References

  • Davor Solter
  • D. Beyleveld
  • M. B. Friele
  • J. Hołówka
  • H. Lilie
  • R. Lovell-Badge
  • C. Mandla
  • U. Martin
  • R. Pardo Avellaneda
Chapter
Part of the Wissenschaftsethik und Technikfolgenbeurteilung book series (ETHICSSCI, volume 21)

Keywords

Europe Dopamine Neurol Integrin Infertility 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

1 Theoretical and practical possibilities in human embryo experimentation

  1. Abbott A, Cyranoski D (2001) China plans `hybrid’ embryonic stem cells. Nature 413: 339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adjaye J, Daniels R, Monk M (1998) The construction of cDNA libraries from human single preimplantation embryos and their use in the study of gene expression during development. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 15: 344–348Google Scholar
  3. Alison MR, Poulsom R, Jeffery R, Dhillon AP, Quaglia A, Jacob J, Novelli M, Prentice G, Williamson J, Wright NA (2000) Hepatocytes from non-hepatic adult stem cells. Nature 406: 257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amit M, Carpenter MK, Inokuma MS, Chiu C-P, Harris CP, Waknitz MA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Thomson JA (2000) Clonally derived human embryonic stem cell lines maintain pluripotency and proliferative potential for prolonged periods of culture. Dev. Biol. 227: 271–278Google Scholar
  5. Anversa P, Nadal-Ginard B (2002) Myocyte renewal and ventricular remodelling. Nature 415: 240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aslam I, Fishel S, Green S, Campbell A, Garratt L, McDermott H, Dowell K, Thornton S (1998) Can we justify spermatid microinjection for severe male factor infertility? Hum. Reprod. Update 4: 213–222Google Scholar
  7. Barritt J, Willadsen S, Brenner C, Cohen J ( 2001 a) Cytoplasmic transfer in assisted reproduction. Hum. Reprod. Update 7: 428–435Google Scholar
  8. Barritt JA, Brenner CA, Malter HE, Cohen J ( 2001 b) Mitochondria in human offspring derived from ooplasmic transplantation. Hum. Reprod. 16: 513–516Google Scholar
  9. Beddington R (1985) The development of 12th to 14th day foetuses following reimplantation of pre-and early-primitive-streak-stage mouse embryos. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 88: 281–91Google Scholar
  10. BenEzra D(2003) In-vitro fertilization and retinoblastoma. Lancet 361:273–274Google Scholar
  11. Bjornson CRR, Rietze RL, Reynolds BA, Magli MC, Vescovi AL (1999) Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. Science 283: 534–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackshaw S, Cepko CL (2002) Stem cells that know their place. Nat. Neurosci. 5: 1251–1252Google Scholar
  13. Blau H, Brazelton T, Keshet G, Rossi F (2002) Something in the eye of the beholder. Science 298: 361–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blau HM, Brazelton TR, Weimann JM (2001) The evolving concept of a stem cell: entity or function? Cell 105: 829–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonduelle M, Liebaers I, Deketelaere V, Derde MP, Camus M, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem A (2002) Neonatal data on a cohort of 2889 infants born after ICSI (1991–1999) and of 2995 infants born after IVF (1983–1999). Hum. Reprod. 17: 671–694Google Scholar
  16. Bourc’his D, Le Bourhis D, Patin D, Niveleau A, Comizzoli P, Renard J-P, Viegas-Pequignot E (2001) Delayed and incomplete reprogramming of chromosome methylation patterns in bovine cloned embryos. Curr. Biol. 11: 1542–1546Google Scholar
  17. Braude P (2001) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and embryo research — human developmental biology in clinical practice. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 45: 607–611Google Scholar
  18. Braude P, Bolton V, Moore S (1988) Human gene expression first occurs between the four- and eight-cell stages of preimplantation development. Nature 332: 459–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Braude PR, De Wert GM, Evers-Kiebooms G, Pettigrew RA, Geraedts JP (1998) Non-disclosure preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington’s disease: practical and ethical dilemmas. Prenat. Diagn. 18: 1422–1426Google Scholar
  20. Braun KM, Degen JL, Sandgren EP (2000) Hepatocyte transplantation in a model of toxin-induced liver disease: variable therapeutic effect during replacement of damaged parenchyma by donor cells. Nat. Med. 6: 320–326Google Scholar
  21. Brazelton TR, Rossi FMV, Keshet GI, Blau HM (2000) From marrow to brain: expression of neuronal phenotypes in adult mice. Science 290: 1775–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bredkjaer HE, Grudzinskas JG (2001) Cryobiology in human assisted reproductive technology. Would Hippocrates approve? Early Pregnancy 5: 211–213Google Scholar
  23. Brinster RL (2002) Germline stem cell transplantation and transgenesis. Science 296: 2174–2176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brüstle O, Jones KN, Learish RD, Karram K, Choudhary K, Wiestler OD, Duncan ID, McKay RD (1999) Embryonic stem cell-derived glial precursors: a source of myelinating transplants. Science 285: 754–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bullen Pi, Robson SC, Strachan T (1998) Human post-implantation embryo collection: medical and surgical techniques. Early Hum. Dev. 51: 213–221Google Scholar
  26. Capmany G, Taylor A, Braude PR, Bolton VN (1996) The timing of pronuclear formation, DNA synthesis and cleavage in the human 1-cell embryo. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2: 299–306Google Scholar
  27. Castro RF, Jackson KA, Goodell MA, Robertson CS, Liu H, Shine HD (2002a) Failure of bone marrow cells to transdifferentiate into neural cells in vivo. Science 297: 1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castro RF, Jackson KA, Goodell MA, Robertson CS, Liu H, Shine HD (2002b) Response to “Something in the eye of the beholder”. Science 298: 362Google Scholar
  29. Cavazzana-Calvo M, Hacein-Bey S, de Saint Basile G, Gross F, Yvon E, Nusbaum P, Selz F, Hue C, Certain S, Casanova J-L, Bousso P, Le Deist F, Fischer A (2000) Gene therapy of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-X1 disease. Science 288: 669–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chan AW, Dominko T, Luetjens CM, Neuber E, Martinovich C, Hewitson L, Simerly CR, Schatten GP (2000) Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting. Science 287: 317–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chung YG, Mann MRW, Bartolomei MS, Latham KE (2002) Nuclear-cytoplasmic “tug of war” during cloning: effects of somatic cell nuclei on culture medium preferences of preimplantation cloned mouse embryos. Biol. Reprod. 66: 1178–1184Google Scholar
  32. Cibelli JB, Grant KA, Chapman KB, Cunniff K, Worst T, Green HL, Walker SJ, Gutin PH, Vilner L, Tabar V, Dominko T, Kane J, Wettstein PJ, Lanza RP, Studer L, Vrana KE, West MD (2002) Parthenogenetic stem cells in nonhuman primates. Science 295: 819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cibelli JB, Kiessling AA, Cunniff K, Richards C, Lanza RP, West MD (2001) Somatic cell nuclear transfer in humans: pronuclear and early embryonic development. e-biomed 2: 25–31Google Scholar
  34. Clarke DL, Johansson CB, Wilbertz J, Veress B, Nilsson E, Karlström H, Lendahl U, Frisén J (2000) Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells. Science 288: 1660–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen J, Scott R, Alikani M, Schimmel T, Munne S, Levron J, Wu L, Brenner C, Warner C, Willadsen S (1998) Ooplasmic transfer in mature human oocytes. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4: 269–280Google Scholar
  36. Cohen J, Simons RF, Fehilly CB, Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Hewitt J, Rowlant GF, Steptoe PC, Webster JM (1985) Birth after replacement of hatching blastocyst cryopreserved at expanded blastocyst stage. Lancet 1: 647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Couzin J (2002) Quirks of fetal environment felt decades later. Science 296: 2167–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cox GF, Burger J, Lip V, Mau UA, Sperling K, Wu BL, Horsthemke B (2002) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection may increase the risk of imprinting defects. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71: 162–164Google Scholar
  39. D’Amour KA, Gage FH (2002) Are somatic stem cells pluripotent or lineage-restricted ? Nat. Med. 8: 213–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Daniels R, Hall V, Trounson AO (2000) Analysis of gene transcription in bovine nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed with granulosa cell nuclei. Biol. Reprod. 63: 1034–1040Google Scholar
  41. Davies TJ, Gardner RL (2002) The plane of first cleavage is not related to the distribution of sperm components in the mouse. Hum. Reprod. 17: —2379Google Scholar
  42. Davis OK, Rosenwaks Z (2001) Superovulation strategies for assisted reproductive technologies. Semin. Reprod. Med. 19: 207–212Google Scholar
  43. DeBraun MR, Niemitz EL, Feinberg AP (2003) Association of in vitro fertilization with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and epigenetic alteratios of LITI and H19. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72: 156–160Google Scholar
  44. DeWitt N, Knight J (2002) Biologists question adult stem-cell versatility. Nature 416: 354 Donovan PJ, Gearhart J (2001) The end of the beginning for pluripotent stem cells. Nature 414: 92–97Google Scholar
  45. Downing BG, Mohr LR, Trounson AO, Freemann LE, Wood C (1985) Birth after transfer of cryopreserved embryos. Med. J. Aust. 142: 409–411Google Scholar
  46. Drukker M, Katz G, Urbach A, Schuldiner M, Markel G, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Reubinoff B, Mandelboim O, Benvenisty N (2002) Characterization of the expression of MHC proteins in human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 9864–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eiges R, Schuldiner M, Drukker M, Yanuka O, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Benvenisty N (2001) Establishment of human embryonic stem cell-transfected clones carrying a marker for undifferentiated cells. Curr. Biol. 11: 514–518Google Scholar
  48. Ertzeid G, Storeng R (2001) The impact of ovarian stimulation on implantation and fetal development in mice. Hum. Reprod. 16: 221–225Google Scholar
  49. ESHRE Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Consortium (2002) Data collection III (May 2001). Hum. Reprod. 17: 233–246Google Scholar
