Advertisement

Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Crop Genetic Resources: The Role of the Public Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Detlef Virchow
Chapter

Abstract

Throughout the centuries, farmers have developed crop seeds from the rich genetic diversity of naturally occurring species. Only for the past two centuries has the development of varieties been based on scientific research. And it is only since the early twentieth century that a true commercial production of crop seeds has started to replace farmers’ selection work. Although the global exchange of the crop genetic resources (CGR), global public research and development of improved varieties are common practices, globalization is becoming increasingly important for the breeding sector. Privatization and internationally acting multinational breeding companies are playing an increasing role and, for instance in biotechnology, are taking over the lead in the research, development and production of improved seed. Increased privatization through globalization leads to some changes, which raise new policy issues to be analyzed: (1) an increasing rate of adoption of improved varieties is taking place on a worldwide basis, and it is welcomed — seen from the point of view of the increase in agricultural production. However, the adoption inevitably leads to a decline in CGR. The political will to conserve CGR has been discussed in several international fora and was explicitly documented in the “Leipzig Declaration” as an outcome of the International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, held in Leipzig, Germany, in June 1996 (FAO, 1996a). Therefore, new conservation concepts have to be developed, and old ones improved.

Keywords

Public Sector Genetic Resource Plant Genetic Resource Breeding Activity TRIPs Agreement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akanko, H. A. (1996): Issues of the Ghana Seed Industry and Seed Marketing and Distribution. In: German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and International Center for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA): Organisation and Management of National Seed Programs. Proceedings of a follow-up seminar/workshop in Aleppo, Syria, 12–14 November 1994. Pp. 191–202.Google Scholar
  2. Alexandratos, N. (ed.) (1995): World Agriculture: Towards 2010: An FAO Study. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Barbier, E. B., J. C. Burgess and C. Folke (1994): Paradise Lost? The ecological economics of biodiversity. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  4. Barin, D. (1997): Seed Trade and Seed Security in Developing Countries. In: FAO: International Workshop on Seed Security for Food Security. Contributions for the Development of seed Security Strategies in Disaster-Prone Regions. Proceedings. “http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agps/georgof/georgo”.htmGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolster, J.S. (1985): Selection for perceptual distinctiveness: evidence from Aguarana cul-tivars of Manihot esculenta. In: Economic Botany 39. Pp. 310–325.Google Scholar
  6. Braden, J.B. and C.D. Kolstad (eds.). (1991): Measuring the Demand for Environmental Quality. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  7. von Braun, J. (1994a): Die langfristige Herausforderung der Ernährungssicherung: Politika-ternativen unter Bevölkerungsdruck.Google Scholar
  8. von Braun, J. (1994b): Genes and Biodiversity: new scarcities and rights challenge agricultural economics research. In: Quarterly Journal for International Agriculture. 4/1994. Pp. 345–348.Google Scholar
  9. von Braun, J. and D. Virchow (1997): Conflict-Prone Formation of Markets for Genetic Resources: Institutional and Economic Implications for Developing Countries. Quarterly Journal for International Agriculture, 1/1997. Pp. 6–38.Google Scholar
  10. Brush, S.B. (1991): Farmer conservation of New World crops: the case of Andean potatoes, Diversity 7. Pp. 75–79.Google Scholar
  11. Conway, G., U. Lele, J. Peacock, M. Pineiro, S. Ozgediz, M. Griffon, M. Hazell, H. Cara-slade and J. Holmberg (1994): A vision for the CGIAR: Sustainable Agriculture for a Food Secure World. In: CGIAR Secretariat (1995): Renewel of the CGIAR: Sustainable Agriculture for Food Security in Developing Countries. Background documents on Major Issues, Ministerial-level Meeting, Lucerne, Switzerland, 9–10 February 1995.Google Scholar
  12. Cromwell, E. (1990): Seed Diffusion Mechanisms in Small Farm Communities: Lessons from Asia, Africa and Latin America. Network Paper No. 21. ODI, London.Google Scholar
  13. Cromwell, E., S. Wiggins and S. Wentzel (1993): Sowing Beyong the State: NGOs and Seed Supply in Developing Countries. ODI, London.Google Scholar
  14. FAO (1993): Harvesting Nature’s Diversity. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  15. FAO (1996a): Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  16. FAO (1996b): Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the Summit Plan of Action, adopted at the opening session on November 13. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  17. Fischbeck, G. (1992): Barley cultivar development in Europe. Success in the past and possible changes in the future. In: Munk, L. (ed.): Barley Genetics VI. Vol. II. Pp. 885–901. Munksgaard Intl. Publ. Ltd., Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  18. GCA (Greenpeace Central America). (1996): Introduction and Use of Genetically Modified Organisms in Guatemala. A Greenpeace Report. Guatemala.Google Scholar
  19. Goodman, M.M. (1985): Exotic Maize Germplasm: Status, Prospects and Remedies. Iowa State Jour. Res., 59. Pp. 497–527.Google Scholar
  20. Grohs, F. (1994): Economics of Soil Degradation, Erosion and Conservation: A Case Study of Zimbabwe. Kiel.Google Scholar
  21. Gupta, A. K. (1996): Personal Communication. Indian Institute of Management. Ahmeda-bad.Google Scholar
  22. Hammer, K. (1995): Personal Communication. Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Gatersleben. Head of Genebank.Google Scholar
  23. Heidhues, F. (1994): Probleme internationaler Arbeitsteilung in der Agrarwirtschaft In: Agrarwirtschaft 43, 1994, Heft 4/5. Pp. 191–197.Google Scholar
