Malignant Tumors of the Central Nervous System

  • Robert G. Parker
  • Nora A. Janjan
  • Michael T. Selch
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

In 2001, in the United States, there were approximately 17,200 new diagnoses of cancers of “the brain and other nervous systems”, with 13,100 consequent cancer-related deaths [1]. Men were affected more often that women in the ratio of 1.3:1. In the adult, metastases were several times more frequent than primary tumors [2, 3]. Primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) make up about 1.5% of all cancers and 2.5% of all cancer-related deaths [4]. Spinal cord tumors, both primary and metastatic, are about 10% as frequent as cerebral tumors [5]. Although the incidence of primary CNS tumors increases with increasing age, these tumors are proportionately more frequent in childhood [6], when primary CNS tumors are the most frequent solid cancers, with an incidence of 2–3 per 100,000 and are the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths [6, 7]. The most frequent primary tumors in children are medulloblastoma and low-grade astrocytoma [6].

Keywords

Adenoma Dementia Oncol Doxorubicin Neurol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    American Cancer Society (2001) Cancer facts and figures 2001. American Cancer Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Walker AE, Robins M, Weinfield FD (1985) Epidemiology of brain tumors: the national survey of intracranial neoplasms. Neurology 35: 219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Angelis LM, Cairncross JG (1997) Approach to the patient with tumors of the central nervous system. In: Kelly WN (ed) Textbook of internal medicine. Lippincott-Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cloughesy T, Selch MT, Liau L (2001) Brain. In: Haskell CM (ed) Cancer treatment. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1106–1142Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Batzdorf U, Haskell CM (2001) Spinal cord. In: Haskell CM (ed) Cancer treatment. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1142–1155Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wara WM, Bauman GS, Sneed PK, Larson DA, Karlsson UL (1977) Brain, brain stem and cerebellum. In: Perez CA, Brady LW (eds) Principles and practice of radiation oncology, 3rd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 777–828Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leibel SA (1998) Primary and metastatic brain tumors in adults. In: Leibel SA, Phillips TL (eds) Textbook of radiation oncology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 293–323Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ron E, Modan B, Boice JD Jr et al (1988) Tumors of the brain and nervous system after radiotherapy in childhood. N Engl J Med 319: 1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neglia JP, Meadows AT, Robinson LL et al (1991) Second neoplasms after acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N Engl J Med 325: 1330–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Walter AW, Hancock ML, Pui C-H et al (1998) Secondary brain tumors in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at St Jude Children’s Research Hospital. J Clin Oncol 16: 3761–3767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moore KL (1992) Clinically oriented anatomy, 3rd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 693–702Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Posner JB (1992) Management of brain metastases. Rev Neurol 148: 477–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Netter FH (1989) Atlas of human anatomy. Novartis, East Hanover, plates 137–139Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kleihues P, Cavenee WK (1998) Pathology and genetics of tumours of the nervous system. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Polednak AP, Flannery JT (1995) Brain, other central nervous system and eye cancer. Cancer 75 [Suppl]: 330–337Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Preston-Martin S (1996) Descriptive epidemiology of primary tumors of the spinal cord and spinal meninges in Los Angeles County, 1972–1985. Neuroepidemiology 9: 106–111Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    American Joint Committee on Cancer (1998) AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia,pp 255–258Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW (1993) Histological typing of tumors of the central nervous system. WHO international histological classification of tumors. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reeves GI, Marks JE (1979) Prognostic significance of lesion size for glioblastoma multiforme. Radiology 132: 469–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood JR, Green SB, Shapiro WR (1988) The prognostic importance of tumor size in malignant gliomas: a computed tomographic scan study by the Brain Tumor Cooperative Groups. J Clin Oncol 6: 338–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simpson JR, Horton J, Scott C et al (1993) Influence of location and extent of surgical resection on survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: results of three consecutive Radiation Therapy Oncology Group ( RTOG) clinical trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 26: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Devaux BC, O’Fallon JR, Kelly PJ (1993) Resection, biopsy, and survival in malignant glial neoplasms. A retrospective study of clinical parameters, therapy and outcome. J Neurosurg 78: 767–775Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis FG, Freels S, Grutsch Jet al (1998) Survival rates in patients with primary malignant brain tumors stratified by patient age and tumor histological type: an analysis based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data 1973–1991. J Neurosurg 88: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gehan EA, Walker MD (1997) Prognosis: factors for patients with brain tumors. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 46: 189–195Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walker MD, Green SB, Byar DP et al (1980) Randomized comparison of radiotherapy and nitrosoureas for the treatment of malignant gliomas after surgery. N Engl J Med 303: 1323–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Curran WJ, Scott CB, Horton J et al (1993) Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group malignant glioma trials. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 704–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chang CH, Housepian EM, Herbert C (1969) An operative staging system and megavoltage radiotherapeutic technic for cerebellar medulloblastomas. Radiology 107: 1351–1359Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bourne JP, Geyer R, Berger M et al (1992) The prognostic significance of postoperative residual contrast enhancement on CT scan in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma. J Neuro Oncol 14: 263–270Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Simpson D (1957) The recurrence of intracranial meningioma after surgical treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Pschiatr 20: 22–39Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McKeran RO, Thomas DGT (1980) The clinical study of gliomas. In: Thomas DGT, Graham DL (eds) Brain tumors: scientific basis, clinical investigation and current therapy. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 194–230Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wen PY (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. In: Black PML, Loeffler JS (eds) Cancer of the nervous system. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, pp 106–127Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cascino GD (1990) Epilepsy and brain tumors: implications for treatment. Epilepsia 3: S37 - S44Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ettinger AB (1994) Structural causes of epilepsy. Neurol Clin 12: 41–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Packer RJ, Nicholson S, Vezina G, Johnson DL (1992) Brainstem gliomas. Neurosurg Clin 3: 863–880Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Byrne TN (1994) Imaging of gliomas. Semin Oncol 21: 162–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kelly PJ, Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW et al (1987) Stereotactic histologic correlations of computed tomography–and magnetic resonance imaging–defined abnormalities in patients with glial neoplasms. Mayo Clin Proc 62: 450–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Silverman C, Marks JE (1981) Prognostic significance of contrast enhancement in low-grade astrocytomas of the adult cerebrum. Radiology 139: 211–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Piepmeier JM (1987) Observations on the current treat ment of low-grade astrocytic tumors of the cerebral hemispheres. J Neurosurg 67: 177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cairncross JG, MacDonald DR, Pexman JH et al (1988) Steroid-induced CT changes in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Neurology 38: 724–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Di Chiro G, Brooks RA (1988) PET-FDG of untreated and treated cerebral gliomas. J Nucl Med 29: 421–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coleman R, Hoffman J, Hanson M et al (1991) Clinical application of PET for the evaluation of brain tumors. J Nucl Med 32: 616–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    American Academy of Neurology (1991) Therapeutics and technology assessment: positron emission tomography. Neurology 41: 163–167Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Glanz MJ, Hoffman JM, Coleman RE et al (1991) Identification of early recurrence of primary central nervous system tumors by F-18 FDG–PET. Ann Neurol 29: 347–355Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Di Chiro G, Oldfield E, Wright DC et al (1988) Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy and/or intra arterial chemotherapy for brain tumors: PET and neuropathological studies. Am J Roentgenol 150: 189–197Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Black K, Hawkins R, Kim K et al (1989) Use of thallium-201 SPECT to quantitate malignancy grade of gliomas. J Neurosurg 71: 342–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Posner JB (1992) Management of brain metastases. Rev Neurol 148: 477–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cairncross JG, Posner JB (1983) The management of brain metastases. In: Walker MD (ed) Oncology of the nervous system. Nijhoff, Boston, pp 341–377Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wen PY, Black PMCL, Loeffler JS (2001) Metastatic brain cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds) Cancer: principles and practice of oncology, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 2655–2669Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Laws ER Jr, Taylor WF, Clifton MB et al (1984) Neurosurgical management of low-grade astrocytoma of the cerebral hemispheres. J Neurosurg 61: 665–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Saleman M (1990) Malignant glioma management. Neurosurg Clin North Am 1: 49–63Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Taghian A, Suit H, Pardo F et al (1992) In vitro intrinsic radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma multiforme. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 23: 55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gaspar LE, Fisher BJ, MacDonald DR et al (1993) Malignant glioma-timing of response to radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25: 877–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fisher BJ, Bauman GS, Leighton CE et al (1998) Low-grade gliomas in children: tumor volume response to radiation. J Neurosurg 88: 969–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tao ML, Barnes PD, Billett AL et al (1997) Childhood optic chiasm gliomas: radiographic response following radiotherapy and long-term clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 39: 579–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Montgomery BA, Griffin TW, Parker RG (1977) Optic nerve glioma: the role of radiation therapy. Cancer 40: 2079–2080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Danoff BG, Kramer S, Thompson N (1980) The radiotherapeutic management of optic nerve glioma in children. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rogers LR, Morris HH, Lupica K (1993) Effect of cranial irradiation on seizure frequency in adults with low-grade astrocytoma and medically intractable epilepsy. Neurology 43: 1599–1601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Levin VA, Leibel SA, Gutin PA (2001) Neoplasms of the central nervous system. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Malignant Tumors of the Central Nervous System 251 Rosenberg SA (eds) Cancer: principles and practice of 77. oncology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 2100–2160Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoffman WF, Levin VA, Wilson CB (1979) Evaluation of 78. malignant glioma patients during the postirradiation period. J Neurosurg 50: 624–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Posner JB (1995) Side effects of radiotherapy. In: Neuro- 79. logic complications of cancer. Davis, Philadelphia, p 312Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leibel SA, Sheline GE. 1991Tolerance of the brain and spinal cord to conventional irradiation. In: Gutin PH, 80. Leibel SA, Sheline GE (eds) Radiation injury to the nervous system. Raven, New York, p 211Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sheline GE, Wara WM, Smith V (1980) Therapeutic irradiation and brain injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 81. 1215–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schultheiss TE, Stephens LC, Peters LV (1986) Survival in radiation myelopathy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 1765–1769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schultheiss TE, Kun LE, Ang KK et al (1995) Radiation therapy of the central nervous system. Int J Radiat Oncol 82. Biol Phys 31: 1093–1112Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marcus RB Jr, Million RR (1990) The incidence of myelitis after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord. Int J Radiat Biol Phys 19: 3–8Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kaplan ID, Castro JR, Phillips TL (1994) Helium charged 83. particle radiotherapy for meningioma. Experience at UCLBL. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28: 257–261Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shaw CM, Sumi SM, Alvord EC, Gerdes AJ, Spence A, Parker RG (1978) Fast neutron irradiation of glioblastoma multiforme: neuropathological analysis. J Neurosurg 49: 1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Levin VA, Patlak CS, Landahl HD (1980) Heuristic model- 84. ing of drug delivery to malignant brain tumors. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 8: 257–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brem H, Piantadosi S, Burger PC et al (1995) Placebo-controlled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative 85. controlled delivery by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy for recurrent gliomas. The Polymer-Brain Tumor Treatment Group. Lancet 345: 1008–1012Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    MacDonald DR (1994) Low-grade gliomas, mixed glio- 86. mas, and oligodendrogliomas. Semin Oncol 21: 236–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shaw EG, Duamas-Duport C, Scheithauer BW et al (1989) Radiation therapy in the management of low-grade 87. supratentorial astrocytomas. J Neurosurg 70: 853–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Medbery CA III, Straus KI, Steinberg SM et al (1988) Low-grade astrocytomas: treatment results and prognostic 88. variables. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15: 837–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Recht LD, Lew R, Smith TW (1992) Suspected low-grade glioma: Is deferring treatment safe? Ann Neurol 31: 89. 431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Karim ABMF, Cornu P, Bleehan N et al (1988) Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in low-grade glioma improves 90. progression-free survival but not overall survival: preliminary results of an EORTC/MRC randomized phase III trial (abstract). Proc Ann Soc Clin Oncol 17: 400 91.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Eyre Ill, Crowley JJ, Townsend JJ et al (1993) A randomized trial of radiotherapy versus radiotherapy plus CCNU for incompletely resected low-grade gliomas: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Neurosurg 78: 909–914 92.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Akyol FH, Atahan IL, Zorlu F et al (1992) Results of postoperative or exclusive radiotherapy in grade I and grade II cerebellar astrocytoma patients. Radiother Oncol 23: 93. 245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shaw EG (2000) Low-grade gliomas,. In: Gunderson LL, Tepper JE (eds) Clinical radiation oncology. Churchill Livingstone, NewYork, pp 335–378Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    North CA, North RB, Epstein JA et al (1990) Low-grade cerebral astrocytomas: survival and quality of life after radiation therapy. Cancer 66: 6–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Walker MD, Alexander E, Hunt WE et al (1978) Evaluation of BCNU and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. J Neurosurg 49: 333–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Walker MD, Green SB, Byar DP et al (1980) Randomized comparisons of radiotherapy and nitrosoureas for the treatment of malignant glioma after surgery. N Engl J Med 303: 1323–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kristiansen K, Hagen S, Kollevold T et al (1981) Combined modality therapy of operated astrocytomas grade III and IV. Confirmation of the value of postoperative irradiation and lack of potentiation of bleomycin on survival time: a prospective multicenter trial of the Scandinavian glioblastoma study group. Cancer 47: 649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Freeman CR, Kirscher JP, Sanford RA et al (1993) Final results of a study of escalating doses of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in brain stem tumors in children: a Pediatric Oncology Study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27: 197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mandell LR, Kadota R, Freeman C et al (1999) There is no role of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors: results of a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial comparing conventional vs hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43: 959–964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Levin VA, Edwards MS, Wright DC et al (1980) Modified procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV3) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Cancer Treat Rep 64: 237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rodriguez LA, Prado M, Fulton D et al (1988) Treatment of recurrent brain stem gliomas and other central nervous system tumors with 5-fluorouracil, CCNU, hydroxyurea and 6-mercaptopurine. Neurosurgery 22: 691–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ludwig CL, Smith MT, Godfrey AD et al (1986) A clinicopathologic study of 323 patients with oligodendrogliomas. Ann Neurol 19: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cairncross JG, MacDonald DR (1988) Successful chemotherapy for recurrent malignant oligodendroglioma. Ann Neurol 23: 460–464Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    MacDonald DR, Gaspar LE, Cairncross JG (1990) Successful chemotherapy for newly diagnosed aggressive oligodendroglioma. Ann Neurol 27: 573–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kernohan JW, Sayre GP (1952) Tumors of the central nervous system. Atlas of tumor pathology. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kovalic JJ, Flaris N, Grigsby PW et al (1993) Intracranial ependymomas long-term outcome, patterns of failure. J Neurooncol 15: 125–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Goldwein JW, Glauser TA, Packer RJ et al (1990) Recurrent intracranial ependymomas in children: survival, patterns of failure and prognostic factors. Cancer 66: 557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mork SJ, Rubenstein LJ, Wada C et al (1985) Ependymoblastoma: a reappraisal of a rare embryonal tumor. Cancer 55: 1536–1542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ikezaki K, Matsushima T, Inoue T et al (1993) Correla- tion of microanatomical localization with postoperative survival in posterior fossa ependymomas. Neurosurgery 32: 38–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Healey EA, Barnes PD, Kupsky WJ et al (1991) The prognostic significance of postoperative residual tumor in ependymomas. Neurosurgery 28: 666–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nazar GB, Hoffman HJ, Becker LE et al (1990) Infratentorial ependymomas in childhood: prognostic factors and treatment. J Neurosurg 72: 408–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sutton LN, Goldwein J, Perilongo G et al (1990) Prognostic factors in childhood ependymomas. Pediatr Neurosurg 16: 57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wallner KE,Wara WM, Sheline GE, Davis RL (1986) Intracranial ependymomas results of treatment with partial or whole brain irradiation without spinal irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 1937–1941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Merchant TE, Haida T, Wang MH et al (1997) Anaplastic ependymomas: treatment of pediatric patients with or without craniospinal radiation therapy. J Neurosurg 86: 943–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Carrie C, Mottolese C, Bouffet E et al (1995) Non-metastatic childhood ependymoma. Radiother Oncol 36: 101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shaw EG, Evans RG, Scheithauer BW et al (1987) Postoperative radiotherapy of intracranial ependymoma in pediatric and adult patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 1457–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vanuytsel L, Braada M (1991) The role of prophylactic spinal irradiation in localized intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21: 825–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Goldwein JW, Leahy JM, Packer RJ et al (1990) Intracranial ependymomas in children. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19: 1497–1502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Selch MT (2001) Ependymoma. In: Haskell CM (ed) Spinal cord cancer treatment, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1147–1149Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lindstadt DE, Wara WM, Leibel SA et al (1989) Postoperative radiotherapy of primary spinal cord tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16: 1397–1403Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Waldron JN, Laperriere NJ, Jaakkimainen L et al (1993) Spinal cord ependymomas: a retrospective analysis of 59 cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 27: 223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sonneland PR, Scheithauer BW, Onofrio BM (1985) Myxopapillary ependymoma. A clinicopathologic and immunocytochemical study of 77 cases. Cancer 56: 883–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shaw EG, Evans RG, Scheithauer BW et al (1986) Radio-therapeutic management of adult intraspinal ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wen BC, Hussey DH, Hitchon PW et al (1991) The role of radiation therapy in the management of ependymoma of the spinal cord. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20: 781–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Guidetti B, Mercuri S, Vagnozzi R (1981) Long-term results of the surgical treatment of 129 intramedullary spinal gliomas. J Neurosurg 54: 323–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Epstein FJ, Farmer JP, Freed D (1993) Adult intramedullary spinal cord ependymomas: the result of surgery in 38 patients. J Neurosurg 79: 204–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    DiMarco A, Griso C, Pradella R et al (1988) Postoperative management of primary spinal cord ependymoma. Acta Oncol 27: 371–375Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shirato H, Kamada T, Hida K et al (1995) The role of radiotherapy in the management of spinal cord glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 33: 323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kopelson G, Linggood RM, Kleinman GM et al (1980) Management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiology 135: 473–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Clover LL, Hazuka MB, Kinzie JJ (1993) Spinal cord ependymomas treated with surgery and radiation therapy. A review of 11 cases. Am J Clin Oncol 16: 350–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Garcia DM (1985) Primary spinal cord tumors treated with surgery and postoperative irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1933–1939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Quest DO (1978) Meningiomas: an update. Neurosurg 3: 219–225Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wara WM, Sheline GE, Newman H et al (1975) Radiation therapy of meningiomas. Am J Roentgenol 123: 453–458Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chan RC, Thompson GB (1984) Morbidity, mortality and quality of life following surgery for intracranial meningiomas. J Neurosurg 60: 52–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mirimanoff RO, Dosoretz DE, Linggood RM et al (1985) Meningioma: analysis of recurrence and progression following neurosurgical resection. J Neurosurg 62: 18–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Barbaro NM, Gutin PH, Wilson CB et al (1987) Radiation therapy in the treatment of partially resected meningiomas. Neurosurgery 20: 525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Simpson D (1957) The recurrence of intracranial meningioma after surgical treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 20: 22–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mirabell R, Linggood RM, de la Monte S et al (1992) The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of subtotally resected benign meningiomas. J Neurooncol 13: 157–164Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Petty AM, Kun LE, Meyer GA (1985) Radiation therapy for incompletely resected meningiomas. J Neurosurg 62: 502–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Salazar OM (1988) Ensuring local control in meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15: 501–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    King DL, Chang CH, Pool JL (1966) Radiotherapy in the management of meningiomas. Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol 5: 26–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Goldsmith BJ, Wara WM, Wilson CB, Larson DA (1994) Postoperative irradiation of subtotally resected meningiomas: a retrospective analysis of 140 patients treated from 1967 to 1990. J Neurosurg 80: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Coffey RJ, Flickinger JC (1991) Stereotactic radiosurgery of meningiomas. J Neurosurg 74: 552–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rorke LB, Gilles FH, Davis RL et al (1985) Revision of the World Health Organization clarification of brain tumor for childhood brain tumors. Cancer 56: 1869–1886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Russell DS, Rubenstein LJ (1989) Medulloblastoma. In: Russell DS, Rubenstein LJ (eds) Pathology of tumors of the central nervous system, 5th edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 251–254Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bloom HJ (1982) Medulloblastoma in children: increasing survival rates and further prospects. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 8: 2023–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Deutsch M (1984) The impact of myelography on the treatment results for medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10: 999–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Park TS, Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB et al (1983) Medulloblastoma: clinical presentation and management experience at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 1950–1980. J Neurosurg 58: 543–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lowery GS, Kimball JC, Paterson RB et al (1982) Extra-neural metastases from cerebellar medulloblastoma. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 4: 259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bailey CC, Gnekow A, Wellek Set al (1995) Prospective randomized trial of chemotherapy given before radiotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma: International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and the (German) Society of Pediatric Oncology ( GPO ). Med Pediatr Oncol 26: 166–178Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Boyett J, Seltzer P, Finlay J et al (1995) Progression-free survival (PFS) and risk factors for primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the posterior fossa (medulloblastoma) in children: report of the Children’s Cancer Group (CCG) randomized trial, CCG-921. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 14: 147–148Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tait DM, Thornton-Jones H, Bloom HJG et al (1990) Adjuvant chemotherapy for medulloblastoma: the first multi-centre control trial of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology ( SIOP I ). Eur J Cancer 26: 464–469Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Evans AE, Jenkin RD, Sposto R et al (1990) The treatment of medulloblastoma: results of a prospective randomized trial of radiation therapy with and without CCNU, vincristine and prednisone. J Neurosurg 72: 572–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Deutsche M, Thomas P, Boyett J et al (1991) Low-stage medulloblastoma: a Children’s Cancer Study Group (CCSG) and Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) randomized study of standard vs. reduced neuraxis irradiation. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 10: 124–125Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hughes WN, Shillito J, Sallan SE et al (1988) Medulloblastoma at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy between 1968 and 1984. Cancer 61: 1992–1998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Jenkin D, Goddard K, Armstrong D et al (1990) Posterior fossa medulloblastoma in childhood: treatment results and a proposal for a new staging system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19: 265–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Deutsch M, Thomas PRM, Krischer Jet al (1996) Results of a prospective randomized trial comparing standard dose neuraxis irradiation (3600 cGy/20) with reduced neuraxis irradiation (2340 cGy/13) in patients with low stage medulloblastoma: a combined Children’s Cancer Group–Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Pediatr Neurosurg 24: 167–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Deangelis LM (1995) Current management of primary central nervous system lymphoma. Oncology 9: 63–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Qualman SJ, Mendensohn G, Mann RB (1983) Intraocular lymphomas, natural history based on a clinicopathologic study of eight cases and review of the literature. Cancer 52: 878–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Deangelis LM,Yahalom J, Heinemann MH (1990) Primary CNS lymphoma: combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neurology 40: 80–86Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hochberg FH, Cher L (1995) The Deangelis article reviewed. Oncology 9: 76–77Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Loeffler JS, Erwin TJ, Mauch P et al (1985) Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system: patterns of failure and factors that influence survival. J Clin Oncol 3: 490–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Glass J, Gruber ML, Cher L et al (1989) Preirradiation methotrexate chemotherapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma: long-term outcome. J Neurosurg 81: 188–195Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cher LM, Hochberg FH, Glass J (1994) Therapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PC NSL) with methotrexate (MTX) based intravenous chemotherapy (MBI SC) and deferred whole brain radiation therapy (WBER). Neurology 44 [Suppl 2]: A374 - A375Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Nelson DF, Martz KL, Bonner H et al (1992) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the brain: can high-dose, large-volume radiation therapy improve survival? Report on a prospective trial by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG); RTOG 8315. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 23: 9–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Maranzano E, Latini P (1995) Effectiveness of radiation therapy without surgery in metastatic spinal cord compression: final results from a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32: 959–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cairncross JG, Posner JB (1983) The management of brain metastases. In: Walker MD (ed) Oncology of the nervous system. Nijhoff, Boston, pp 341–377Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Borgett B, Gelber R, Kramer S et al (1980) The palliation of brain metastases: final results of the first two studies by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Groups. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 1–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert G. Parker
    • 1
  • Nora A. Janjan
    • 2
  • Michael T. Selch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA School of MedicineUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyM.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations