History of Tobacco

  • Knut-Olaf Haustein

Abstract

Nicotiana tabacum, the tobacco plant used since ancient times in Central and South America, does not occur naturally but is a product of human cultivation [1], being a hybrid of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosifosa [2]. Nicotiana rustica (developed later in Russia as machorka) was the variety cultivated in North America and this has a higher nicotine content than other tobacco plants. Illustrations of the tobacco plant appeared under the name Nicotiana major in 17th-century herbals (Figure 1.1) because tobacco was believed to possess healing properties [3]. The nicotine content of tobacco leaves is increased if the leading stem of the plant and its lateral shoots are removed (a process known as “topping and suckering”), and drying improves the flavour of the leaves [1]. The juice of limes is used to enhance the flavour of some tobacco varieties [4], and the release of nicotine as the free base is improved in the process [5].

Keywords

Influenza Nicotine Cocaine Turkey Lime 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference List

  1. [1]
    Akuhurst BC. Tobacco. London: Longman. 1981.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Japan Tobacco. The Genus Nicotiana illustrated. 1994. Tokyo.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Tabernaemontanus DIT. New vollkommen Kräuter-Buch. Basel: Johann Königs Verlag. 1664.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Wilbert J. Tobacco and Shamanism in South America. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1987.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Travell J. The influence of the hydrogen ion concentration on the absorption of alkaloids from the stomach. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1940; 69:23–33.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Robicsek F. The Smoking Gods. Tobacco in Maya Art, History and Religion. Norman: The University of Oklahoma Press. 1978.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Corti ECC. Die trockene Trunkenheit. Ursprung, Kampf und Triumph des Rauchens. Leipzig: 1930.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Tiedemann F. Geschichte des Tabaks und anderer ähnlicher Genussmittel. Frankfurt: Verlag H. L. Brömmer. 1854.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Monardes N. Joyful Newes Out to the Newe Founde Worlde. London. 1577 (reprint). Amsterdam: Da Capo Press. 1970.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Laufer B. Introduction of Tobacco into Europe. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. 1924.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Brooks JE. The Mighty Leaf. In: Little B, ed. Tobacco through the centuries. Boston: 1952.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Sandgruber R. Genussmittel. Ihre reale und symbolische Bedeutung im neuzeitlichen Europa. Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 1994: 73–88.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Jacob, Britanniae Rex. Misocapnus seu de abusu tabaci lusus regius. London 1603. Utraject. 1644.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Precht K, Baumgartner HJ. Tabak. Gewohnheiten, Konsequenzen. St. Gallen-Berlin-Sao Paolo: Edition diá. 1993.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Tilley NM. The Bright-Tobacco Industry, 1860–1929. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1948.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Slade J. Nicotine delivery devices. In: Orleans CT, Slade J, eds. Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management. New York: Oxfort University Press. 1993: 3–23.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Tilley NM. The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 1985.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Kluger R. Ashes to Ashes. America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1996.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Lorillard P jr. American tobacco factories. In: Depew CM, ed. One Hundred Years of American Commerce. New York: Haynes. 1895.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Goodman J. Tobacco in History. The Cultures of Dependence. London: Routledge. 1993.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Licknit F. Tabak und Orgnaismus. Handbuch der gesamten Tabakkunde. Stuttgart: Hippokrates-Verlag. 1939: 1232.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Posselt WH, Reimann KL. Bemerkungen Nicotinanin und seine Eigenschaften. Schweigger u Meinicke Neues Journal für Chemie und Physik 1821;1-442.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Posselt WH, Reimann KL. Chemische Untersuchung des Tabaks und Darstellung des eigenthümlichen wirksamen Prinzips dieser Pflanze. Geigers Magazin f Pharmacie 1828; 6(23):138–161.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Trommsdorff JB. Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis des Tabaks. Neues Journal der Pharmacie (Leipzig) 1829; 19:129–155Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Hartwich C. Die menschlichen Genußmittel. Ihre Herkunft, Verbreitung, Geschichte, Bestandteile, Anwendung und Wirkung. Leipzig: Tauchnitz-Verlag. 1911.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Bentley HR. Report on visit to USA and Canada, 17 April–12 May 1958. Tobacco Products Litigation Reporter 1997; 12: 383–389.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Goodman J. Tobacco in History. London: Routledge. 1993.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Kellogg JH. Tobaccoism. Battle Creek/Mich. The Good Health Publishing Co. 1946.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Hamilton AE. The smoking world. New York: 1927.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Blum D. Auf leichten Flügeln ins Land der Phantasie. Tabak und Kultur-Columbus bis Davidoff. Berlin: Transit-Buchverlag. 1997.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Hurt RD, Robertson CR. Prying open the door to the tobacco industry’s secrets about nicotine: the Minnesota Tobacco Trial. JAMA 1998; 280:1173–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Müller J. Der Tabak in geschichtlicher, botanischer, chemischer, medicinischer und diätetischer Hinsicht. Emmerich: Verlag von Gebrüder Daams. 1842.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Redmond DE, Jr. Tobacco and cancer: the first clinical report, 1761. N Engl J Med 1970; 282:18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Glinski von. Untersuchungen über die Zunahme des primären Lungenkrebses unter Berücksichtigung der Pathogenese. Dt Arch klin Med 1939; 185:75–88.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Müller FH. Tabakmissbrauch und Lungencarcinom. Zschr Krebsforsch 1939; 49(1):57–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Schöninger E. Lungenkrebs und Tabakrauch (Inaugural-Dissertation). 1-25. 1944. Universität Jena.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Schairer E, Schöninger E. Lungenkrebs und Tabakverbrauch. Zschr Krebsforsch 1943; 54: 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Schairer E, Schoniger E. Lung cancer and tobacco consumption. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30(1):24–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Ernst E. Commentary: The Third Reich-German physicians between resistance and participation. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Proctor RN. Commentary: Schairer and Schoniget’s forgotten tobacco epidemiology and the Nazi quest for racial purity. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30(1):31–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Wachter T. Befleckte Kampagne gegen das Rauchen. Der Bund (Zürich) 2.3.2001, 16. 2001. Zürich.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Knut-Olaf Haustein
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Nicotine Research and Smoking CessationErfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations