Percolating Networks as Random Fractals
The theory of percolation was initiated in 1957 by Broadbent and Hammersley [3.1] in connection with the diffusion of gases through porous media. At that time Broadbent was a researcher at the British Coal Utilization Research Association working on the design of gas masks made of porous filters. He noticed that if pores are wide and well connected, the gas molecules penetrate deep into the filter. Otherwise the gas cannot pass through. He brought this problem to the mathematician Hammersley [3.2]. They developed the geometrical and probabilistic theory of percolation.
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