar
  389. Yamuchi K, Fumi H, Taniguchi N, Sotobata I (1986) Effects of diltiazem hydrochloride on cardiovascular response, platelet aggregation and coagulating activity during exercise testing in systemic hypertension Am J Cardiol 57: 609–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Anavekar SN, Barter C, Adam WR, Doyle AE (1982) A double-blind comparison of verapamil and labetalol in hypertensive patients with coexisting chronic obstructive airways disease J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4: 374–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Andersson OK, Granérus G, Hedner T (1985) Felodipine: a calcium-inhibiting vasodilator in refractory hypertension Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 102–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Bayley S, Dobbs RJ, Robinson BF (1982) Nifedipine in the treatment of hypertension: report of a double-blind controlled trial Br J Clin Pharmacol 14: 509–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Ben-Ishay D, Leibel B, Stessman J (1986) Calcium channel blockers in the management of hypertension in the elderly Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6A): 30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Bolli P, Bühler FR, Kiowski W, Müller FB (1986) Betarezeptorenblocker, Kalziumantagonisten und Diuretika in der Hochdrucktherapie In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta- Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Stuttgart pp 41–52Google Scholar
  395. Brouwer RML, Bolli P, Erné P, Conen D, Kiowski W, Bühler FR (1985) Antihypertensive treatment using calcium antagonists in combination with Captopril rather than diuretics J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 7 (Suppl 1): 88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Collste P, Danielsson M, Elmfeldt D, Feleke E, Gelin A, Hedner T, Rydén L (1985) Long term experience of felodipine in combination with ß-blockade and diuretics in refractory hypertension Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 124–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. DeDivitiis O, Petitto M, Di Somma S, Galderisi M, Villari B (1985) Nitrendipine and atenolol: Comparison and combination in the treatment of arterial hypertension Arzneimittelforschung 35: 727–729Google Scholar
  398. Ekelund LG, Ekelund C, Rössner S (1982) Antihypertensive effects at rest and during exercise of a calcium blocker, nifedipine, alone and in combination with metoprolol Acta Med Scand 212: 71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Elmfeldt D, Hedner T (1983) Felodipine — a new vasodilator, in addition to β-receptor blockade in hypertension Eur J Clin Pharmacol 25: 571–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Evans MG Jr, Olanoff LS, Hurwitz G, Cowart TD, Conradi EC (1984) Use of nifedipine as an adjunct to current antihypertensive therapy Arch Intern Med 144: 985–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Evans MG Jr, Olanoff LS, Hurwitz G, Cowart TD, Conradi EC (1984) Use of nifedipine as an adjunct to current antihypertensive therapy Arch Intern Med 144: 985–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Franz IW (1985) Beeinflussung der Hypertonie unter Belastung durch antihypertensive Pharmakotherapie In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Berlin pp 71–74Google Scholar
  403. Girndt J (1985) Therapie der Schwangerschaftshypertonie Dtsch Med Wschr 110: 1579–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Guazzi MD, Fiorentini C, Olivari MT, Bartorelli A, Necchi G, Polesi A (1980) Short-and-longterm efficacy of a calcium-antagonistic agent (nifedipine) combined with methyldopa in the treatment of severe hypertension Circulation 61: 913–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Guazzi MD, DeCesare N, Galli C, Salvioni A, Tramontana C, Tamborini G, Bartorelli A (1984) Calcium-channel blockade with nifedipine and angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibition with Captopril in the therapy of patients with severe primary hypertension Circulation 70: 279–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Hallin L, Andren L, Hansson L (1983) Controlled trial of nifedipine and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 5: 1083–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Halperin AK,Gross KM, Rogers JF,Cubeddu LX (1984) Verapamil and propranolol in essential hypertension Clin Pharmacol Ther 36:750–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Hedner T, Samuelsson O, Sjörgen E, Elmfeldt T (1986) Treatment of essential hypertension with felodipine in combination with a diuretic Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30: 133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Höffler D (1985) Nitrendipin bei schwer einstellbarer Hypertonie Therapiewoche 35: 3638–3642Google Scholar
  410. Iyer VS, Russel WJ (1986) Nifedipine for postoperative blood pressure control following coronary artery vein grafts J Roy Coll Surg (Edin) 68: 73–75Google Scholar
  411. Jee LD, Opie LH (1983) Acute hypotensive response to nifedipine added to prazosin in treatment of hypertension Br Med J (Clin Res) 287: 1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Laaser U, Meurer KA, Krüger H, Kaufmann W (1975) Clinical studies on the combined effect of various antihypertensive agents and adalat In: Lochner W, Braasch W, Kroneberg G (eds) 2nd International Adalat Symposium Springer Berlin pp 287–288Google Scholar
  413. Liebau H, Fassl H, Riepl B (1985) Behandlung der arteriellen Hypertonie mit einer Kombination von Atenolol 50 mg und Nifedipin retard 20 mg — Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Praxisstudie In:Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Berlin pp 110–111Google Scholar
  414. Lohmann FW (1985) Metabolische Auswirkungen deer antihypertensiven Therapie mit ß-Rezeptorenblockern und Kalziumantagonisten In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer herzkrankheit Schattauer Berlin pp 87–88Google Scholar
  415. Müller FB, Bolli B, Lindner L, Kiowski W, Erné P, Bühler FR (1986) Calcium antagonists and the second drug for antihypertensive therapy Am J Med 81 (Suppl 6 a): 25–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Murphy MB, Scriven AJI, Dollery CT (1984) Efficacy of nifedipine as a step 3 antihypertensive drug Hypertension 5 (4pt 2): II 118–121Google Scholar
  417. Murphy MB, Bulpitt CJ, Dollery CT (1984) Role of nifedipine in hospital outpatients Am J Med 77 (Suppl 2B): 16–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Nadler JL, Hsueh W, Horton R (1985) Therapeutic effect of calcium channel blockade in primary aldosteronism J Clin Endocr 60: 896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Opie LH, Jee L, White D (1982) Antihypertensive effects of nifedipine combined with cardiose-lective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism by atenolol Am Heart J 104: 606–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Orö L, Ryman T (1984) A long-term study of the combined antihypertensive action of nitrendipine and metoprolol In: Scriabine A, Vanov S, Deck K (eds) Nitrendipine Urban & Schwarzenberg Baltimore pp 527–534Google Scholar
  421. Rost R, Völker K, Reinke A, Tegenthoff H (1985) Der Einfluß von Nifedipin und Atenolol bzw. der fixen Kombination beider Substanzen auf physiologische Belastungsreaktionen sowie auf den Belastungsblutdruck bei Hypertonikern In: Distler A (ed) Ca++-Antagonisten und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker in der Behandlung von Hypertonie und koronarer Herzkrankheit Schattauer Berlin pp 122–124Google Scholar
  422. Stimpel M, Dralle H, von zur Mühlen A (1986) Therapie des primären Aldosteronismus Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 1487–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Tammen AT, Stoepel K, Vollmer H, Blümchen G (1984) Efficacy and safety of nitrendipine in patients with essential hypertension associated with coronary heart disease In: Scriabine A, Vanov S, Deck K (eds) Nitrendipine Urban & Schwarzenberg Baltimore pp 469–475Google Scholar
  424. Ueda K, Murakami M (1983) A controlled, comparative multicenter study on the clinical efficacy of nifedipine in the treatment of severe hypertension In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 146–155Google Scholar
  425. Yagil Y, Kobrin I, Stessman J, Ghanem J, Leibel B, Ben-Ishay D (1983) Effectiveness of combined nifedipine and propranolol treatment in hypertension Hypertension 4 (a pt 2): II 113–117Google Scholar
  426. Wathen CG, MacLeod D, Tucker L, Muir AL (1986) Felodipine as a replacement for minoxidil in the treatment of severe hypertension Eur Heart J 7: 893–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Bertel O, Conen LD (1986) Treatment of hypertensive emergencies with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine Am J Med 79 (suppl 4A): 31–35Google Scholar
  428. Brandt D (1985) Akute hämodynamische Effekte von Nifedipin bei Patienten mit Hochdruckkrisen Herz/Kreislauf 1: 24–27Google Scholar
  429. Brittinger DW, Strauch M, Huber W, Koch WD, von Henning GE, Wittenmeier KW, Twitten-hoff WD (1969) Iproveratril als Antihypertonikum bei krisenhafter renaler Hypertonie Dtsch Med Wschr 94: 945–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Davidson RC, Bursten SL, Keeley PA, Kenny MA, Stewart DK (1985) Oral nifedipine for the treatment of patients with severe hypertension Am J Med 79 (suppl 4A): 26–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Ellrodt AG, Ault MJ, Riedinger MS, Murata GH (1985) Efficacy and safety of sublinqual nifedipine in hypertensive emergencies Am J Med 79 (suppl 4A): 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. Grabensee B (1985) Therapie der hypertensiven Krise Dtsch Med Wschr 110: 1738–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Hauger-Klevene JH (1986) Comparison of sublingual Captopril and nifedipine Lancet 1: 219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Ito H, Arakawa M, Shibasaki T, Hirakawa S, Fulenda T, Yasue T Kondo Y, Watanabe I, Mori N, Fueki T, Oda M, Ota N, Kobayashi H (1984) Acute antihypertensive effect of nifedipine by sublingual route in cases with clinically severe systolic hypertension Arzneimittelforschung 34: 630–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Kaplan NM (1984) Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis therapy In: Braunwald E (ed) Heart disease — a textbook of cardiovascular medicine — 2nd edition Saunders Philadelphia pp 849–927Google Scholar
  436. Klein N, Beer N, Gallegos I, Cohen A, Sonnenblick E, Frishman W (1980) Efficacy of sublingual nifedipine in the acute management of systemic hypertension Circulation 62 (suppl 3): 36Google Scholar
  437. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Lohmöller R, Schmitz H, Walter I (1975) Hemodynamic studies on nifedipine in man In: Hashimoto K, Kimura E, Kobayashi T (eds) 1st International nifedipine „Adalat“Symposium University of Tokyo Press Tokyo pp 97–106Google Scholar
  438. Opie LH, Jennings AA (1985) Sublingual Captopril versus nifedipine in hypertensive crises Lancet 2: 555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Opie LH, Jennings AA (1986) Role of calcium channel blockade in chronic hypertension following succesful management of hypertensive emergencies Am J Med 81 (suppl 6A): 35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Rameis H (1983) Unterschiede in der akuten blutdrucksenkenden Wirkung der Kalziumantagonisten Diltiazem, Verapamil,Nifedipin In: Kalziumantagonisten in der Therapie der arteriellen und pulmonalen Hypertonie. Magometschnigg D (ed) Uhlen Wien pp 45 – 55Google Scholar
  441. Rosenthal J (1982) Die Behandlung der hypertensiven Krise mit Diltiazem In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Calciumantagonisten zur Behandlung der Angina pectoris, Hypertonie und Arrhythmie Excepta Medica Amsterdam pp 227–234Google Scholar
  442. Sluiter HE, Huysmans FTM, Thien TA, Koene RAP (1985) Haemodynamic effects of intravenous felodipine in normotensive and hypertensive subjects Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 144–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Stumpe KO (1984) Klinik und Therapie des hypertensiven Notfalls Internist 25: 359–366Google Scholar
  444. Tschollar W, Belz GG (1985) Sublingual Captopril in hypertensive crisis Lancet 2: 34–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Wolff E, Neubauer F, Schikora B, Albertus J (1985) Die Behandlung des hypertensiven Notfalls mit Nifedipin Zschr Klin Med 40: 725–727Google Scholar
  446. Antman EM, Stone PH, Muller JE, Braunwald E (1980) Calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders Part I: basic and clinical electrophysiologic effects Ann Intern Med 93: 875–885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Arita M, Ohtake N, Kawasaki K, Takashiba T (1975) Therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of CRD-401 on premature beat unresponsive to procainamide Jap J Clin Exp Med 52: 2430–2439Google Scholar
  448. Bachour G (1985) Therapie der Kammerextrasystolie mit Chinidin-Verapamil In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Belz GG, Olesch K, Schmidt Voigt I (1970) Die Behandlung des chronischen Vorhofflimmerns mit einer Kombination von Chinidin und Verapamil Med Welt 38: 1670Google Scholar
  450. Belz GG, Doering W, Munkes R, Aust PE, Belz G (1981) Effects of various calcium-antagonists on blood level clearance of digoxin Circulation 64 (Suppl IV): IV–24Google Scholar
  451. Bender F, Kojima N, Replok HD, Oelmann G (1966) Behandlung tachykarder Rhythmusstörungen des Herzens durch Beta-Rezeptorenblockade des Atrioventrikulargewebes Med Welt 17: 1120–1123Google Scholar
  452. Bender F (1968) Die medikamentöse Behandlung von Herzrhythmusstörungen Therapiewoche 18: 1803Google Scholar
  453. Bender F, Brisse B, Gülker H (1984) Calcium antagonists in supraventricular arrhythmias In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 209–215Google Scholar
  454. Boden WE, More G, Sharma S, Bough EW, Korr KS, Young PM, Shulman RS (1986) No increase in serum digoxin concentration with highdose diltiazem Am J Med 81: 425–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents N Engl J Med 307: 1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Coumel P, Maisonblanche P, Cauchemez B (1984) Calcium Blockers in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus-Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 190–208Google Scholar
  457. Davy JM, Lainé JF, Sebag C, Motté G, Béclére HA (1983) Bepridil, a new calcium antagonist for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia Circulation 68 (Suppl III): III–310Google Scholar
  458. DeLeiris J, Richard V, Pestre S (1984) Calcium antagonists and experimental myocardial ischemia and infarction In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 105–115Google Scholar
  459. Ellrodt G, Chew CYC, Singh BN (1980) Therapeutic implications of slow-channel blockade in cardiocirculatory disorders Circulation 62: 669–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. Fazzini PF, Marchi F, Pucci P, Ledda F, Mugelli A (1981) Treatment of „slow response“related premature beats in acute myocardial infarction In: Zanchetti A, Krikler DM (eds) Calcium antagonism in cardiovascular therapy: experience with verapamil Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 337–341Google Scholar
  461. Fleischmann DW (1985) Therapie rezidivierender supraventrikulärer Tachykardien mit Cordichin In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Gülker H, Bender F, Thale J, Heuer H (1982) Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Wirkung intravenöser Einzel- und Kombinationsgaben von Chinidin, Diltiazem und Verapamil auf elektrisch induzierte atriale repetitive Extrasystolen und Vorhofflimmern In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Calciumantagonisten zur Behandlung der Angina pectoris, Hypertonie und Arrhythmie Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 278–286Google Scholar
  463. Gülker H (1985) Antiarrhythmische und antifibrillatorische Substanzeigenschaften herzwirksamer Pharmaka In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Gülker H, Bender F (1985) Therapie von Herz-Arrhythmien mit Calcium-Antagonisten Schwerpunkt med 8: 28–33Google Scholar
  465. Gulamhusein S, Ko P, Carruthers SG, Klein GJ (1982) Acceleration of the ventricular response during atrial Fibrillation in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome after verapamil Circulation 65: 348–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Heuer H, Brisse B, Gülker H, Bender F (1985) Antifibrillatorische Wirkung von Chinidin/Verapamil und Chinidin/Pindolol bei Vorhofflimmern In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 115–123Google Scholar
  467. Hung J, Yeh S, Lin F, Fu M, Wu D (1984) Usefulness of intravenous diltiazem in predicting subsequent electrophysiologic and clinical responses to oral diltiazem Am J Cardiol 54: 1259–1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Klein GJ, Gulamhusein S, Prystowsky EN, Carruthers SG, Donner AP, Ko PT (1982) Comparison of the electrophysiologic effects of intravenous and oral verapamil in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia Am J Cardiol 49: 117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Krikler DM, Rowland E (1980) The role of calcium-ion antagonists in cardiac arrhythmias In: Fleckenstein A, Roskamm H (eds) Calcium-Antagonists Springer Berlin pp 55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Lazzara R, Scherlay B (1980) Treatment of arrhythmias by blocking slow current Ann Intern Med 93: 919–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Lehmann HU, Taegener-Torge C, Witt E, Beck OA, Hochrein H (1979) Antiarrhythmischer Wirkungsvergleich zwischen Gallopamil (D-600) und Verapamil Angiocardiology 2: 103–111Google Scholar
  472. Levin JH, Michael JR, Guarnieri T (1985) Treatment of multifocal atrial tachycardia with verapamil N Engl J Med 312: 21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Lewis R, Lakhani M, Moreland TA, McDevitt DG (1987) A comparison of verapamil and digoxin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation Eur Heart J 8: 148–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G (1977) Herzrhythmusstörungen In: Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Beta-Rezeptoren-Blokker Aesopus Lugano pp 111–122Google Scholar
  475. Maisel AS, Motulsky HJ, Insel PA (1985) Hypotension after quinidine plus verapamil N Engl J Med 312: 167–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Massumi RA, Marin J, Udhoji VN (1986) Verapamil in parasystolic ventricular tachycardia and other wide QRS rhythms Am Heart J 111: 400–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. McGovern B, Garan H, Ruskin JN (1986) Precipitation of cardiac arrest by verapamil in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Ann Intern Med 104: 791–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Neuss H, Golling FR, Schlepper M, Thormann J, Weissmüller P, Kindler M (1984) Regularisierung der Kammerintervalle bei Vorhofflimmern — elektrophysiologische Befunde zum zugrundeliegenden Mechanismus Z Kardiol 73: 106–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Ochs HR, Eichelbaum M (1985) Diltiazem, Verapamil und Chinidin als Mono- und Kombinationstherapie bei chronischem Vorhofflimmern In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Opie LH (1984a) Arrhythmias and antiarrhythmic agents In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 314–337Google Scholar
  481. Opie LH, Thandroyen FT, Muller CA, Hamm CW (1984 a) Calcium channel antagonists as antiarrhythmic agents: contrasting properties of verapamil and diltiazem versus nifedipine In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 303–311Google Scholar
  482. Panidis IP, Morganroth J, Baessler C (1983) Effectiveness and safety of oral verapamil to control exercise-induced tachycardia in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving digitalis. Am J Cardiol 52: 1197–1201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Petri H, Kafka W, Hall D, Rudolph W (1980) Potential acceleration of the ventricular rate in WPW with atrial fibrillation after verapamil Circulation 62 (Suppl III) III–262 (abstract)Google Scholar
  484. Petri M, Kafka W, Hansen W, Rudolf W (1982) Discrepant effect of intravenous and oral verapamil on the ventricular rate in WPW syndrome during atrial fibrillation Circulation 66 (4pt2) 11–270Google Scholar
  485. Rinkenberger RL, Prystowsky EN, Heger JJ, Troup PJ, Jackman WM, Zipes DP (1980) Effects of intravenous and chronic oral verapamil administration in patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias Circulation 62: 996–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Roth A, Harrison E, Mitani G, Cohen J, Rahimtoola SH, Elkayam U (1986) Efficacy and safety of medium- and high-dose diltiazem alone and in combination with digoxin for control of heart rate at rest and during exercise in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation Circulation 73: 316–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Rydén L, Ariniego R, Amman K, Herlitz J, Hjalmarson A, Holmberg S, Reyes C, Smedgard P, Svedberg K, Vedin A, Waagstein F, Waldenström A, Wilhelmsson C, Wedel H, Yamamoto M (1983) A double-blind trial of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 308: 614–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Schamroth L (1971) Immediate effects of intravenous verapamil on atrial fibrillation Cardiovasc Res 5: 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Schamroth L, Krikler DM, Garret C (1972) Immediate effects of intravenous verapamil in cardiac arrhythmias Br Med J 1: 660–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Schlepper M (1985) Antiarrhythmisches Wirkungsprofil von Verapamil und Chinidin In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 27–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Scholz H (1981) Kalziumantagonisten in der Arrhythmiebehandlung In: Lüderitz B (ed) Ventrikuläre Herzrhythmusstörungen Springer Berlin pp 90–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Schwartz JB, Nielsen AP, Griffin JC (1985) Concentration-dependent enhancement of junctional pacemaker activity by verapamil in man Circulation 71: 450–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Singh BN, Vaughan Williams EM (1972) A fourth class of antidysrhythmic action? Effect of verapamil on ouabain toxicity, on atrial and ventricular intra cellular potentials, and on other features of cardiac function Cardiovasc Res 6: 109–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Singh BN, Ellrodt G, Peter CT (1978) Verapamil: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use Drugs 15: 169–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Sperelakis N (1984) Properties of calcium-dependent slow action potentials: their possible role in arrhythmias In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium Antagonists and Cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 277–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Sung RJ, Elser B, McAllister RG (1980) Intravenous verapamil for termination of re-entrant supraventricular tachycardias Ann Intern Med 93: 682–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Theisen K, Scheininger M (1985) Elektrophysiologische Effekte der Kombination Chinidin/ Verapamil auf die AV-Leitung des Menschen In: Bender F, Greeff K (eds) Kombinationstherapie der Herzrhythmusstörungen mit Chinidin und Verapamil Steinkopff Darmstadt pp 47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Tommaso C, McDonough T, Parker M, Talano JV (1983) Atrial fibrillation and flutter: immediate control and conversion with intravenously administered verapamil Arch Intern Med 143: 877–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Trohman RG, Estes DM, Castellanos A, Palomo AR, Myerburg RJ, Kessler KM (1986) Increased Quinidine plasma concentrations during administration of verapamil: a new quinidine-verapamil interaction Am J Cardiol 57: 706–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Waleffe A, Hastir F, Kulbertus HE (1985) Effects of intravenous diltiazem administration in patients with inducible tachycardia Eur Heart J 6: 882–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Walker WS, Winniford MD, Mauritson DR, Johnson SM, Hillis LD (1983) Artrioventricular junctional rhythm in patients receiving oral verapamil therapy JAMA 249: 389–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Waxman HL, Myerburg RJ, Appel R, Sung RJ (1981) Verapamil for control of ventricular rate in paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation or flutter Ann Intern Med 94: 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Yeh SJ, Lin FC, Chou YY, Hung JS, Wu D (1985) Termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with a single oral dose of diltiazem and propranolol Circulation 71: 104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Bajusz E, Lossnitzer K (1968) Ein neues Krankheitsmodell: Erbliche nicht vaskuläre Myokard-degeneration mit Herzinsuffizienz Münch Med Wschr 31: 1756–1768Google Scholar
