Remise en état, i.e. preliminary refurbishment of the site to attract further investment to finance a thorough clean up. This method is preferred in regions with a low economic profile such as Lothringen in France.
Revitalising industry, i.e. re-establishment of industry on the abandoned site. The European Community prefers this strategy and subsidises appropriate projects since this leads to the creation of new long term jobs, thus effectively decreasing unemployment rates. Typical examples are remediation projects in former eastern Germany such as the steel mill Riesa or projects of the Internationale Bauaustellung Emscherpark IBA in the German Ruhr District. This strategy is also in line with the fit-foruse approach of the German Ministry of Environmental Protection that fears the costs connected with a full restoration of a contaminated site to the original condition.
Re-dedicating,i.e. using the site for tertiary purposes such as domestic areas or parkland. The costs to satisfy clean-up regulations are, however, quite substantial if the former industrial site is to be used for housing. Examples of this strategy are the Urban Development Corporation UDC in England, the London Docklands, or certain remediation projects in the German Ruhr District. Another attractive variation of land re-dedicating is the conception of recreation areas and nature resorts, which are urgently needed in the overpopulated industrial regions of Europe. In former (subsurface) mining districts that suffer from subsidence, wetlands and secondary biotops can be readily integrated into recreation areas (Drecker et al. 1995). Examples of secondary nature resorts can be visited in the German Ruhr District where the Bundesgartenschau (a national garden fair) provided the necessary funds to convert abandoned industrial sites into parkland.
KeywordsClay Permeability Surfactant Hydrocarbon Uranium
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