Augenheilkunde pp 323-373 | Cite as

Netzhaut, Aderhaut und Glaskörper

  • Albert J. Augustin


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Weiterführende Literatur

  1. Abdel-Khalek MN, Richardson J (1986) Retinal macroa-neurysm: natural history and guidelines for treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 70:2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiello LM, Berrocal J, Davis MD et al. (1973) The Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Arch Ophthalmol 90:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annesley WH Jr, Augsburger JJ, Shakin JL (1981) Ten year follow-up of photocoagulated central serous choroidopathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 79:335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Asdourian GK, Goldberg MF, Jampol L, Rabb M (1977) Retinal macroaneurysms. Arch Ophthalmol 95:624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashton N (1969) Pathological and ultrastructural aspects of the cotton-wool spot. Proc R Soc Med 62:1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashton N (1972) The eye in malignant hypertension. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 76:17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asrani S, Zou S, d’Anna S et al. (1999) Non-invasive mapping of the retinal thickness at the posterior pole. Ophthalmology 106:269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Augsburger JJ, Magargal LE (1980) Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction. Br J Ophthalmol 64:913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avila MP, Welter J J, Jalkh AE et al. (1984) Natural history of choroidal neovascularization in degenerative myopia. Ophthalmology 91:1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bastek JV, Foos RY, Heckenlively J (1981) Traumatic pigmentary retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 92:621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Behrens-Baumann W, Scheurer G, Schroer H (1992) Pathogenesis of Purtscher’s retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 230:286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bischoff P (1999) Makulaödem: Vom Symptom zur Diagnose. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 214:311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blodi BA, Johnson MW, Gass DM et al. (1990) Purtscher’s-like retinopathy after childbirth. Ophthalmology 97:1654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blumenkranz MS, Russell SR, Robey MG et al. (1986) Risk factors in age-related maculopathy complicated by choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmology 93:552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonnet M (1991) Serous macular detachment associated with optic nerve pits. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 229:526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group (1984) Argon laser photocoagulation for macular edema in branch vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 98:271Google Scholar
  17. Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group (1986) Argon laser scatter photocoagulation for prevention of neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage in branch vein occlusion: A randomized clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 104:34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bresnick GH (1986) Diabetic retinopathy viewed as a neurosensory disorder. Arch Ophthalmol 104:989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Gragoudas ES (1987) Clinical characteristics of choroidal neovascular membranes. Arch Ophthalmol 105:209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Fine SL (1988 a) Age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 32:375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bressler NM, Bressler SB, Seddon TM et al. (1988b) Clinical characteristics of drusen in patients with exudative versus non-exudative age-related macular degeneration. Retina 8:109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brockhurst RJ, Albert DM, Zakov ZN (1981) Pathologic findings in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 99:2143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brod, RD (1992) Prevention of operating microscope and endoilluminator-induced retinal phototoxicity. Vitreo-retinal Surg Technol 3:4Google Scholar
  24. Brown GC, Margargal LE (1988) The ocular ischemic syndrome: Clinical, fluorescein angiographic and carotid angiographic features. Int Ophthalmol 11:239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown GC, Shields JA, Sanborn G et al. (1982 a) Radiation optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology 89:1489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brown GC, Shields JA, Sanborn G et al. (1982 b) Radiation retinopathy. Ophthalmology 89:1494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chew EY, Sperduto RD, Hiller R (1999) Clinical course of macular holes. The eye disease case control study. Arch Ophthalmol 117:242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Christoffersen NLB, Larsen M (1999) Pathophysiology and hemodynamics of branch retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 106:2054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chopdar A (1978) Retinal telangiectasis in adults: Fluorescein angiographic findings and treatment by argon laser. Br J Ophthalmol 62:243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ciardella AP, Yanuzzi LA, Freund KB et al. (1998) Factor V Leiden, activated protein C resistance, and retinal vein occlusion. Retina 18:308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ciulla TA, Danis RP, Harris A (1998) Age-related macular degeneration: A review of experimental treatments. Surv Ophthalmol 43:134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coats G (1908) Forms of retinal disease with massive exudation. R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 17:440Google Scholar
  33. Cox SN, Hay E, Bird AC (1988) Treatment of chronic cystoid macular edema with acetazolamide. Arch Ophthalmol 106:1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (1984) An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol 102:1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Criswick VG, Schepens CL (1969) Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 68:578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group (1988) Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: Preliminary results. Arch Ophthalmol 106:471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Curtin BJ (1985) The myopias: basic science and clinical management. Harper & Row, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  38. De Lacy JJ (1986) Central serous chorioretinopathy: To treat or not to treat. Doc Ophthalmol 61:367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. DCCT Research Group (1987) Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT): results of feasibility study. Diabetes Care 10:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dandona P, Bolger JP, Boag F et al. (1985) Rapid development and progession of proliferative retinopathy after strict diabetic control. Br Med J 290:895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davis MD (1965) Vitreous contraction in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 74:741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Juan E, Loewenstein A, Bressler NM, Alexander J (1998) Translocation of the retina for management of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization: II. A preliminary report in humans. Am J Ophthalmol 125:635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deutsch TA, Read JS, Ernest JT, Goldstick TK (1980) Effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the retinal vasculature in humans. Arch Ophthalmol 101:1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1988) Are continuing studies of metabolic control and microvascular complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus justified? N Engl J Med 318:246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1993) The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 329:977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group (1976) Preliminary report on effects of photocoagulation therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 81:383Google Scholar
  47. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group (1978) Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy: the second report of Diabetic Retinopathy Study findings. Ophthalmology 85:82Google Scholar
  48. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (1979) Four risk factors for severe visual loss in diabetic retinopathy: the third report from the Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Arch Ophthalmol 97:654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (1981a) Report 7. A modification of the Airlie House classification of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 21:210Google Scholar
  50. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (1981b) Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy: clinical application of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) findings, DRS report number 8. Ophthalmology 88:583Google Scholar
  51. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group (1985 a) Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Two-year results of a randomized trial. Diabetic retinopathy vitrectomy study report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 103:1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group (1985b) Two-year course of visual acuity in severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy with conventional management. Ophthalmology 92:492Google Scholar
  53. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group (1988) Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision. Results of a randomized trial — diabetic retinopathy vitrectomy study report 3. Ophthalmology 95:1307Google Scholar
  54. Duane TD (1973) Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 75:637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Duke-Elder S (1964) Anomalies in the vitreous body. In: Duke-Elder S (ed) System of ophthalmology (Vol 3, Part 2) Henry Klimpton, London, p 763Google Scholar
  56. Duker JS, Brown GC (1988) Ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to carotid artery dissection. Am J Ophthalmol 106:750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Duker JS, Brown GC (1988) Recovery following acute obstruction of the retinal and choroidal circulations. Retina 8: 257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Duker JS, Brown GC (1989) Neovascularization of the optic disc associated with obstruction of the central retinal artery. Ophthalmology 96:87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Duker JS, Belmont JB, Bosley TM (1987) Angioid streaks associated with abetalipoproteinemia. Arch Ophthalmol 105:1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Eales H (1980) Causes of retinal hemorrhage associated with epistaxis and constipation. Birmingham Med Rev 9: 262Google Scholar
  61. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Research Study Group (1985) Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. Early treatment diabetic retinopathy study report 1. Arch Ophthalmol 103:1796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group (1991) Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report No. 9. Ophthalmology 98:766Google Scholar