  24. ICR (Indian Country Report). (1995): Country Report on Status of Plant Genetic Resources India. Submitted to FAO in the preparatory process for the International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources.Google Scholar
  25. Joshi, K.D., B.R. Sthapit, R.B. Rana, A. Subedi and J.R. Witcombe (1998): The Impact of Participatory Plant Breeding in High-Altitude Rice in Nepal. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture in Hill Areas, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur.Google Scholar
  26. Kelly, A.F. (1989): Seed Planning and Policy for Agricultural Production. London. Bel-haven Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kern, M. (1999): Personal communication at AgrEvo. Frankfurt, Germany.Google Scholar
  28. Le Buanec, B. (1995): Seed Trade in WANA, EU and Other Countries.Google Scholar
  29. LEI-DLO (Agricultural Economic Institute), Rabobank Nederland and Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (1994): The World Seed Market.Google Scholar
  30. Leskien, D. and M. Flitner (1997): Intellectual Property Rights and Plant Genetic Resources: Options for a Sui Generis System. Issues in Genetic Resources No. 6. IPGRI, Rome.Google Scholar
  31. López-Pereira, M.A. and M.L. Morris (1994): Impacts of International Maize Breeding Research in the Developing World, 1966–1990. CIMMYT, Mexiko.Google Scholar
  32. Morris, M.L. and P.W. Heisey (1997): Achieving desirable levels of crop genetic diversity in farmers’ fields: Factors affecting the production and use of improved seed. Paper presented at the Symposium: Building the Theoretical and Empirical Basis for the Economics of Genetic Diversity and Genetic Resources Conservation in Crop Plants. Held at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, 17–19 August 1997.Google Scholar
  33. OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). (1996): Intellectual Property, Technology Transfer and Genetic Resources: An OECD survey of current practices and policies. OECD, Paris.Google Scholar
  34. Pineda, R. (1996): Privatization in Honduras. In: German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and International Center for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA): Organisation and Management of National Seed Programs. Proceedings of a follow-up seminar/workshop in Aleppo, Syria, 12–14 November 1994. Pp. 238–242.Google Scholar
  35. Qaim, M. (1999): Assessing the Impact of Banana Biotechnology in Kenya. IS AAA Briefs, No. 10. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, published in collaboration with ZEF, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  36. Singh, R.P., S. Pal and M. Morris (1995): Maize Research and Development and Seed Production in India: Contributions of the Public and Private Sectors. CIMMYT Economics Working Paper 95–03. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.Google Scholar
  37. Smale, M. (1996): Global Trends in Wheat Genetic Diversity and International Flows of Wheat Genetic Resources. Part I of: CIMMYT World Wheat Facts and Trends. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.Google Scholar
  38. Smale, M. (1997): The Green Revolution and Wheat Genetic Diversity: Some unfounded Assumptions. In: World Development, Vol. 25, No. 8, Pp. 1257–1269. Elsevier Sciences Ltd., Great Britain.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, S. and W. Salhuana (1996): The role of industry in the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Presentation to the ASSINSEL/GIBIP workshop “The Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture”, 15–16 February 1996, Basel, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  40. Tarp, M. (1995): Personal communication at FAO.Google Scholar
  41. Umali, D. and L. Schwartz (1994): Public and Private Agricultural Extension: Beyond Traditional Frontiers. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 236. Washington DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. UPOV (Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales) (1992): International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants of December 2, 1996, as Revised at Geneva on 10 November 1972, on 23 October 1978, and on 19 March 1991. UPOV, Geneva.Google Scholar
  43. Venkatesan, V. (1994): Seed Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Discussion Papers. Africa Technical Department Series No. 266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Virchow, D. (1999a): Conservation of genetic resources: costs and implications for a sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Springer, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  45. Virchow, D. (1999b): A Market for Genetically Coded Information as an Efficient Exchange Mechanism for Genetic Resources? Some Conceptual Considerations. In: Proceedings of ICABR conference on “The Shape of the Coming Agricultural Biotechnology Transformation: Strategic Investment and Policy Approaches from an Economic Perspective”. University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 17–19 June 1999.Google Scholar
  46. Walker, D.J. and R. Tripp (1997): Seed Management by Small-Scale Farmers in Ghana and Zambia. In: FAO: International Workshop on Seed Security for Food Security. Contributions for the Development of seed Security Strategies in Disaster-Prone Regions. Proceedings, “http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agps/georgof/georgol”.htmGoogle Scholar
  47. WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Center), Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University (1996): Industrial Reliance upon Biodiversity. WCMC, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  48. Weltzien-Rattunde, E. (1996): Personal Communication. ICRISAT, Senior Scientist, Breeding.Google Scholar
  49. Wright, B.D. (1996): Intellectual property and farmers’ rights. Paper presented at the CEIS — Tor Vergata University, Symposium on the Economics of Valuation and Conservation of Genetic Resources for Agriculture, 13–15 May 1996.Google Scholar
  50. Wych, R.D. and D.C. Rasmusson (1983): Genetic improvement of malting barley cultivars since 1920. Crop Science. 23. Pp. 1037–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Detlef Virchow

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations