Advertisement

Risk-Based Remediation of Contaminated Soil

  • Tahir Husain
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 1)

Abstract

Risk assessment is an emerging multi-disciplinary scientific discipline used to evaluate health and ecological risks posed by the chemicals of concern (COC), also known as “risk agents”. This evaluation helps in formulating remedial actions and risk-based management plans to achieve target risk reduction. However, to comply with the regulations and to develop a cost-effective remedial action plan, there is a need to introduce a systematic and scientifically sound methodology. The methodology should not only help in assessing the extent of contamination and associated risks at a site, but it should also be able to identify appropriate remediation technologies. This paper introduces the concept of risk-based site remediation. The decision on the extent of cleanup at a site is based on environmental and human health risks to potential receptors through possible exposure pathways. In those locations where exposure of contamination to human health and ecosystems is low, a complete cleanup may not be required. The proposed methodology also allows “natural attenuation” as one of the remediation alternatives. If the contamination at a site can be contained and if the natural attenuation rates are promising, “no action” may be considered as one of the remedial options for site remediation. Many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites can be identified under the “natural attenuation” option using this approach.

Keywords

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Natural Attenuation Exposure Pathway Remediation Technology Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene Xylene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ASTM (1995) Standard guide for risk-based corrective action applied at petroleum release. American Society for testing and materials, ASTM E-1739Google Scholar
  2. Bell CE, Kostecki PT, Calabrese EJ (1991) Review of state clean up levels for hydrocarbon contaminated soils. In: Kostecki PT, Calabrese EJ (eds) Hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater, vol 1. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 77–89Google Scholar
  3. Bonazountas M, Wagner JM (1984) SESOIL: a seasonal soil compartment model; prepared for the US EPA. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  4. Connor JA, Nevin JP, Malander M, Stanley C, DeVaull G (1995) Tier 2 guidance manual for risk-based corrective action. Groundwater Services, Houston, TXGoogle Scholar
  5. Connor JA, Bowers RL, Paquette SM, Newell CI (1996) Soil attenuation model for derivation of risk-based soil remediation standards. Groundwater Services, Houston, TXGoogle Scholar
  6. Domenico PA (1987) An analytical model for multidimensional transport of a decaying contaminant species. J Hydrol 91:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farmer WJ (1980) Hexachlorobenzene: its vapor pressure and vapor phase diffusion in soil. Soil Sei Soc Am J 44:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Foster Wheeler (1998) RBCA Fate and transport models: compendium and selection guidance. Prepared by Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation for ASTMGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaudet C, Brady A, Bonnell M, Wong M (1992) Canadian approach to establishing cleanup levels for contaminated sites. In: Kostecki PT, Calabrese EJ (eds) Hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater, vol 1. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 49–66Google Scholar
  10. Newell C J, McLeod KR, Gonzales JR (1996) BIOSCREEN Natural attenuation decision support system. User’s Manual Version 1.3Google Scholar
  11. Rifai HS, Bendient PB, Wilson JT, Miller KM, Armstrong JM (1988) Biodegradation odeling at aviation fuel spill site. J Environ Eng 114:1007–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. US EPA (1991a) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, vol 1. Human Health Evaluation Manual. Part B: Development of risk-based preliminary remediation goals, EPA 540/R-92/003Google Scholar
  13. US EPA (1991b) MOFAT: a two-dimensional finite element program for multiphase flow and multicomponent transport, US EPA Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada Oklahoma, EPA/600/2–91/020Google Scholar
  14. US EPA (1992) User’s guide for the industrial source complex (ISC2) dispersion models. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Technical Support Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, EP4.8: IN2/V.2Google Scholar
  15. US EPA (1995) SCREENS model usets guide. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Emissions, Monitoring and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park North Carolina, EP4.8: SCR2/2Google Scholar
  16. US EPA (1996) Soil screening guidance: technical background document, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington DC, EPA/540/R-95/128Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tahir Husain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations