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Biodiversity pp 181-197 | Cite as

Biodiversity — resource for new products, development and self-reliance

  • Werner Nader
  • Nicolas Mateo
Chapter

Abstract

Biodiversity is one important reason for the impressive growth of pharmaceutical, chemical and agro-industry in this century. “Patents” from nature and the ethnological knowledge linked to their use in day-to-day life have inspired generations of inventors to create a vast array of products ranging from Aspirin to Bacillus thuringensis and Phosphinothricin to Zocor, some of which generate annual sales of more than US$ 1 billion. Biodiversity’s genetic potential for biotechnology might be even greater, and products like tissue plasminogen activator from vampire bats, or high-laurate canola oil from rape seed transformed with a gene from an undomesticated Californian bay will soon be available on the market. Some of these new products might pose a threat to biodiversity or to the economies of tropical and subtropical countries, as in the case of Calgene’s high-laurate canola oil which can substitute coconut and palm kernel oil. The research agreement between INBio and Merck, Sharp & Dohme acknowledges that biodiversity can be used for product development in a sustainable manner and thus conserved for future generations. Royalty obligations on net sales of future pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and biotech products to finance conservation measures comprise only a minor fraction of potential benefits which might contribute to maintaining biological diversity and variability. Even more important are the contributions that capacity building and technology transfer can make to the scientific and technological development of biodiversity-rich countries. Fair research partnerships between source countries and industry and academic institutions in industrialised countries are necessary. National scientists must spend more time investigating biodiversity, both at the basic research level and in the development of new products. The use of biological diversity for socioeconomic development is an important goal for Costa Rica, and INBio is making a significant contribution to this process.

Keywords

Source Country Royalty Payment Blood Coagulation Inhibitor Bacillus Thuringensis Fatty Acyl Reductase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Biodiversidad — Fuente de nuevos productos, desarrollo y conciencia

Resumen

Desde hace más de cien años la industria farmacéutica y química ha estado aprovechando el valor de la biodiversidad. Se ha desarrollado un espectro amplio de nuevos productos desde Aspirina a Zocor, derivados de compuestos naturales de microorganismos, plantas y animales. Algunos de estos productos tienen un volumen de ventas más de mil millones de dólares por año. El potencial de genes de la biodiversidad para la industria biotecnología podría exceder estos valores. Nuevos productos como un “Tissue Plasminogen Activator” producido a través de la ingeniería genética de un gene del vampiro o un nuevo aceite de colza, alto en ácido laúrico y producido en colza transgénica, van a aparecer pronto en el mercado. El acuerdo entre INBio y Merck, Sharp & Dome fuela primera concesión de un beneficiario hacia la biodiversidad, la que debe conservar el potencial biológico de los trópicos para las generaciones futuras. Regalias de ventas de productos futuros como nuevos fármacos, agroquímicos, fragancias o genes no son los únicos beneficios, que pueden contribuir a la conservación de la biodiversidad. Contribuciones como la transferencia de tecnología a los países en vías de desarollo tienen la misma importancia. Se requieren colaboraciones equitativas entre los países tropicales, la industria y el sector académico en los países industrializados. Los científicos nacionales deben obtener la oportunidad de investigar su riqueza biológica, no sólo en la ciencia fundamental, sino también para el desarollo de nuevos productos que fortalezcan su industria nacional. Este escenario podría conducir a nueva conciencia, motivación y orgullo acerca de “su biodiversidad” pro parte de los países tropicales. Todo esto contribuiría a la conservación de los recursos naturales. La utilización de la biodiversidad como fuente para el desarollo socioeconómico de Costa Rica es la meta del INBio y podría ser considerado como un proyecto piloto.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Nader
    • 1
  • Nicolas Mateo
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de BiodiversidadSanto DomingoCosta Rica

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