Element Fluxes with Litterfall in Mature Stands of Norway Spruce and European Beech in Bavaria, South Germany

  • B. Berg
  • P. Gerstberger
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 172)


Litterfall is the largest natural inflow of organic material and nutrients to the forest floor and in most European forests is dominated by that from the trees. The chemical composition of this material and the temperature and moisture content of the upper soil layers are considered to be the main factors controlling the turnover rates of the shed litter and the release of nutrients. Thus they also determine the quantity of nutrients released and the accumulation of humus and nutrients. Few larger studies have been made on litterfall on a European basis. For needles of Norway spruce and different pine species, Berg and Meentemeyer (2001) made a study covering the main part of western Europe, whereas for European beech, for example, few values have been published.


Forest Floor European Beech Mature Stand Litter Mass Loss Needle Litter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alewell C, Manderscheid B, Gerstberger P, Matzner E (2000) Effects of reduced atmospheric deposition on soil solution chemistry and elemental contents of spruce needles in NE Bavaria, Germany. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 163:509–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berg B, Meentemeyer V (2001) Litterfall in some European coniferous forests as dependent on climate — a synthesis. Can J For Res 31:292–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg B, McClaugherty C (2003) Plant litter. Decomposition. Humus formation. Carbon sequestration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Berg B, Tamm CO (1991) Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of litter in long-term optimum nutrition experiments. I. Organic matter decomposition in Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle litter. Scand J For Res 6:305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg B, Berg M, Bottner P, Box E, Breymeyer A, Calvo de Anta R, Couteaux M, Gallardo A, Escudero A, Kratz W, Madeira M, Meentemeyer V, Muñoz F, Piussi P, Remacle J, Virzo De Santo A (1993) Litter mass loss in pine forests versus actual evapotranspiration on a European scale. In: Breymeyer A (ed) Conference papers 18. Proceedings from Scope Seminar, Geography of Carbon Budget Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, Szymbark, 17–23 Aug 1991, pp 81–109. Institute of Geography an Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, WarsawGoogle Scholar
  6. Berg B, Johansson M, Tjarve I, Gaitnieks T, Rokjanis B, Beier C, Rothe A, Bolger T, Göttlein A, Gerstberger P (1999) Needle litterfall in a north European spruce forest transect. Departments of Forest Ecology and Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Rep 80,54 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg B, Johansson M-B, Meentemeyer V (2000) Litter decomposition in a transect of Norway spruce forests: substrate quality and climate control. Can J For Res 30:1136–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellenberg H, Mayer R, Schauermann J (1986) Ökosystemforschung: Ergebnisse des Sollingprojekts 1966–1986. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Flower-Ellis J (1985) Litterfall in an age series of Scots pine stands: summary of resultsfor the period 1973–1983. Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Rep 19, pp 75–94Google Scholar
  10. Mälkönen E (1974) Annual primary production and nutrient cycle in some Scots pine stands. Commun Inst Forest Fenn 84:5Google Scholar
  11. Matzner E (1988) Der Stoffumsatz zweier Waldökosysteme im Soiling. Ber Forschungs- zentr Waldökosyst/Waldsterben, Reihe A:40:l-217Google Scholar
  12. Matzner E, Khanna PK, Meiwes KJ, Lindheim J, Prenzel J, Ulrich B. (1982) Elementflüsse in Waldökosystemen im Soiling — Datendokumentation. Göttinger Bodenkundl Ber 71:1–267Google Scholar
  13. Nilsson LO, Östergren M, Wiklund K (2001) Hur paverkades träden ovan mark? In: Persson T, Nilsson LO (eds) Skogabyförsöket — effekter av langvarig kväve- och svavel- tillförsel till ett skogsekosystem.Google Scholar
  14. Nilsson LO, Östergren M, Wiklund K (2001) Hur paverkades träden ovan mark? Naturvardsverket 5173:51–67Google Scholar
  15. Staaf H (1982) Plant nutrient changes in beech leaves during senescence as influenced by site characteristics. Acta Oecol/Oecol Plant 3:161–170Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Berg
  • P. Gerstberger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations