Geophysical Techniques for Archaeology
The objective of this chapter is not to make the reader adept in the theory and application of geophysical techniques used in archaeology today. The goal is to present a relatively comprehensive survey of “shallow” geophysics, ranging from electrical — resistivity and conductivity — to magnetic and radar methods. The methods to be discussed are the ones most commonly used in archaeological geophysics. Less frequently used methods — seismic, gravity, thermographic, induced polarization, self-potential — to name some of the other methods used in shallow geophysics, will not be examined in any detail. Many of these other methods have achieved interesting results, in regard to archaeological prospection, but for a variety of reasons they remain of marginal interest to archaeology today. As with all the geophysical methods utilized by archaeology, none were developed with archaeological prospection in mind. As is true with most, if not all, of the various methods used by archaeology, these methods have been borrowed and adapted to fit archaeological goals.
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