Optimizing Migration in a Reluctant and Inefficient Flier: The Eared Grebe

  • J. R. JehlJr.
  • A. E. Henry
  • H. I. Ellis
Conference paper


Over the past several decades optimality theory (Krebs and Davies 1978) has been endorsed by many biologists (but see Gould and Lewontin 1979 and Pierce and Ollason 1987). In a comprehensive review of optimal migration, Alerstam and Hedenström (1999) discussed theoretical aspects of flight and behavior (e.g., flight speed and power, fuel deposition rates, fuel loads, departure rules) that birds might adopt to maximize their individual fitness. They also acknowledged the need for critical studies based on the natural history of individual species to test theoretical concepts.


Wind Tunnel Flight Speed North American Population Great Salt Lake Staging Area 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. JehlJr.
    • 1
  • A. E. Henry
    • 2
  • H. I. Ellis
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Birds, Smithsonian InstitutionNational Museum of Natural HistoryUSA
  2. 2.California Department of Fish and GameSouthwest Fisheries Science CenterLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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