  63. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group (1995) Focal photocoagulation treatment for diabetic macular edema. Relationship of treatment effect of fluorescein angiographic and other retinal characteristics at baseline. ETDRS report No. 19. Arch Ophthalmol 113:1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Eckardt C, Eckardt U, Conrad HG (1999) Macular rotation with and without counter-rotation of the globe in patients with age related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 237:313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fahmy JA (1972) Symptoms and signs of intracranial aneurysms: with particular reference to retinal hemorrhage. Acta Ophthalmol 50:129Google Scholar
  66. Faude F, Heimann K, Wiedemann P (1999) Klinisch pharmakologische Studien zur Behandlung der PVR: eine Übersicht. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 214:362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ferris FL III, Podgor MJ, Davis MD, and Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (1987) Macular edema in Diabetic Retinopathy Study patients: DRS report no 12. Ophthalmology 94:754Google Scholar
  68. Ffytche TJ (1974) A rationalization of treatment of central retinal artery occlusion. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 94:468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fine BS, Brucker AJ (1981) Macular edema and cystoid macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 92:466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Finkelstein D (1992) Ischemic macular edema: recognition and favorable natural history in branch vein occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol 110:1427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Flynn JT, Bancalari E, Bawol R et al. (1987) Retinopathy of prematurity. A randomized, prospective trial of transcutaneous oxygen monitoring. Ophthalmology 94:630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Freeman WR, Azen SP, Kim JW et al. (1997) Vitrectomy for treatment of full-thickness stage 3 or 4 macular holes. Results of a multicentered randomized clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 115:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Friberg TR (1979) Traumatic retinal pigment epithelial edema. Am J Ophthalmol 88:18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Fuchino Y, Hayashi H, Kono T, Okshima AK (1995) Long-term follow-up of visual acuity in eyes with stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity after closed vitrectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 120:308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fuchs AV, Wolf E, Scheider A et al. (1999) Zytomegalievirus-(CMV)-Retinitis bei AIDS. Ganciclovir-Implantat im Vergleich zur systemischen Therapie. Ophthalmologe 96:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fuller B, Gitter K (1973) Traumatic choroidal rupture with late serous detachment of the macula. Arch Ophthalmol 89:354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Funata M, Wendel RT, Cruz Z de la, Green WR (1992) Clinico-pathologic study of bilateral macular holes treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade. Retina 12: 289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fung WE (1985) Vitrectomy for chronic aphakic cystoid macular edema: Results of a national, collaborative, prospective, randomized investigation. Ophthalmology 92: 1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gass JDM (1987) Stereoscopic atlas of macular diseases: diagnosis and treatment. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  80. Gass JDM (1988) Idiopathic senile macular hole. Its early stages and pathogenesis. Arch Ophthalmol 106:6298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gass JD (1993) Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 13:79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gass JDM (1995) Das altersabhängige Makulaforamen. Ophthalmologe 92:617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gass JDM, Norton EW (1966) Cystoid macular edema and papilledema following cataract extraction: A fundoscopic and fluorescein angiographic study. Arch Ophthalmol 76: 646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gass JDM, Oyakawa RT (1982) Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis. Arch Ophthalmol 10:769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gass JDM, Braunstein RA (1983) Further observations concerning the diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis syndrom. Arch Opthalmol 101:1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gass JDM, Joondeph BC (1990) Observations concerning patients with suspected impending macular holes. Am J Ophthalmol 109:638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gass JDM, Anderson DR, Davis EB (1985) A clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and electron microscopic correlation of cystoid macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 100:82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Geliske O, Hendrikse F, Deutman AF (1988) A long-term follow up study of laser coagulation of neovascular membranes in angioid streaks. Am J Ophthalmol 105:299Google Scholar
  89. Glaser BM, Michels RG, Kupperrnan BD et al. (1992) Transforming growth factor-beta 2 for the treatment of full-thickness macular holes. A prospective randomized study. Ophthalmology 99:1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Goldberg MF (1971) Classification and pathogenesis of proliferative sickle retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 71:649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Gow J, Oilver GL (1971) Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 86:150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Guyer DR, Yanuzzi LA, Chang S, Shields JA, Green WR (1999) Retina, Vitreous, Macula. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  93. Hayreh SS (1976) So-called „central retinal vein occlusion“. II. Venous stasis retinopathy. Ophthalmologica 172:14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hayreh SS (1976) So-called „central retinal vein occlusion“. I. Pathogenesis, terminology, clinical features. Ophthalmologica 172:1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hayreh SS (1983) Classification of central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 90:458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hayreh SS, Kolder HE, Weingeist TA (1980) Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time. Ophthalmology 87:75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hayreh SS, Rojas P, Podhajsky P et al. (1983) Ocular neovascularization with retinal vascular occlusion III. Incidence of ocular neovascularization with retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 90:488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hilton GF (1975) Late serosanguinous detachment of the macula after traumatic choroidal rupture. Am J Ophthalmol 79:977Google Scholar
  99. Hinz BJ, Juan E de, Repka MX (1998) Scleral buckling surgery for active stage 4A retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology 105:1827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hirose T, Katsumi D, Mehta MC, Schepens CL (1993) Vision in stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity after retinal reattachment by open-sky vitrectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 111:345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hitchings RA, Chisholm IH (1975) Incidence of aphakic macular edema: A prospective study. Br J Ophthalmol 59:444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hogan MJ (1972) Role of the retinal pigment epithelium in macular disease. Trans Am Acad Opthalmol Otolaryngol 76:64Google Scholar
  103. Hudomel J, Imre G (1973) Photocoagulation treatment of solitary macro aneurysms near the macula lutea. Acta Ophthalmol 51:633Google Scholar
  104. International Committee for the Classification of the Late Stages of Retinopathy of Prematurity (1987) An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. II. The classification of retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 105:906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Jaffe NS, Clayman HM, Jaffe MS (1982) Cystoid macular edema after intracapsular and extracapsular cataract extraction with and without an intraocular lens. Ophthalmology 89:25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Jalkh AE, Weiter JJ, Trempe CL et al. (1987) Choroidal neovascularization in degenerative myopia: Role of laser photocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surg 18:721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kahn M, Green WR, Knox DL, Miller NR (1986) Ocular features of carotid artery disease. Retina 6:239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kelly NE, Wendel RT (1991) Vitreous surgery for idiopathic macular holes. Results of a pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 109:654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kiesewetter H, Körber N, Jung F, Reim M (1983) Rheologie findings in patients with acute central retinal artery occlusion. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 220:92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kishi S, Shimizu K (1990) Posterior precortical vitreous pocket. Arch Ophthalmol 108:979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE et al. (1984 a) The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. II. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age is less than 30 years. Arch Ophthalmol 102:520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE et al. (1984b) The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Ill Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol 102:527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE et al. (1988) Glycosylated hemoglobin predicts the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. JAMA 260:2864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Koch F, Spitznas M (1990) Lichtinduzierte Netzhautschäden in der Zahnarztpraxis. Der Augenspiegel 2:6Google Scholar
  115. Kraft MC, Sanders DR, Jampol LM et al. (1970) Prophylaxis of Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema with topical indo-methacin. Ophthalmology 89:885Google Scholar
  116. Krieglstein GK (1996) Tilted disk-Syndrom. Z Prkt Augen-heilkd 17:13Google Scholar
  117. KROC Collaborative Study Group (1988) Diabetic retinopathy after two years of intensified insulin treatment. JAMA 260:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kylstra JA, Brown JC, Jaffe GJ (1999) The importance of fluorescein angiography in planning laser treatment of diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 106:2068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Leaver P, Williams C (1979) Argon laser photocoagulation in the treatment of central serous retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 63:674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mackensen G, Neubauer H (Hrsg) (1989) Augenärztliche Operationen, Bd. 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  121. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1986 a) Argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy: Three-year results from randomized clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 104:694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1986b) Recurrent choroidal neovascularization after argon laser photocoagulation for neovascular maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 104:503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1991a) Subfoveal neovascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration: guidelines for evaluation and treatment in the Macular Photocoagulation Study. Arch Ophthalmol 109:1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1991b) Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal recurrent neovascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration: results of a clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 109:1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1991 c) Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions in age-related macular degeneration: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol 109:1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1993) Laser photocoagulation of subfoveal neovascular lesions of age-related macular degeneration: updated findings from two clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 111:1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group (1994) Visual outcome after laser photocoagulation for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration: the influence of initial lesion size and initial visual acuity. Arch Ophthalmol 112:480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Magargal LE, Goldberg RE (1977) Anterior chamber paracentesis in the management of acute nonarteritic central retinal artery occlusion. Surg Forum 28:518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Magargal LE, Brown GC, Augsburger JJ et al. (1981) Neovascular glaucoma following central retinal vein obstruction. Ophthalmology 88:1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Magargal LE, Brown GC, Augsburger J J et al. (1982 a) Efficacy of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma following ischemic central retinal vein obstruction. Ophthalmology 89:780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Magargal LE, Donoso LA, Sanborn GE (1982b) Retinal ischemia and risk of neovascularization following central retinal vein obstruction. Ophthalmology 89:1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Maumenee IH, Stoll HU, Meta MB (1982) The Wagner syndrome versus hereditary arthroophthalmopathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 81:349Google Scholar
  133. McLane NJ, Grizzard WS, Kouseff BG et al. (1984) Angioid streaks associated with hereditary spherocytosis. Am J Ophthalmol 97:444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Meller D, Augustin AJ, Koch FHJ (1995) Macroaneurysm of a cilioretinal artery. Germ J Ophthalmol 4:320Google Scholar
  135. Novak MA, Singerman LJ, Rice TA (1987) Krypton and argon laser photocoagulation for central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina 7:162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Opremcak EM (1994) Uveitis. A clinical manual for ocular inflammation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkTokyoGoogle Scholar
  137. Plager DA, Orgel IK, Ellis FD et al. (1992) X-linked recessive familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 114:145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rand LI, Prud’homme GJ, Ederer F et al. (1985) Factors influencing the development of visual loss in advanced diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) report no 10. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26:983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Richards RD, West CE, Meiseis AA (1968) Chorioretinitis sclopetaria. Am J Ophthalmol 66:852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Roden D, Fitzpatrick G, O’Donoghue H, Phelan D (1989) Purtscher’s retinopathy and fat embolism. Br J Ophthalmol 73:677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ryan SJ (1994) Retina. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  142. Ryan SJ, Goldberg MF (1971) Anterior segment ischemia following scleral buckling in sickle-cell hemoglobinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 72:35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Ryan SJ, Dawson AK, Littel HL (1985) Retinal diseases. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Sanborn GE, Anand R, Torti RE et al. (1992) Sustained-release ganciclovir therapy for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis: use of an intravitreal device. Arch Ophthalmol 110:188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Saraf D, Gin T, Yu F et al. (1999) Long-term drusen study. Retina 19:513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sarks SH (1976) Aging and degeneration in the macular region: a clinico-pathological study. Br J Ophthalmol 60:324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sarks SH (1980) Drusen and their relationship to senile macular degeneration. Aust J Ophthalmol 8:117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Scheie HG (1953) Evaluation of ophthalmoscopic changes of hypertension and arteriolar sclerosis. Arch Ophthalmol 49:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schmidt-Erfurth U für die PDT Studiengruppe (1998) Photodynamische Therapie — eine schonende Alternative zur Behandlung der exsudativen Makuladegeneration. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 213:11Google Scholar
