Low-Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers and Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Apertured-Microcavities

  • D. G. Deppe
Part of the Springer Series in Photonics book series (PHOTONICS, volume 6)


Iga is generally credited with pioneering the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) [1]. From 1979 into the mid-1980s Iga’s group at the Tokyo Institute of Technology was one of the few laboratories developing the VCSEL. In the mid-1980s Gourley and his co-workers began studying VCSELs fabricated directly from III–V epitaxy, using Al x Ga1−x As/Al y Ga1−y As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) [2]. Since Gourley’s work was based on photopumping, the practical aspects of all-epitaxial VCSELs was yet to be demonstrated. In 1989 Jewell and his co-workers demonstrated electrically injected, all-epitaxial VCSELs with low threshold current [3], and this result generated a great deal of interest in VCSEL devices. Since these demonstrations, the powerful approach that VCSELs provide for two-dimensional arrays of low power, high-speed light emitters has grown rapidly in appreciation.


Optical Loss Mode Size Threshold Current Density Spontaneous Emission Rate Planar Cavity 
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