The skin over the back is considerably thicker than that of most other parts of the body. Its greater thickness is partly due to the more pronounced keratinization of the epidermis and partly to the robust layer of corium. Because of its toughness, the skin of the back is well able to resist trauma and for the same reason suppurative lesions do not easily break through it. The skin of the back is so inelastic that boils and carbuncles tend to cause greater tension and more pain than in other parts of the body. As a rule, the skin surface is divided into regular fields. Folds are not normally present, but in elderly people there may be transverse or oblique compression furrows on the nape of the neck. The orientation of the collagen fibers, as ascertained by Langer’s scarification method, is predominantly transverse, though they arch upwards between the shoulders (Fig. 167 a). Of more practical importance are the tension lines (Fig. 168). In the cervical and lumbar sectors they run for the most part transversely, but in the thoracic region they run vertically and form part of the long strands which encircle the shoulders.
KeywordsSpinous Process Spinal Nerve Lateral Branch Collector Level Venous Trunk
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