U Uranium pp 297-331 | Cite as

With Metals of the 4th Main Group

  • Hans Ulrich Borgstedt
Part of the Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry - 8th edition book series (GMELIN, volume U / A-E / B / 2)

Abstract

The alloying of U with Sn is favored by energy effects as is shown by means of a cellular model, which relates these effects to the atomic cells of the pure constituents [1]. The alloying effects originate from the change in boundary conditions when an atom is transferred from the pure metal to the alloy. The energy effects are determined by two terms. The first one represents the difference in the electronegativity between the two types of atoms in an alloy. The second one reflects the discontinuity in the density of electrons at the boundary between dissimilar Wigner-Seitz atomic cells. The electronegativity is similar to the experimental work functions of pure metallic elements. The heat of solution, \( \Delta {\bar H_{\mathop M\limits^ \circ }} \), of U in liquid Sn is calculated using a model [2]. The value of \( \Delta {\bar H_{\mathop M\limits^ \circ }} \) = -13 kcal/g-atom indicates that there is a clear tendency to form alloys in the liquid state. The same authors applied the model to predict the alloying behavior in the solid state [3]. They found that the model predictions of values for the heat of formation agree fairly well with much recent experimental data of intermetallic compounds, including some U compounds [4]. The model is able to predict the thermodynamic stability of several equiatomic compounds of a transition metal and Sn [5]. Tables for a variety of transition and nontransition elements have been established by applying a computer program in Algol 60. The value for the infinitely dilute solution of U in Sn is \( \Delta {\bar H^ \circ } \) = -99 kJ/g-atom (solute) and \( \Delta {\bar H^ \circ } \) = -84 kJ/g-atom for Sn in liquid U [4, 6].

Keywords

Entropy Quartz Furnace Graphite Enthalpy 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Ulrich Borgstedt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Material- und FestkörperforschungKernforschungszentrum KarlsruheKarlsruheFederal Republic of Germany

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