  505. Baughman KL (1986) Calcium channel blocking agents in congestive heart failure Am J Med 80 (Suppl 2B) 46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Bellocci F, Ansalone G, Santarelli P (1982) Oral nifedipine in the long term management of severe chronic heart failure J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4: 847–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Betocchi S, Cannon RO III, Watson RM, Bonow RO, Ostrow HG, Epstein SE, Rosing DR (1985) Effects of sublingual nifedipine on haemodynamics and systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 72: 1001–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Bonow RO, Rosing DR, Bacharach SL, Green MV, Kent KM, Lipson LC, Maron BJ, Leon MB, Epstein SE (1981) Effects of verapamil on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 64: 787–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Bonow RO, Ostrow HG, Rosing DR, Cannon RO III, Lipson LC, Maron BJ, Kent KM, Bacharach SL, Green MV (1983) Effects of verapamil on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: pressure-volume analysis with a nonimagging scintillation probe Circulation 68: 1062–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Bonow RO, Dilsizian V, Rosing DR, Maron BJ, Bacharach SL, Green MV (1985) Verapamil-in-duced improvement in left ventricular diastolic filling and increased exercise tolerance in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: short- and long-term effects Circulation 72: 853–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents N Engl J Med 307:1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Chatterjee K, Raff G, Anderson D, Parmley WW (1982) Hyertrophic cardiomyopathy — therapy with slow channel inhibiting agents Prog Cardiovasc Dis 25: 193–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Engelmeier RS, O’Connel JB, Walsh R, Rad N, Scanlon PJ, Gunnar RM (1985) Improvement in symptons and exercise tolerance by metoprolol in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial Circulation 72: 536–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. Epstein SE, Rosing DR (1981) Verapamil: its potential for causing serious complications in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 64: 437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Figulla HR, Kreuzer H, Luig H (1986) Verapamil, Diltiazem oder Nifedipin bei schwerer linksventrikulärer Funktionsstörung? Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 11–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Fleckenstein A (1971) Specific inhibitors and promotors of calcium action in the excitation-contraction coupling of heart muscle and their role in the prevention or production of myocardial lesions In: Harris P, Opie L (eds) Calcium and the heart Academic Press London pp 135–188Google Scholar
  517. Fleckenstein A, Janke J, Döring HJ, Leder O (1971) Die intrazelluläre Überladung mit Kalzium als entscheidender Kausalfaktor bei der Entstehung nicht-coronarogener Myokard-Nekrosen Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 37: 345–353Google Scholar
  518. Goodwin JF, Oakley CM (1972) The cardiomyopathies Br Heart J 34: 545–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. Goodwin JF (1974) Prospects and predictions for the cardiomyopathies Circulation 50: 210–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Goodwin JF, Krikler DM (1976) Arrhythmia as a cause of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Lancet II: 937–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Hall D, Froer KL, Kraus F, Stautner C, Rudolph W (1986) Effects of nifedipine in congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy: A randomized,doubleblind, cross-over study In: Bussmann WD, Just H (eds) Vasoaktive Substanzen bei Herzinsuffizienz Springer Berlin pp 160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Hanrath P, Mathey DG, Kremer P, Sonntag F, Bleifeld W (1980) Effect of verapamil on left ventricular relaxation time and regional left ventricular filling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Am J Cardiol 45: 1258–1264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Hess OM (1986a) Diagnostik der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 219–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Hess OM (1986b) Therapie der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 222–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Johnson RA, Palacios I (1982) Dilated cardiomyopathies of the adult N Engl J Med 307: 1051–1058/1119–1126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Kaltenbach M, Hopf R, Keller M (1976) Calciumantagonistische Therapie bei hypertroph-obstruktiver Kardiomyopathie Dtsch Med Wschr 101: 1284–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. Kaltenbach M, Hopf R (1984) Langzeitbehandlung der hypertrophischen Myokardiopathie mit Calcium-Antagonisten In: Althaus U, Burckhard D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus-Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 276–288Google Scholar
  528. Klugmann S, Fioretti P, Salvi A, Camerini F (1980) Afterload reducing agents in congestive cardiomyopathiy; a study with a calcium antagonist drug: nifedipine Eur Heart J 1 (Suppl B): 49–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Klugmann S, Salvi A, Camerini F (1983) Calcium antagonists in heart failure Herz 8: 88–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. Kowey PR, Eisenberg R, Engel TR (1984) Sustained arrhythmias in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy N Engl J Med 310: 1566–1569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. Krayenbühl HP, Hess OM, Senn M, Ritter M (1984) Wirkungen von Calcium-Antagonisten auf die linksventrikuläre diastolische Funktion bei hypertrophischer Kardiomyopathie In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Calcium-Antagonism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 266–275Google Scholar
  532. Landmark K, Siré S, Thaulow E, Amlie JP, Nitter-Hauge S (1982) Hemodynamic effects of nifedipine and propranolol in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Br Heart J 48: 19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Landmark K, Sire S, Thaulow E, Amlie JP, Nitter-Hauge S (1983) Acute influences of nifedipine, propranolol and the combined administration of the two drugs on heamodynamics in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 81–90Google Scholar
  534. Loogen F, Kuhn H (1977) Classification and natural history of primary cardiomyopathies In: Riecker G, Weber, Goodwin JF (eds) Myocardial failure Springer Berlin pp 232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. Lorell BH (1985) Use of calcium channel blockers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Am J Med 78 (Suppl2B): 43–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Lossnitzer K, Konrad A, Jakob M (1980) Kardioprotektion durch Kalziumantagonisten bei erblich kardiomyopathischen Hamstern In: Fleckenstein A, Roskamm H (eds) Calcium-An-tagonismus Springer Berlin pp 151–171Google Scholar
  537. Lydtin H, Lohmöller G (1977) Kardiomyopathien In: Lydtin H, Lohmöller G, Beta-Recep-toren-Blocker Aesopus Lugano pp 123–131Google Scholar
  538. Magorien RD, Leier CV, Kolibash AJ, Barbush TJ, Unverferth DV (1984) Beneficial effects of nifedipine on rest and exercise myocardial energetics in patients with congestive heart failure Circulation 70: 884–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Maron BJ, Bonow RO, Cannon RO, Leon MB, Epstein SE (1987) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Interrelations of clinical manifestations, Pathophysiology, and therapy N Engl J Med 316: 780–789 undPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Maron BJ, Bonow RO, Cannon RO, Leon MB, Epstein SE (1987) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Interrelations of clinical manifestations, Pathophysiology, and therapy N Engl J Med 316: 844–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Miller AB, Conetta DA, Bass TA (1985) Sublingual nifedipine: acute effects in severe chronic congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Am J Cardiol 55: 1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Rosing DR, Kent KM, Borer JS, Seides SF, Maron BJ, Epstein SE (1979 a) Verapamil therapy: a new approach to the pharmologic treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy I. Hemodynamic effects Circulation 60: 1201–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. Rosing DR, Kent KM, Maron BJ, Epstein SE (1979 b) Verapamil therapy: a new approach to the pharmacologic treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy II. Effects on exercise capacity and symptomatic status Circulation 60: 1208–1213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Rosing DR, Condit JR, Maron BJ, Kent KM, Leon MB, Bonow RO, Lipson LC, Epstein SE (1981) Verapamil therapy: a new approach to the pharmologic treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Effects of long-term administration Am J Cardiol 43: 545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. Rosing DR, Epstein SE (1982) Verapamil in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Ann Intern Med 96: 670–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Rosing DR, Cannon RO, Watson RM (1982) Comparsion of verapamil and nifedipine effects on symptoms and exercise capacity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 66 (Suppl II): 11–24Google Scholar
  547. Rosing DR, Idänpään-Heikkilä U, Maron BJ, Bonow RO Epstein SE (1985) Use of calcium-channel blocking drugs in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Am J Cardiol 55 (Suppl): 185B–195BPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Rouleau JL, Chuck LHS, Hollosi G, Kidd P, Sievers RE, Wikman-Coffelt J, Parmley WW (1982) Verapamil preserves myocardial contractility in the hereditary cardiomyopathy of the Syrian hamster Circ Res 50: 405–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  549. Spicer RL, Rocchini AP, Crowley DC, Vasiliades J, Rosenthal A (1983) Hemodynamic effects of verapamil in children and adolescents with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 67: 413–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Suwa M, Hirota Y, Kawamura K (1984) Improvement in LV diastolic function during intravenous and oral diltiazem therapy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an echocardiographic study Am J Cardiol 54: 1047–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Ten Cate FJ, Serruys PW, Mey S, Roelandt J (1983) Effects of short-term administration of verapamil on left ventricular relaxation and filling dynamics measured by a combined hemodynamic-ultrasonic technique in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Circulation 68: 1279–1283Google Scholar
  552. Waagstein F, Hjalmarson A, Varnauskas E, Wallentin I (1975) Effect of chronic beta adrenergic blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy Br Heart J 37: 1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Wessel A, Seiffert P, Dettmann R, Heintzen PH (1987) Verapamil-induced ventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Eur Heart J 8: 313–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. Wigle ED (1987) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a 1987 viewpoint Circulation 75: 311–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Wynne J, Braunwald E The cardiomyopathies and myocarditides In: Braunwald (ed) The Heart — a textbook of cardiovascular disease Saunders Philadelphia pp 1399–1446Google Scholar
  556. Boldt J, v Bormann B, Hempelmann G (1986) Koronarchirurgische Eingriffe — Steuerung des Blutdrucks durch intravenöse Adalat-Infusionen In: Adalat parenteral Bayer Levekusen pp 105–113Google Scholar
  557. Braunwald E (1982) Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents N Engl J Med 307: 1618–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. Braunwald E, Colucci WS (1984) Vasodilator therapy of heart failure N Engl J Med 310: 459–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Bussmann WD (1984) Akute und chronische Herzinsuffizienz Springer BerlinGoogle Scholar
  560. Bussmann WD, Kaltenbach M (1987) Ballondilatation von Herzkranzgefäßen und Herzklappen: Ergebnisse und neuere Entwicklungen Intensivmed 24: 115–119Google Scholar
  561. Clark RE, Christlieb IY, Ferguson TB (1981) The first american clinical trial of nifedipine in cardioplegia: a report of the first 12 month experience J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 82: 848–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Clark RE, Magovern GJ, Christlieb IY, Boe S (1983) Nifedipine cardioplegia experience: results of a 3-year cooperative clinical study Ann Thorac Surg 36: 654–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Clark RE, Christlieb IY, Clark BK (1986) The use of nifedipine in cardioplegic solutions for high-risk surgical patients In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 406–413Google Scholar
  564. Cohn JN, Franciosa JA (1977) Vasodilator therapy of cardiac failure N Engl J Med 297: 27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. Cohn JN, Archibald DG, Phil M, Ziesche S, Franciosa JA, Harston WE, Tristani FE, Dunkman WB, Jacobs W, Francis GS, Flohr KH, Goldman S, Cobb FR, Shah PM, Saunders R, Fletcher RD, Loeb HS, Hughes VC, Baker B (1986) Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure N Engl J Med 314: 1547–1552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Colucci WS, Fifer MA, Lorell BH, Wynne J (1985) Calcium channel blockers in congestive heart failure: theoretic considerations and clinical experience Am J Med 78 (Suppl 2B): 9–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. CONSENSUS Trial Study Group (1987) Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 316: 1429–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Cowley AJ, Stainer K, Wynne RD, Rowley JM, Hampton JR (1986) Symptomatic assessment of patients with heart failure: double-blind comparison of increasing doses of diuretics and Captopril in moderate heart failure Lancet 2: 770–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Donegani E, Costa P, DePaulis R, di Summa M, Poletti GA, Pignatelli MG, Verdecchia C, Morea M (1986) Myocardial protection by perioperative diltiazem drip: a clinical evaluation Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 34: 168–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Elert O (1983) Myocardial protection with nifedipine in open heart surgery In: Kaltenbach M, Neufeld HN (eds) 5th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 100–106Google Scholar
  571. Elkayam U, Weber L, Torkan B, Berman D, Rahimtoola SH (1983) Acute hemodynamic effect of oral nifedipine in severe chronic congestive heart failure Am J Cardiol 52: 1041–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. Elkayam U, Weber L McKay CR, Rahimtoola SH (1984 a) Differences in hemodynamic response to vasodilation due to calcium channel antagonism with nifedipine and direct-acting agonism with hydralazine in chronic refractory congestive heart failure Am J Cardiol 54: 126–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Elkayam U, Weber L, Torkan B, McKay CR, Rahimtoola SH (1984 b) Comparison of hemodynamic responses to nifedipine and nitroprusside in severe chronic congestive heart failure Am J Cardiol 53: 1321–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. Ellis WW, Baer AN, Robertson RM, Pincus T, Kronrnberg MW (1986) Left ventricular dysfunction induced by cold exposure in patients with systemic sclerosis Am J Med 80: 385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. Erbel R (1986) Perkutane transluminale koronare Angioplastie — Verbesserung der Ischämietoleranz durch Adalat intrakoronar In: Adalat parenteral Bayer Leverkusen pp 52–55Google Scholar
  576. Feder E, Lydtin H (1983) Therapie der chronischen Herzmuskelinsuffizienz: Stimulation und/ oder Entlastung? Med Klin 78: 110–116Google Scholar
  577. Fifer MA, Lorell BH, Jaski BE, Wright RF, Barry WH, Colucci WS (1986) Nifedipine and milrinone: vasodilators with negative and positive inotropic effects in the treatment of heart failure In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 124–132Google Scholar
  578. Fioretti P, Benussi B, Scardi S, Klugmann S, Brower RW, Camerini F (1982) Afterload reduction with nifedipine in aortic insifficiency Am J Cardiol 49: 1728–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Flameng W, Borgers M, Van der Vusse GJ, Demeyere R, Vandermeersch E, Thoné F, Suy R (1983) Cardioprotective effects of lidoflazine in extensive aorta-coronary bypass grafting J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 85: 758–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. Flameng W, Stalpaert G (1986) Herzoperation — Myokardschutz durch Adalat intrakoronar In: Adalat parenteral Bayer Leverkusen pp 62–66Google Scholar
  581. Greenberg BH, Rahimtoola SH (1980) Long-term vasodilator therapy in aortic insuffizienz Ann Intern Med 93: 440–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. Hall D, Froer KL, Kraus F, Stautner C, Rudolph W (1986) Effects of nifedipine in congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study In: Bussmann WD, Just H (eds) Vasoaktive Substanzen bei Herzinsuffizienz Springer Berlin pp 160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Hanrath P, Kremer O (1983) Acute effects of nifedipine on left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in patients with left ventricular dysfunction In: Just H, Bussmann WD (eds) Vasodilators in chronic heart failure Springer Berlin pp 154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Hempelmann G (1982) Prämedikatien, Anästhesie und postoperative Phase bei Hypertonikern und Patienten mit koronarer Herzerkrankung Med Welt 33: 739–745Google Scholar
  585. Henry PD, Clark RE, Williamson JR (1980) Protektion of the globally ischemic heart with calciumantagonists: improved recovery after cardiopulmonary Bypass In: Fleckenstein A, Roskamm H (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus Springer Berlin pp 181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. Hess OM (1986) Therapie der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 222–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Hicks Jr GL, Salley RK, De Weese JA (1984) Calcium channel blockers: an intraoperative and postoperative trial in women Ann Thorac Surg 37: 654–663Google Scholar
  588. Kahan A, Devaux JY, Amor B, Menkés CJ, Weber S, Nitenberg A, Venot A, Guérin F, Degeorges M, Roucayrol JC (1986) Nifedipine and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis N Engl J Med 314: 1400–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. Kaplan AV, Guffin AV, Jones EL, Kates R, Holbrook GW (1984) Verapamil und Strukturerhaltung des Myokards bei Patienten mit koronarer Bypassoperationen In: Althaus U, Burckhardt D, Vogt E (eds) Calcium-Antagonismus — Internat. Symposium on Galcium-Antago-nism Universimed Frankfurt/Main pp 242–253Google Scholar
  590. Klepzig M, Strauer BE (1985) Nisoldipin bei Herzinsuffizienz? Z Kardiol 74 (Suppl 3): 8Google Scholar
  591. Leier CV, Patrick TJ, Hermiller J, Dalpiaz Pacht K, Huss P, Magorien RD, Unverferth DV (1984) Nifedipine in congestive heart failure: effects on resting and exercise hemodynamics and regional blood flow Am Heart J 108: 1461–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. Le Roy EC (1984) The heart in systemic sclerosis N Engl J Med 310: 188–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. Mason DT (1978) Afterload reduction and cardiac performance physiologic basis of systemic vasodilators as a new approach in treatment of congestive heart failure Am J Med 65: 106–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. Materne P, Legrand V, Vandormael M, Collignon P, Kulbertus HE (1984) Hemodynamic effects of intravenous diltiazem with impaired left ventricular function Am J Cardiol 54: 733–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. Meyer J (1986) Fortschritte in der invasiven Diagnostik und Therapie der koronaren Herzkrankheit In: Adalat parenteral Bayer Lverkusen pp 39–46Google Scholar
  596. Olivari MT, Levine TB, Cohn JN (1984) Acute hemodynamic effects of nitrendipine in chronic congestive heart failure J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (Suppl 7): 1002–1005Google Scholar
  597. Opie LH (1984a) Congestive heart failure In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 301–313Google Scholar
  598. Opie LH (1984b) Valvular heart disease and cardiomyopathy In: Opie LH (ed) The Heart Grune & Stratton London pp 287–300Google Scholar
  599. Polese A, Florentini C, Olivari MT, Guazzi MD (1979) Clinical use of a calcium antagonistic agent (Nifedipine) in acute pulmonary edema Am J Med 66: 825–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Rameis H, Magometschnigg D (1982) Verapamil: an alternative therapy in hyperkinetic heart syndrome (HHS) — a comparison with Oxprenolol In: Intern. Symposium on calcium modulators Venedig: pp 28Google Scholar
  601. Serruys PW, van den Brand M, Brower RW, Hugenholtz PG (1983) Regional cardioplegia and cardioprotection during transluminal angioplasty, which role for nifedipine? Eur Heart J 4 (Suppl C): 115–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Shen WF, Roubin GS, Hirasawa K, Uren RF, Hutton BF, Harris PJ Fletcher PJ, Kelly DT (1984 a) Abnormal left ventricular response to isometric exercise in pure, isolated aortic regurgitation: beneficai effects of nifedipine Am J Cardiol 54: 605–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Shen WF, Roubin GS, Hirasawa K, Uren RF, Hutton BF, Harris PJ Fletcher PJ, Kelly DT (1984 b) Noninvasive assessment of acute effects of nifedipine on rest and exercise hemodynamics and cardiac function in patients with aortic regurgitation J Am Coll Cardiol 4: 902–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. Shen WF, Roubin GS, Choong CYP, French P, Harris PJ, Fletcher PJ, Kelly DT (1986) Favourable effects of chronic nifedipine therapy on left ventricular response to exercise in chronic aortic regurgitation In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 110–115Google Scholar
  605. Tarnow J (1984) Koronarchirurgische Eingriffe — Steuerung des Blutdrucks durch intravenöse Adalat-Infusionen In: Adalat parenteral Bayer Leverkusen pp 114–117Google Scholar
  606. Timmis AD, Jewitt DE (1985) Studies with felodipine in congestive heart failure Drugs 29 (Suppl 2): 66–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. Tkaczewski W, Goch JH, Wichan P, Kowalski J (1980) Ergometric test in subjects with sympathicotonus after administration of propranolol, pindolol and oxazepam Pol Tyg Lek 35: 867–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  608. Vouhé PR, Loisance DY, Aubry P, Piszker G, Cazor JL, Cachera JP (1985) Double-blind evaluation of the intraoperative use of diltiazem during coronary artery surgery In: Just H, Schröder JS (eds) Advances in clinical applications of calcium antagonist drugs Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 91–104Google Scholar
  609. Walsh RW, Porter CB, Starling MR, O’Rourke RA (1984) Beneficial hemodynamic effects of intravenous and oral diltiazem in severe congestive heart failure J Am Coll Cardiol 3: 1044–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Weiss S, Stead EA, Warren JV, Bailey OT (1943) Scleroderma heart disease with a consideration of certain other visceral manifestations of scleroderma Arch Intern Med 71: 749–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. Wilson RS, Crawford MH, Starling MR, Chaudhuri TK, O’Rourke RA (1984) Improvement in left ventricular function with digoxin but not nifedipine in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation Circulation 70 (Suppl 2): 11–144Google Scholar
  612. Zähringer J, Schultheiß HP (1986) Therapie der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz mit Vasodilatantien Internist 27: 315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  613. Amman K, Ryden L, Smedgard P, Thorhallsson E (1984) Felodipine in primary pulmonary hypertension: report of two cases Acta Med Scand 215: 275–280Google Scholar
  614. Bucca C, Scalvo M, Rolla G, Borello G, Polizzi S (1982) Verapamil versus oxygen in pulmonary hypertension complicating chronic obstructive lung diseases Bull Physio-path resp 18 (Supp 4): 87–93Google Scholar
  615. Camerini F, Alberti E Klugmann S, Salvi A (1980) Primary pulmonary hypertension: effects of nifedipine Br Heart J 44: 352–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Craeger MA, Pariser KM, Winston EM, Rasmussen HM, Miller KB Coffman JD (1984) Nifedipine — induced fingertip vasodilation in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon Am Heart J 108: 370–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. Creutzig A, Alexander K (1985) Ergotismus Dtsch Med Wschr 110: 1420–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Crevey BJ, Danitzker DR, Bower JS, Popat KD, Walker SD (1982) Hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of intravenous diltiazem in patients with pulmonary hypertension Am J Cardiol 49: 578–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Diem C, Müller-Brühl U, Mörl H (1983) Neue Aspekte der Pharmakotherapie des Raynaud-Phänomens Med Klin Prax 78: 33–37 uGoogle Scholar
  620. Diem C, Müller-Brühl U, Mörl H (1983) Neue Aspekte der Pharmakotherapie des Raynaud-Phänomens Med Klin Prax 78: 55Google Scholar
  621. Gaßner A, Pichler M, Fridrich L, Sykora J, Tizek H, Lenz K (1983) Einfluß von Nifedipin auf die Hämodynamik bei präkapillärer pulmonaler Hypertension in Ruhe und unter Belastung Dtsch Med Wschr 108: 1790–1794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Kahan A, Weber S, Amor B, Saporta L, Hodara M (1981) Nifedipine and Raynaud’s phenomenon Ann Intern Med 94: 546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  623. Kahan A, Foult JM, Weber S, Amor B, Menkes CJ, Degeorges M (1985) Nifedipine and alpha 1-adrenergic blockade in Raynaud’s phenomenon Eur Heart J 6: 702–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  624. Kambara H, Fujimoto K, Wakabayasli A, Kawai C (1981) Primary pulmonary hypertension: beneficial therapy with diltiazem Am Heart J 101: 230–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  625. Kauffmann GW, Friedburg H, Anger P, Rückauer K (1982) Diagnose, Differentialdiagnose und Behandlung der sogenannten „non-occlusive disease“ Chirurg 53: 641–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  626. Kennedy TP, Micheal JR, Summer W (1985) Calcium channel blockers in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension Am J Med 78 (Suppl 2B): 18–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  627. Klugmann S, Salvi A, Camerini F (1983) Calcium antagonists in haert failure Herz 8: 88–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  628. Krebs R (1984) Calcium antagonists: new vistas in theoretical basis and clinical use In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium antagonists and cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 347–357Google Scholar
  629. Landmark K, Refsun AM, Simonsen S, Storstein O (1978) Verapamil and pulmonary hypertension Acta Med Scand 204: 299–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. Lazarus RJ, Onor A, Hameed K (1983) Nifedipine and a diabetic ulcer Ann Intern Med 98: 414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. Malamet R, Wise RA, Ettinger WH, Wigley FM (1985) Nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon Am J Med 78: 602–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Matoba T, Ogata M, Kuwahara H (1982) Diltiazem and Raynaud’s Syndrome Ann Intern Med 97: 455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  633. McMurtry IF, Davidson AB, Reeves JT, Grover RF (1976) Inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by calcium antagonist in isolated rat lungs Circ Res 38: 99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  634. Melot C, Hallemans R, Naeije R, Mols P, Lejeune P (1984) Deleterious effect of nifedipine on pulmonary gas exchange in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 612–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  635. Miller D, Waters DD, Warnica W, Szlachcic J, Kreeft J, Théroux P (1981) Is variant angina the coronary manifestation of a generalized vasospastic disorder? N Engl J Med 304: 763–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Müller-Brühl U (1985) Raynaud-Syndrom Behandlung mit Kalzium-Antagonisten Münch Med Wschr 127: 1033–1034Google Scholar
  637. Packer M, Medina N, Yushak M (1984) Adverse hemodynamic and clinical effects of calcium channel blockade in pulmonary hypertension secondary to obliterativ pulmonary vascular disease J Am Coll Cardiol 4: 890–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. Packer M (1985) Vasodilator thérapie for primary pulmonary hypertension Ann Intern Med 103: 258–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  639. Rich S, Brundage BH, Levy PS (1985) The effect of vasodilator on the clinical outcome of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension Circulation 71: 1191–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. Rodeheffer RJ, Rommer JA, Wigley F, Smith CR (1983) Controlled double-blind trial of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon N Engl J Med 308: 880–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. Roeckaerts F, Vanden Bussche G (1980) Double-blind placebo-controlled studies with flunarazine in venous insufficiency Angiology 31: 833–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  642. Ross J (1983) Vascular disease of the lung: primary pulmonary hypertension In: Harrison’s Principles of internal Med McGraw Hill New York pp 1559–1561Google Scholar
  643. Rubin LJ, Nicod P, Hillis LD, Firth BG (1983) Treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with nifedipine Ann Intern Med 99: 433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  644. Singh H, Ebejer M J, Higgins DA, Henderson AH, Campbell IA (1986) Chronic cor pulmonale. Acute haemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of nifedipine at rest and on maximal exercise In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 537–542Google Scholar
  645. Smith CD, McKendry RJR (1982) Controlled trial of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon Lancet 2: 1299–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  646. Smith CR, Rodeheffer RJ (1985) Treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon with calcium channel blockers Am J Med 78 (Suppl 2B): 39–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  647. Solti F, Iskum M, Szabó Z, Czakó E (1978) Die Wirkung des Ca++-Antagonisten Isoptin auf die periphere Durchblutung bei oblitierenden Angiopathien Therapiewoche 28: 5993–5994Google Scholar
  648. Vayssairat M, Capron L, Fiessinger JN, Mathieu JF, Housset E (1981) Calcium channel blokkers and Raynaud’s disease Ann Intern Med 95: 243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  649. White CJ, Phillips WA, Abrahams LA, Watson TD, Singleton PT (1986) Objective benefit of nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud’s phenomenon Am J Med 80: 623–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  650. Ad Hoc Committee on Classification of Headache (1962) Classification of Headache JAMA 179: 717–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  651. Amery WK, Wauquier A, van Nueten JM, de Clerck F, van Reempts JV, Janssen PAJ (1981) The anti-migrainous pharmacology of flunarizine (R 14 950), a calcium antagonist Drugs Exptl Clin Res 7: 1–10Google Scholar
  652. Amery WK (1983) Flunarizine, a calcium-channel blocker: A new prophylactic drug in migraine Headache 23: 70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  653. Anthony M (1984) Was ist Migräne? Münch Med Wschr 126: 1131–1134Google Scholar
  654. Anthony M (1985) Der Einsatz von Betablockern in der Migränebehandlung. Eine Übersicht In: Pfaffenrath V, Sjaastad O, Carroll JD (eds) Migräne und Betablockade Banaschewski München-Gräfelfing pp 70–80Google Scholar
  655. Baar HA (1985) Therapie der Migräne Nervenheilkunde 4: 175–178Google Scholar
  656. Bille B (1984) Migräne bei Kindern Münch Med Wschr 126: 1149–1151Google Scholar
  657. Blau JN (1984) Towards a definition of migraine headache Lancet 1: 444–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  658. Bonuso S, di Stasio E, Marano E, Sorge F, Leo A (1986) Sublingual flunarizine: a new effective management of the migraine attack. A comparison versus ergotamine Headache 26: 227–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  659. Cears LJ (1983) Kalziumblocker bei der Behandlung gewöhnlicher und klassischer Migräne In: Soyka D (ed) Migräne Pathogenese-Pharmakologie Therapie Enke Stuttgart pp 141–153Google Scholar
  660. Chouza C, Scaramelli A, Coamano JL, de Medina O, Aljanati R, Romero S (1986) Parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia,akathisia and depression induced by flunarizine Lancet I: 1303–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  661. Clincke GHC, Wauquier A (1982) Protective effects of flunarizine versus verapamil on water intake attenuated by normobaric hypoxia In: Wauquier A et al. (eds) Protection of tissues against hypoxia Elsevier Biomedical Press Amsterdam pp 287–290Google Scholar
  662. Clincke GHC, Wauquier A (1984) Pharmalogical protection against hypoxia-induced effects on medium-term memory in a two-way avoidance paradigm Behavioural Brain Research 14: 139–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Drillisch C, Girke W (1980) Ergebnisse der Behandlung von Migräne-Patienten mit Cinnarizin und Flunarizin Med Welt 31: 1870–1872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  664. Dubinsky B, Sierchio JN, Temple DE, Ritchie DM (1984) Flunarizine and verapamil: effects on central nervous system and peripheral consequences of cytotoxic hypoxia in rats Life Sciences 34: 1299–1306Google Scholar
  665. Fagius J, Sundlöf G, Wallin BG (1985) Die Sympathikusaktivität der muskelversorgenden Nerven (SAMN) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Betablockade und Migräne In: Pfaffenrath V, Sjaastad O, Carroll JD (eds) Migräne und Betablockade Banaschewski München-Gräfelfing pp 62–69Google Scholar
  666. Frenken CWGM (1984) Flunarizine, a new preventive approach to migraine. A double-blind comparison with placebo Clin Neurol Neurosurg 86: 17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  667. Gelmers HJ (1983) Nimodipine, a new calcium antagonist in the prophylactic treatment of migraine Headache 23: 106–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  668. Gelmers H J (1985) Calcium channel blockers in the treatment of migraine Am J Cardiol 55: 139B–143BPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  669. Grant ECG (1979) Food allergies and migraine Lancet 1: 966–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Grötz J (1985) Migräne In: Hossmann V, Grötz J, Schrör R (eds) Kalziumantagonisten und zerebrale Erkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 117–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  671. Hockaday JM (1984) Behandlung der Migräne im Kindesalter Münch Med Wschr 126: 1152–1153Google Scholar
  672. Holmes B, Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS (1984) Flunarizine- a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmaco-kinetic properties and therapeutic use Drugs 27: 6–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Kahan A, Weber S, Amor B, Guerin F, Degeorges M (1983) Nifedipine in the treatment of migraine in patients with Raynaud’s phenomen N Engl J Med 308: 1102–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  674. Karasawa A, Kumada Y, Yamada K, Shato K, Nakamizo N (1982) Protective effect of flunarizine against cerebral hypoxiaanoxia in mice and rats J Pharm Dyn 5: 295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  675. Lauritzen M, Jorgensen MB, Diemer NH, Gjedde A, Hansen AJ (1982) Persistent oligemia of rat cerebral cortex in the wake of spreading depression Ann Neurol 12: 469–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Leao AAP (1944) Spreading depression of activity in cerebral cortex J Neurophysiol 7: 359–390Google Scholar
  677. Louis P (1981) A double-blind placebo-controlled prophylactic study of flunarizine (Sibelium) in migraine Headache 21: 235–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  678. Louis P, Spierings ELH (1982) Comparison of flunarizine (Sibelium) and pizotifen (Sandomigran) in migraine treatment. A double-blind study Cephalalgia 2: 197–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  679. Markley HG, Cheronis JCD, Piepho RW (1984) Verapamil in prophylactic therapy of migraine Neurology 34: 973–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  680. Meyer JS (1985) Calcium channel blockers in the prophylactic treatment of vascular headache Ann Intern Med 102:395–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  681. Miller FW, Santoro TJ (1984) Nifedipine in the treatment of migraine headache and amaurosis fugax in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus N Engl J Med 311: 921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  682. Van Nueten JM, Vanhoutte PM (1981) Calcium entry blockers and vasospasm In: Vanhoutte PM, Keusen I (eds) Vasodilatation Raven Press New York pp 459–468Google Scholar
  683. Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P, Henriksen L, Larsen B (1981) The common migraine attack may not be initiated by cerebral ischaemia Lancet 2: 438–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  684. Olesen J, Lauritzen M (1984) Vaskuläre Aspekte in der Pathophysiologie der Migräne Münch Med Wschr 126: 1135–1137Google Scholar
  685. Paulson GW (1980) Migraine headaches in children Pediatr Nurs 6: 41–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  686. Rascol A, Montastruc JL, Rascol O (1986) Flunarizine versus pizotifen: a double-blind study in the prophylaxis of migraine Headache 26: 83–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  687. Salier R, Berger T, Hellenbrecht D (1982) Behandlung chronischer Kopfschmerzen Der informierte Arzt 3: 33–38Google Scholar
  688. Sicuteri F, Testi A, Anselm B (1961) Biochemical investigation in headache: increase in hydroxyindolacetic acid excretion during migraine attacks Int Arch Allergy 19: 55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  689. Smith R, Schwartz PHD (1984) Diltiazem prophylaxis in refractory migraine N Engl J Med 310: 327–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  690. Solomon GD, Steel JG, Spaccavento LJ (1983) Verapamil prophylaxis of migraine JAMA 250: 500–2502Google Scholar
  691. Sorge F, Marano E (1985) Flunarizine versus placebo in childhood migraine. A double-blind tudy Cephalalgia Suppl 2: 145–148Google Scholar
  692. Soyka D (1978) Entstehungsbedingungen der Migräne Dtsch Med Wschr 103: 1342–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  693. Soyka D (1985a) Hypothesen der Migräneentstehung Nervenheilkunde 4: 167–174Google Scholar
  694. Soyka D (1985b) Beta-Rezeptorenblocker bei Migräne Dtsch Med Wschr 110: 185–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  695. Tolu E, Mameli O, Caria MA, Melis F, Anania V, Desole MS (1983) Protective effects of a ++-antagonist agents on the cerebral electrical activity during anoxia in the rat Pharmacological Research Communications 15: 833–842Google Scholar
  696. Van Reempts J, Borgers M, van Dael L, van Eyndhoven J, van de Ven M (1983) Protection with lunarizine against hypoxic-ischaemic damage of the rat cerebral cortex: A quantitative orphologic assessment Arch int Pharmacodyn 262: 76–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Wauquier A (1982) Brain properties of etomidate and flunarizine J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol 2 Suppl 1: S53-S56Google Scholar
  698. Wauquier A, van Nueten JM, Ashton D (1984) Die Wirkung von Flunarizin bei tierexperimentellen Ischämie-und Hypoxieversuchen Therapiewoche 34: 5642–5658Google Scholar
  699. Wauquier A, Clincke G, Ashton D, Edmonds HL (1984) Protective and resuscitative properties of flunarizine In: Carciagli F, Giacobini E, Paoletti R (eds) Developmental neuroscience: physiological-pharmacological and clinical aspects Elsevier Science Publishers B V pp 119–127Google Scholar
  700. Werder DS, Sorgent JD (1984) A study of childhood headache using biofeedback as a treatment alternative Headache 24: 122–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  701. White BC, Gadzinski DS, Hoehner PJ, Krome C, Hoehner T, White JD, Trombley JH (1982) Effect of flunarizine on canine cerebral cortical blood flow and vascular resistance post cardiac arrest Ann Emergency Med 11: 119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  702. Wolff HG (1963) Headache and other head pain Oxford University Press New YorkGoogle Scholar
  703. Allen GS, Gross CJ, French LA, Chou SN (1976) Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 5. In vitro contractile activity of vasoactive agents including human CSF on human basilar and anterior cerebral arteries J Neuro Surg 44: 594–600Google Scholar
  704. Allen GS, Bahr AL (1979) Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 10. Reversal of acute and chronic spasm in dogs with orally administered nifedipine Neurosurgery 4: 43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  705. Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ, Battye R, Boone SC, Chou SN, Kelly DL, Weir BK, Crabbe RA, Lavik PJ, Rosenbloom SB, Dorsey FC, Ingram CR, Mellits DE, Bertsch LA, Boisvert DPJ, Hundley MB, Johnson RK, Strom JA, Transou CR (1983) Cerebral arterial spasm-a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage N Engl J Med 308: 619–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  706. Allen GS (1985 a) Role of calcium antagonists in cerebral arterial spasm Am J Cardiol 55: 149 B–153 BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  707. Allen GS (1985 b) Cerebral arterial spasm — controlled trials of nimodipine in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds): Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 397–407Google Scholar
  708. Auer LM, Reulen HJ, Gilsbach J, Oppel F, Gröger U, Harders A (1985) Prevention of brain infarction from arterial spasm by acute aneurysmal surgery and preventive nimodipine treatment in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds): Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 739–407Google Scholar
  709. Bell BA, Kendall BE, Symon L (1980) Computerized tomography in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43: 522–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  710. Editorial Lancet (1983) Calcium antagonists and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage Lancet 2: 141–143Google Scholar
  711. Fisher CM, Roberson GH, Ojemann RG (1977) Cerebral vasospasm with ruptured saccular aneurysm the clinical manifestations Neurosurgery 1: 245–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  712. Glossmann H, Goll A, Rombusch M, Ferry DR (1985) Molecular pharmacology of Ca++-channels: receptor binding studies In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 57–73Google Scholar
  713. Grossmann W, Beck O, Gerstenbrand F, Paal G, Rumpl E, Voth D (1984) Doppelblinduntersu-chung über den prophylaktischen Einsatz eines Kalziumantagonisten (Verapamil) gegen Vasospasmen nach Subarachnoidalblutung (vorläufige Ergebnisse) In: Grossmann W (ed) Symposium „Der zerebrale Angiospasmus“ 4.–6. Okt Mainz 1983 de Gruyter Berlin pp 501–507Google Scholar
  714. Hossmann V (1985) Subarachnoidalblutung In: Hossmann V, Grötz J, Schrör K (eds) Kalziumantagonisten und zerebrale Erkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 41–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  715. Hunt WE, Hess RM (1968) Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms J Neurosurg 28: 14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  716. Janis RA, Bellemann P, Sarmiento JG, Triggle DJ (1985) The dihydropyridine receptors In: Fleckenstein A, van Breemen C, Groß R, Hoffmeister F (eds) Cardiovascular effects of dihydropyridine — type calcium antagonists and agonists Springer Berlin pp 140–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  717. Kazner E (1985) Clinical experience with nimodipine in the prophylaxis of neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage Neurochirurgia 28: 110–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  718. Koos WT, Auer L, Böker DK, Fuhrmeister U, Gaab M, Jaksche H, Kostron H, Meinig G, Muizelaar JP, Perneczky A, Seibert HK, Sprung CH, Ulrich F, van der Werf AJM, Dycka J, Tettenborn D (1985) Treatment of neurological deficits from cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage with nimodipine (nimotop) In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 387–395Google Scholar
  719. v. Planta M, Ritz R (1986) Konservative Prinzipien in der Therapie der Subarachnoidalblutung Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 1333–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  720. Simeone FA, Vinall P (1975) Mechanism of contractile response of cerebral artery to externally — applied fresh blood J Neurosurg 43: 37–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  721. Suzuki J (1979) Cerebral vasospasm: Prediction, prevention and protection In: Pia HW, Langmaid C, Zierski J (eds) Cerebral aneurysms. Advances in diagnosis and therapy Springer Berlin pp 203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  722. Tanaka K, Gotoh F, Muramatsu F, Fukuuchi Y, Okayasu H, Suzuki N, Kobari M (1982) Effect of nimodipine, a calcium antagonist, on cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats Arzneimittelforschung 32 (II): 1529–1534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  723. Towart R (1981) The selective inhibition of serotonin-induced contractions of rabbit cerebral vascular smooth muscle by calcium antagonistic dihydropyridines. An investigation of the mechanism of action of nifedipine Circ Res 48: 650–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  724. Vermeulen M, van Gijn J, Hijdra A, Wijdicks EFM (1985) Nimodipine for cerebral arterial spasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage N Engl J Med 309: 437Google Scholar
  725. Weir B, Espinosa F, Nosko M, Norris S, Cook D, Krueger C (1985) Development of a primate model of chronic vasospasm and delayed ischemic deficit — attempts at modification using nimodipine In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 375–377Google Scholar
  726. Arnes A, Wright RL, Kowada M (1968) Cerebral ischemia II: The no-reflow-phenomenon Am J Pathol 52: 437Google Scholar
  727. Borgers M, Van Reempts J (1984) The distribution of calcium in normal and ischemic brain tissue. Clinical Research Reviews 4: 70–71Google Scholar
  728. Dearden NM (1985) Ischemic brain Lancet 2: 255–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  729. Gelmers HJ (1985) Effect of nimodipine on the clinical course of patients with acute ischemic stroke In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 467–471Google Scholar
  730. Gelmers HJ, Gortner K, De Weerdt CJ, Wiezer HJA (1987) New aspects in stroke therapy International Symposium on calcium antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York p 100 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  731. Hossmann V, Hossmann KA (1973) Return of neuronal functions after prolonged cardiac arrest Brain Res 60: 423–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  732. Hossmann V (1985) Zerebrale Ischämie In: Hossmann V, Grötz J, Schrör K: Kalziumantagonisten und zerebrale Erkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 63–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  733. Kazda S, Garthoff B, Krause HP, Schlossmann K (1982) Cerebravascular effects of the calcium-antagonist dihydropyridine derivate nimodipine in animal experiments Arzneimittelforschung 32: 331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  734. Newberg LA, Steen PA, Milde JH, Michenfelder JD (1984) Failure of flunarizine to improve cerebral blood flow or neurologic recovery in a canine model of complete cerebral ischemia Stroke 15: 666–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  735. Paci A, Ottaviano P, Trenta A, Jannone G, Acuto G, Carosi M (1985) Treatment of acute ischemic cerebral infarction with nimodipine (Baye 9736): totally randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study — preliminary results In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds): Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 473–477Google Scholar
  736. Peters T, Seiler KU (1987) New opportunities with a calcium overload blocker in brain protection? International Symposium on calcium antagonists The New York Academy of sciences New York p 109 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  737. Schmitz H, Schieri W, Beck O, Lydtin H (1975) Über die Wirkung von Nifedipine (Adalat) auf regionale Hirndurchblutung und Unterschenkeldurchblutung In: Schlegel B (ed) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin Bergmann München pp 888–890Google Scholar
  738. Steen PA, Newberg LA, Milde JH, Michenfelder JD (1983) Nimodipine improves cerebral blood flow and neurologic recovery after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol 3: 38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  739. White BC, Winegar CD, Wilson RF, Hoehner PJ, Trombley JH (1983) Possible role of calcium blockers in cerebral resuscitation: a review of the literature and synthesis for future studies Critical Care Medicine 11:202–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  740. Amery WK, Oosterveld WJ (1980) Cinnarizine in the treatment of vertiginous complaints associated with old age Royal Society of Medicine 33: 43–47Google Scholar
  741. Boniver R (1979) Vertigo, particularly of vascular origin, treated with flunarizine (R 14 950) Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Belgica 33: 270–281Google Scholar
  742. Brandt T (1985) Differentialdiagnose klinischer Schwindelformen Münch Med Wschr 127: 1137–1140Google Scholar
  743. Ell J, Gresty M (1983) The effects of the „vestibular sedative“ drug, flunarizine upon the vestibular and oculomotor system Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 46: 716–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  744. Hofferberth B (1980) Die Anwendung von Flunarizin bei Patienten mit vertebrobasilärer Insuffizienz Arzneimittelforschung 30:1817–1819Google Scholar
  745. Hofferberth B (1984) Kalzium-Blocker in der Therapie der vertebrobasilären Insuffizienz Fortschr Med 102: 725–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  746. Holmes B, Brodgen RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS (1984) Flunarizine a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use Drugs 27: 6–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  747. Hossmann V (1985) Zerebrale Ischämie In: Hossmann V, Grötz J, Schrör K (eds) Kalziumantagonisten und zerebrale Erkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 63–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  748. Mangabeira-Albernaz PL, Ganaca MM, Novo NF, Rodrigues de Paiva E (1978) Flunarizine and cinnarizine as vestibular depressants A statistical study Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Borderlands 40: 92–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. Materna F (1985) Leitsymptom Schwindel: Vergleichsstudie mit Flunarizin und einem a-Adre-nolytikum Med Prax 80: 3–6Google Scholar
  750. Oosterveld WJ (1974): Vestibular pharmacology of flunarizine compared to that of cinnarizine Journal fot Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Borderlands 36: 157–161Google Scholar
  751. Oosterveld WJ (1980) Cinnarizine in the vertinginous syndrome Royal Society of Medicine 33: 29–37Google Scholar
  752. Oosterveld WJ (1982) Flunarizine in vertigo: adouble-blind placebo-controlled cross-over evalution of a constant-dose schedule ORL 44: 72–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  753. Schwerdtfeger F (1978) Disturbed vestibular function: results with flunarizine in a 2-phase trial against placebo Ärztliche Praxis 30: 515–519Google Scholar
  754. Wouters L, Amery W, Towse G (1983) Flunarizine in the treatment of vertigo The Journal of Laryngology and Otology 97: 697–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  755. Alger BE, Nicoli RA (1980) Epileptiform burst after hyperpolarization: calciumdependent potassium potential in hippocampal CAL pyramidal cells Science 210: 1122–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  756. Ashton D, Marrannes R, Pauwels PJ, Van Belle H, Reid K, Wauquier A (1985) Possible mechanisms of flunarizine’s anti-convulsant activity International Workshop on Flunarizine Epilepsy Beerse Belgium pp 2–31Google Scholar
  757. Binnie CD, de Beukelaar F, Meijer JWA, Meinardi H, Overweg J, Wauquier A, van Wieringen A (1985) Epilepsia 26: 424–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  758. Binnie CD (1987) Clinical trials of flunarizine in epilepsy International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York pp 97 (abstract)Google Scholar
  759. Clincke G, Wauquier A (1979) Metrazol-produced impairment of passive avoidance retention specifically antagonised by anti-petit mal drugs Psycho Pharmacol 66: 234–236Google Scholar
  760. De Clerck AC, Wauquier A (1978) Double-blind study of the effectiveness of flunarizine in therapy resistant epilepsy in mentally retarded children 10th Epilepsy International Symposium Vancouver pp 169Google Scholar
  761. Fröscher W, Bülau P, Burr W, Kiefer H, Kreiten K, Rao ML, Penin H (1986) Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of flunarizine in therapy-resistant epiletic patients In: Schmidt D, Wauquier A, Meinardi H, Vanden Bussche G (eds) Health Science Review International Workshop on Flunarizine in Epilepsy Beerse Belgium pp 81–88Google Scholar
  762. Gigli GL, Musumeci SA, Colognola RM, Ferri R, Valente M, Bergonzi P, Mazza S (1987) Flunarizine in epilepsy: a worthwhile therapy? International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York pp 101 (abstract)Google Scholar
  763. Holmes B, Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS (1984) Flunarizine a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use Drugs 27: 6–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  764. Mancia D, Bergamasco B, Moglia A, di Perri R (1986) Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the efficacy of flunarizine as add-on therapy in epilepsy In: Schmidt D, Wauquier A, Meinardi H, Vanden Bussche G (eds) Health Science Review International Workshop on Flunarizine in Epilepsy Beerse Belgium pp 89–92Google Scholar
  765. Meyer FB, Sundt TM, Anderson RE (1987) Anticonvulsant properties of dihydropyridine Ca++- antagonists International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Science New York pp 106 (abstract)Google Scholar
  766. Overweg J, Binnie CD, Meijer JWA, Meinardi H, Nuijten STM, Schmaltz S, Wauquier A (1984) Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of flunarizine as add-on therapy in epilepsy Epilepsia 25: 217–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  767. Vanden Bussche G, Wauquier A, Ashton D, de Beukelaar F (1985) Flunarizine in therapy-resistant epileptic patients In: Meldrum BS, Porter RJ (eds) Current problems in epilepsy: „New anticonvulsant drugs“ Janssen Pharmaceutica Beerse Belgium pp 1–13Google Scholar
  768. Wauquier A, Clincke G, Ashton D, Fransen J, Gillardin JM, Van Clemen G (1986) Pharmacological evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs In: Schmidt D, Wauquier A, Meinardi H, Vanden Bussche G (eds) Health Science Review pp 15–23Google Scholar
  769. Van Wieringen A, Ashton D, de Beukelaar F, Binnie CD, Overweg J, Wauquier A (1986) Flunarizine in the treatment of epilepsy In: Speckmann EJ, Schulze H, Waiden J (eds) Epilepsy and calcium Urban & Schwarzenberg München pp 387–399Google Scholar
  770. Aldenhoff JB, Schlegel S (1987) Therapeutic action of calcium-antagonists in psychic disorder. Conclusions from experimental and clinical studies In: International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York pp 96 (abstract)Google Scholar
  771. Baumel B, Eisner LS, McNamara R, Korakin M (1987) Nimodipine in the treatment of primary degenerative dementia In: International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York pp 96 (abstract)Google Scholar
  772. Bono G, Sinforiani E, Trucco M, Cavallini A, Acuto GC, Nappi G (1985) Nimodipine in cCVD patients: Clinical and neuropsychological results of a double-blind cross-over study In: Betz E, Deck K, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine pharmacological and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 275–285Google Scholar
  773. Dinan TG, Silverstone T (1987) A pilot study of verapamil in the treatment of mania In: International Symposium on Calcium Antagonists The New York Academy of Sciences New York pp 99 (abstract)Google Scholar
  774. Gran R (1987) Nifedipine in the treatment of myotonia in myotonic dystrophy J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 50: 199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  775. Grötz J (1985) Hirnorganisches Psychosyndrom und chronische Hirnleistungsschwäche In: Hossmann V, Grötz J, Schrör K: Kalziumantagonisten und zerebrale Erkrankungen Springer Berlin pp 89–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  776. Held K, Boehme K, Rode CP (1985) Efficacy and tolerability of nimodipine in patients with old-age cerebrovascular dysfunction In: Betz E, Hoffmeister F (eds) Nimodipine — pharmalogical and clinical properties Schattauer Stuttgart pp 289–292Google Scholar
  777. Lux G (1985) Leitsymptom Singultus Dtsch Ärztebl 82: 1429–1433Google Scholar
  778. Mukhopadhyay P, Osman MR, Wajima T, Wallace TJ (1986) Nifedipine for intractable hiccups N Engl J Med 314: 1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  779. Ronchini P, d’Ambrosio E, Anesi E, Pelliconi P (1982) Effetti della flunarizina sull’ insuffizienza cerebro vasculare cronica: esperienza di un reparto geriatrico J Clin Med 63: 131–139Google Scholar
  780. Staessen AJ (1977) Traetment of circulation disturbances with flunarizine and cinnarizine VASA 6: 59–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  781. Berger K, McCallum W (1982) Nifedipine in the treatment of achalasia Ann Intern Med 96: 61–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  782. Blackwell JN, Holt S, Heading HC (1981) Effect of nifedipine on oesophageal motility and gastric emptying Digestion 21: 50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  783. Blume M, Schuster M (1983) Effect of nifedipine on colonic motility in the irritable bowel syndrome John Hopkins University Baltimore: Digestive Disease WeekGoogle Scholar
  784. Boquet J, Moore N, Lhuintre JP, Boismare F (1986) Diltiazem for proctalgia fugax Lancet 1: 1493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  785. Bortolotti M, Labo G (1981) Clinical and manometric effects of nifedipine in patients with oesophageal achalasia Gastroenterology 80: 39–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  786. Castell DO (1985) Calcium — channel blocking agents for gastrointestinal disorders Am J Cardiol 55 (Suppl): 210 B–213 BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  787. Editorial Lancet (1986) Angina and oesophageal disease Lancet 1: 191–192Google Scholar
  788. Editorial Lancet (1987) Management of diffuse oesophageal spasm Lancet 1: 80–81Google Scholar
  789. Finkelstein E (1986) Nifedipine for radiation oesophagitis Lancet 1: 1205–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  790. Fritsch WP (1986) Reizdarmsyndrom Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 1776–1777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  791. Jonard P, Essamri B (1987) Diltiazem and internal anal sphincter Lancet 1: 754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  792. Lipton SA, Markis JE, Pine MB, Paulin S (1978) Cessation of smoking followed by Prinzmetal’s variant angina and diffuse esophageal spasm N Engl J Med 290: 775–776Google Scholar
  793. Lux G (1985) Leitsymptom: Singultus Dtsch Ärztebl 82: 1429–1433Google Scholar
  794. Mössner J (1987) Calciumantagonisten in der experimentellen und klinischen Gastroenterologie Dtsch Med Wschr 112: 1092–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  795. Mukhopadhyay P, Osman MR, Wajima T, Wallace TI (1986) Nifedipine for intractable hiccups N Engl J Med 314: 1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  796. Nasrallah SM (1982) Nifedipine in the treatment of diffuse oesophageal spasm Lancet 2: 1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  797. Porschen R, Pieper S, Bernhardt L, Schade B, Wienbeck M (1987) Beeinflussen Kalziumantagonisten die Gallenblasenkontraktion in vivo? Klin Wochenschr 65 (Suppl IX): 30Google Scholar
  798. Richter JE, Castell DO (1984) Diffuse esophageal spasm: a reappraisal Ann Intern Med 100: 242–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. Weiser HF, Lepsien G Golenhofer K, Siewert R (1982) Clinical and experimental studies on the effect of nifedipine on smooth muscle of the esophagus and LES In: Dutie H (ed) Gastrointestinal motility in health and disease MTP Press Lancaster pp 565–572Google Scholar
  800. Wienbeck M, Berges W (1983) Motilitätsstörungen des Verdauungstraktes Dtsch Ärztebl 80: 17–24Google Scholar
  801. Editorial (1983) Calcium-channel blockers and asthma Thorax 38: 481–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  802. Emanuel MB, Chamberlain JA, Whiting S, Rigden BG, Craven AH (1979) Cinnarizine in the treatment of chronic asthma Br J Clin Pharmacol 7: 189–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  803. Emslander HP, Sauer E, Freisinger H, Sebening H, Daum S (1984) Akute Bronchospasmolyse mit dem Kalzium-Antagonisten Nifedipin Atemw-Lungenkrkh 10: 374–382Google Scholar
  804. Emslander HP, Sauer E, Munteanu J, Sebening H, Daun S (1986) The acute effect of nifedipine on airways resistance in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease In: Lichtlen PR (ed) 6th International Adalat Symposium Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 497–503Google Scholar
  805. Ferlinz I (1986) Nifedipine in myocardial ischemia, systemic hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders Ann Intern Med 105: 714–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  806. Foreman JC, Garland LG (1976) Cromoglycate and other antiallergic drugs: a possible mechanism of action Br Med J 1: 820–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  807. Haas H (1964) Selektive Sympathikolyse und Myokardfunktion Dtsch Med Wschr 89: 2117 – 2121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  808. Hartmann V, Magnussen H (1983) Zur Wirkung des Kalzium-Antagonisten Dilzem auf den Histamin- und Carbachol-induzierten Bronchospasmus bei Gesunden und Patienten mit Asthma bronchiale Atemw.-Lungenkrkh 9: 294–296Google Scholar
  809. Ikeda H, Takahashi K, Sasaki H, Ito E, Yasui S (1985) Acute effects of nifedipine on patients with chronic obstructive lung disease Arzneimittelforschung 35 (I): 518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  810. McFadden JR (1981) Calcium-channel blocking agents and asthma Ann Intern Med 95: 232–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  811. Middleton E jr (1983) Role of calcium antagonists in airway function Eur J Respir Dis 64 (Suppl 128): 123–132Google Scholar
  812. Schneider H, Wylicil, Kardos P (1976) Die Wirkung von Verapamil auf den Bronchialwiderstand und auf die Fenoterol-induzierte Bronchospasmolyse bei Patienten mit obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung und bei Gesunden Therapiewoche 26: 5378–5383Google Scholar
  813. Tinkelman DG (1985) Calcium channel blocking agents in the prophylaxis of asthma Am J Med 78 (Suppl 2 B): 35–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  814. Andersson KE, Ulmsten U (1978) Effects of nifedipine on myometrial activity and lower abdominal pain in women with primary dysmenorrhoea Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85: 142–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  815. Carrol W (1985) Nifedipine and ureteral colic Ann Intern Med 102: 864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  816. Döring HJ, Irmer M, Keidel J, Frey M, von Witzleben H, Fleckenstein A (1981) Potenzierung und Neutralisierung kardiotoxischer Nebenwirkungen beta-adrenerger Tokolytika In: Ablad B, Heidenreich J, Irmer M, Jung H (eds) Beta Blockade und Tokolyse Witzstrock Baden-Baden pp 47–54Google Scholar
  817. Fleckenstein A (1971) Pathophysiologische Kausalfaktoren bei Myokardnekrose und Infarkt Wien Z Inn Med 52: 133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  818. Fleckenstein A, Grün C, Byon KY (1972) Hemmung der Uteruskontraktilität durch C++-antagonistische Inhibitoren der elektro-mechanischen Kopplung In: Jung H (ed) Methoden der pharmakologischen Geburtserleichterung und Uterus-Relaxation Thieme Stuttgart pp 107–113Google Scholar
  819. Fleckenstein A, Janke J, Fleckenstein-Grün H (1978) Kardiotoxische Wirkungen beta-adre-nerger Tokolytika Kardioprotektion durch Ca++-Antagonisten In: Hillemanns HC, Trolp R (eds) Kardiale Probleme bei der Tokolyse Enke Stuttgart pp 54–50Google Scholar
  820. Forman A, Andersson KE, Henricksson L, Rud T, Ulmsten U (1978) Effects of nifedipine on the smooth muscle of human urinary tract in vitro and in vivo Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 43: 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  821. Forman A, Andersson KE, Persson CGA, Ulmsten U (1979) Relaxant effects of nifedipine on isolated, human myometrium Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 45: 81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  822. Irmer M, Trolp R, Pohl C, Bernius U, Hillemanns HG, Stein H (1980) Klinische Anwendung einer kombinierten Beta2-Stimulation und Beta 1-Blockade bei Tokolysetherapie Arzneimittelforschung 30:105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  823. Irmer M, Trolp R, Hagemann G, Stein H (1981) Akut- und Langzeitbehandlung mit Metoprolol/Fenoterol im Vergleich zu Verapamil/Fenoterol aus kardiologischer Sicht In: Ablad B, Heidenreich J, Irmer M, Jung H (eds) Betablockade und Tokolyse Witzstrock Baden-Baden pp 114–117Google Scholar
  824. Irmer M (1983) Möglichkeiten der Kardioprotektion bei Tokolyse mit Beta-Stimulatoren In: Irmer M, Weidinger H (eds) Neuere Aspekte zu Betablockade und Tokolyse Beltz Weinheim pp 83–89Google Scholar
  825. Krebs R (1984) Calcium antagonists: new vistas in theoretical basis and clinical use In: Opie LH (ed) Calcium Antagonists and Cardiovascular disease Raven Press New York pp 347–357Google Scholar
  826. Maggi CA, Meli A (1984) The effect of nifedipine and verapamil on KCl induced rhythmic contractions of guinea pig ureter in vitro Experientia 40: 681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  827. May P, Sökeland J, Beck L, Schwenzer T (1986) Harninkontinenz Dtsch Ärztebl 83: 1949–1953Google Scholar
  828. McCormack M, Willot P, Lapointe S, Drouin G (1986) Nifedipine and ureteral colic Ann Intern Med 104: 590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  829. Palmer JH, Worth PHL, Exton-Smith AN (1981) Flunarizine: a once-daily therapy for urinary incontinence Lancet 2: 279–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  830. Read MD, Wellby DE (1986) The use of a calcium antagonist (nifedipine) to suppress preterm labour Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93: 933–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  831. Rona G, Chappel J, Balazs T, Gaudry R (1959) An infarct-like myocardial lesion and other toxic manifestations produced by isoproterenol in rat Arch Path 67: 443–447Google Scholar
  832. Roundtable (1981) The current role of calcium antagonists in cardiac arrhythmias In: Zanchetti A, Krikler DM (eds) Calcium antagonism in cardiovascular therapy: experience with verapamil Excerpta Medica Amsterdam pp 405–413Google Scholar
  833. Rud T, Andersson KE, Ulmsten U (1979) Effects of calcium antagonists in women with unstable bladders Urol Int 34: 421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  834. Spätling L (1982) Einsparung von Tokolytika durch orale Magnesiumgabe In: Weidinger H (ed) Magnesium und Tokolyse Fortschr Med Schwappach pp 122–129Google Scholar
  835. Strigi R, Pfeiffer U, Ehrhardt W, Blümel G (1980) Bietet der Kalziumantagonist Verapamil bei der Tokolyse mit Beta-Sympathomimetika den erwarteten Schutz vor Myokardschäden? Geburtsh Frauenheilk 40: 500–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  836. Ulmsten U, Andersson KE, Wingerup L (1980) Treatment of premature labor with the calcium antagonist nifedipine Arch Gynecol 229: 1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  837. Weidinger H (1983) Übersicht über verschiedene bei der Tokolyse eingesetzte Substanzen In: Irmer M, Weidinger H (eds) Neuere Aspekte zu Betablockade und Tokolyse Beltz Weinheim pp 34–45Google Scholar
  838. Williams ME, Pannili FC (1982) Urinary incontinence in the elderly Ann Intern Med 97: 895–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  839. Wischnik A, Mendier N, Schroll A, Weidenbach A (1982) Zur Frage der Zusatztherapie bei Tokolyse: Vergleichende tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen des myokardialen Metabolit-status Frauenarzt 23: pp 24–31Google Scholar
  840. Wischnik A (1983) Zur Bedeutung von Beta 2-Mimese, Beta 1-Blockade und Calciumantagonismus bei der Therapie der vorzeitigen Wehentätigkeit und der uteroplazentalen Hypoperfusion Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen Med Habilitationsschrift TU MünchenGoogle Scholar
  841. Wischnik A (1985 a) Kombinierte Beta-Mimetikatherapie in der Schwangerschaft Urban & Schwarzenberg MünchenGoogle Scholar
  842. Wischnik A (1985b) Magnesium in der Frauenheilkunde Dtsch Ärztebl 82: 2342–2344Google Scholar
  843. Emery AEH, Skinner R, Howden LC, Matthews MB (1982) Verapamil in Duchenne muscular dystrophy Lancet 1: 559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  844. Favre L, Vallotton MB (1986) Nifedipine in Pheochromocytoma Ann Intern Med 104: 125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  845. Garbrecht M, Müllerleile U (1986) Verapamil in the prevention of adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy Klin Wschr 64 (Suppl VII): 132–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  846. Höfling B (1984) Die Anthracyclin-Kardiotoxizität Kehrer Freiburg pp 44–65Google Scholar
  847. Offermann JJG, Meijer S, Sleifer DT, Mulder NH, Donker AJM, Schraffordt K, van der Hem GK (1986) The influence of verapamil on renal function in patients treated with cisplatin Clin Nephrol 24: 249–255Google Scholar
  848. Reilly MP, Asakura T (1986) Antisickling effect of bepridil Lancet 1: 848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Rogan AM, Hamilton TC, Young RC, Klecker RW, Ozols RF (1984) Reversal of adriamycin resistance in human ovarian cancer Science 224: 994–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  850. Schnipper LE (1986) Clinical implications of tumorcell heterogeneity N Engl J Med 314: 1423–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  851. Serfas D, Shoback DM, Lorell BH (1983) Phaeochromocytoma and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Apparent suppression of symptoms and noradrenaline secretion by calcium-channel blockade Lancet 2: 711–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  852. Taniguchi H, Murakami K, Morita S, Kazumi T, Yoshino G, Maeda M, Baba S (1977) Calcium antagonist (diltiazem) for reversal of hypoglycaemic symptoms in insulinoma Lancet 2: 501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  853. Wagner K, Albrecht S, Neumayer HH (1986) Protektiver Einfluss des Calciumantagonisten Diltiazem auf das akute Nierenversagen nach Nierentransplantation Dtsch Med Wschr 111: 1363–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  854. Hempelmann G (1982) Prämedikation, Anästhesie und postoperative Phase bei Hypertonikern und Patienten mit koronarer Herzerkrankung. Med Welt 33:739–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  855. Piepho RW, Culbertson VL, Rhodes RS (1987) Drug interactions with the calcium-entry blokkers. Circulation 75 (Suppl. V): 181–194Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Lydtin
    • 1
  • Peter Trenkwalder
    • 1
  1. 1.Medizinische KlinikKrankenhaus des Landkreises StarnbergStarnbergDeutschland

Personalised recommendations