The past 250 years have been characterised by an astounding sequence of key innovations changing fundamentally the strategies for the production of goods to satisfy the needs of a dynamically growing population. Production patterns have been optimised, industrialised and urbanised. Mechanisation was already introduced in the late 18th century, giving rise to an unprecedented increase in production efficiency referred to by some historians as the 1st industrial revolution. The mechanisation of weaving, for instance, led to mass production of textiles. Steam engines enabled man to exploit resources at a scale before unseen. Coal mines were established, as were steel mills and chemical plants. New cities were founded. Earth’s resources were considered as being unlimited. They were there to be exploited. At the end of the 18th century, workers were needed and money was there to pay them. The mass poverty that stigmatised the pre-industrial, agricultural society vanished. Urban population rose. At the advent of the 19th century one billion people populated our planet, five times more than in the times of the New Testament.
KeywordsFermentation Steam Hydrocarbon Uranium Sandstone
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