  150. Schmidt-Erfurth U, Miller J, Sickenberg M et al. (1998) Photo-dynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization: clinical and angiographic examples. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 236:365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sebag J (1987) Age-related changes in human vitreous structure. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225:89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sebag J (1989) The vitreous: structure, function and patho-biology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  153. Sebag J, Balazs EA (1989) Morphology and ultrastructure of human vitreous fibers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sei 30: 187Google Scholar
  154. Sharma RK, Ehinger B (1999) Management of hereditary retinal degenerations: Present status and future directions. Surv Ophthalmol 43:427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Shields JA, Federman JL, Tomer TL et al. (1975) Angioid streaks: I. Ophthalmoscopic variations and diagnostic problems. Br J Ophthalmol 59:257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Singerman LJ, Harem G (1981) Laser treatment of choroidal neovascular membranes in angioid streaks. Retina 1:75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sjaarda RN, Frank DA, Glaser BM et al. (1993) Resolution of an absolute scotoma and improvement of relative scotoma after successful macular hole surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 116:129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Smiddy WE, Sjaarda RN, Glaser BM et al. (1996) Reoperation after failed macular hole surgery. Retina 16:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith RE, Kelley JS, Harbin TS (1974) Late macular complications of choroidal rupture. Am J Ophthalmol 77:650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Sobol WM, Blodi CF, Folk JC, Weingeist TA (1990) Long-term visual outcome in patients with optic nerve pit and serous retinal detachment of the macula. Ophthalmology 97: 1539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Spitznas M (1986) Pathogenesis of central serous retinopathy: a new working hypothesis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 224:321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Spitznas M, Huke J (1987) Number, shape, and topography of leakage points in acute type I central serous retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225:437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Spitznas M, Koch F, Pohl P (1990) Ultrastructural pathology of anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 228:487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Spitznas M, Meyer-Schwickerath G, Stephan B (1975 a) The clinical picture of Eales’ disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 194:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Spitznas M, Joussen F, Wessing A, Meyer-Schwickerath G (1975b) Coats’ disease. An epidemiologic and fluorescein angiographic study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 195:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Spitznas M, Meyer-Schwickerath G, Stephen B (1975 c) Treatment of Eales disease with photocoagulation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 194:193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stark WJ Jr, Maumenee AE, Fagadau W et al. (1984) Cystoid macular edema in pseudophakia. Surv Ophthalmol 28 (suppl):442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Stickler GB, Belau PG, Fartell FJ et al. (1965) Hereditary progressive arthroophthalmopathy. Mayo Clin Proc 40:443Google Scholar
  169. TAP Study Group (1999) Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin. One year results of 2 randomized clinical trials — TAP report 1. Arch Ophthalmol 117: 1329Google Scholar
  170. Tarkkanen A, Laatikainen L (1983) Coats disease: Clinical, angiographic, histopathological findings and clinical management. Br J Ophthalmol 67:766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tasman W, Jaeger EA (eds) (1995) Duane’s clinical ophthalmology. CD-ROM version. Lippincott, HagerstownGoogle Scholar
  172. Ulbig MW, Kampik A (1993) Stadienbezogene Therapie der diabetischen Retinopathie Ophthalmologe 90:395Google Scholar
  173. Ulbig MW, Kampik A, Hamilton AMP (1993) Diabetische Retinopathie. Ophthalmologe (1993) 90:197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wakakura M, Ishikawa S (1984) Central serous chorioretinopathy complicating systemic corticosteroid treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 68:329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Weiter JJ, Zuckerman R (1980) The influence of the photoreceptor-RPE complex on the inner retina: an explanation for the beneficial effects of photocoagulation. Ophthalmology 87:1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Weingeist TA, Goldman EJ, Folk JC et al. (1986) Terson’s syndrome: clinicopathologic correlations. Ophthalmology 93:1435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Wolbarsht ML, Landers MB 3rd (1980) The rationale of photocoagulation therapy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a review and a model. Ophthalmic Surg 11:235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Yanoff M, Fine BS, Brucker AJ, Eagle RC Jr (1984) Pathology of human cystoid macular edema. Surv Ophthalmol 28: 505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yannuzzi LA (1987) Type-A behavior and central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina 7:111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Yannuzzi LA, Landau AN, Turtz AI (1981) Incidence of aphakic cystoid macular edema with the use of topical indomethacin. Ophthalmology 88:947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Young RW (1987) Pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 31:291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert J. Augustin
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitäts-AugenklinikMainzDeutschland

Personalised recommendations