  50. Eto K, Murphy R, Kerrigan SW, Bertoni A, Stuhlmann H, Nakano T, Leavitt AD, Shattil SJ (2002) Megakaryocytes derived from embryonic stem cells implicate Ca1DAG-GEFI in integrin signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12819–12824Google Scholar
  51. Evans MJ, Kaufman MH (1981) Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. Nature 292: 154–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fairburn HR, Young LE, Hendrich BD (2002) Epigenetic reprogramming: how now, cloned cow ? Curr. Biol. 12: R68 — R70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Finch CE, Kirkwood TBL (2000) Chance, development, and aging. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Fougerousse F, Bullen P, Herasse M, Lindsay S, Richard I, Wilson D, Suel L, Durand M, Robson S, Abitbol M, Beckmann JS, Strachan T (2000) Human-mouse differences in the embryonic expression patterns of developmental control genes and disease genes. Hum. Mol. Genet. 9: 165–173Google Scholar
  55. Fukuyama F (2002) Our posthuman future. Farrar, Straus und Girou, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Gage FH (2000) Mammalian neural stem cells. Science 287: 1433–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gardner DK, Schoolcraft WB (1998) Human embryo viability: what determines developmental potential, and can it be assessed? J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 15: 455–458Google Scholar
  58. Geraedts J, Handyside A, Harper J, Liebaers I, Sermon K, Staessen C, Thornhill A, Vanderfaeillie A, Viville S (1999) ESHRE Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Consortium: preliminary assessment of data from January 1997 to September 1998. ESHRE PGD Consortium Steering Committee. Hum. Reprod. 14: 3138–3148Google Scholar
  59. Geraedts J, Handyside A, Harper J, Liebaers I, Sermon K, Staessen C, Thornhill A, Viville S, Wilton L (2000) ESHRE preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) consortium: data collection II (May 2000). Hum Reprod 15: 2673–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Geraedts JP, Harper J, Braude P, Sermon K, Veiga A, Gianaroli L, Agan N, Munne S, Gitlin S, Blenow E, de Boer K, Hussey N, Traeger-Synodinos J, Lee SH, Viville S, Krey L, Ray P, Emiliani S, Liu YH, Vermeulen S, Kanavakis E (2001) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a collaborative activity of clinical genetic departments and IVF centres. Prenat. Diagn. 21: 1086–1092Google Scholar
  61. Griffin DK, Handyside AH, Harper JC, Wilton LJ, Atkinson G, Soussis I, Wells D, Kontogianni E, Tarin J, Geber S, et al. (1994) Clinical experience with preimplantation diagnosis of sex by dual fluorescent in situ hybridization. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 11: 132–143Google Scholar
  62. Griffin DK, Handyside AH, Penketh RJ, Winston RM, Delhanty JD (1991) Fluorescent in-situ hybridization to interphase nuclei of human preimplantation embryos with X and Y chromosome specific probes. Hum. Reprod. 6: 101–105Google Scholar
  63. Gross M (2002) Green light for selected baby. Curr. Biol. 12: R193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hack M, FanaroffAA (1999) Outcomes of children of extremely low birthweight and gestational age in the 1990’s. Early Hum. Dev. 53: 193–218Google Scholar
  65. Hdkelien A-M, Landsverk HB, Robl JM, Skâlhegg BS, Collas P (2002) Reprogramming fibroblasts to express T-cell functions using cell extracts. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 460–466Google Scholar
  66. Handyside AH, Kontogianni EH, Hardy K, Winston RM (1990) Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature 344: 768–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C, Webb S (2002) The risk of major birth defects after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in vitro fertilization N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 725–730Google Scholar
  68. Hardy K, Martin KL, Leese HJ, Winston RM, Handyside AH (1990) Human preimplantation development in vitro is not adversely affected by biopsy at the 8-cell stage. Hum. Reprod. 5: 708–714Google Scholar
  69. Harper JC, Delhanty JDA, Handyside AH (2001) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis. John Wiley und Co., Chichester (UK )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hassold T, Hunt P (2001) To err (meiotically) is human: the genesis of human aneuploidy. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2: 280–291Google Scholar
  71. Heindryckx B, Rybouchkin A, van der Elst J, Dhont M (2001) Effect of culture media on in vitro development of cloned mouse embryos. Cloning 3: 41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hesterlee SE (2001) Recognizing risks and potential promise of germline engineering. Nature 414: 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hewitson L, Simerly CR, Schatten G (2002) Fate of sperm components during assisted reproduction: implications for infertility. Hum. Fertil. ( Camb. ) 5: 110–116Google Scholar
  74. Honaramooz A, Snedaker A, Boiani M, Schöler H, Dobrinski I, Schlatt S (2002) Sperm from neonatal mammalian testes grafted in mice. Nature 418: 778–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Houghton FD, Hawkhead JA, Humpherson PG, Hogg JE, Balen AH, Rutherford AJ, Leese HJ (2002) Non-invasive amino acid turnover predicts human embryo developmental capacity. Hum. Reprod. 17: 999–1005Google Scholar
  76. Hovatta O (2000) Cryopreservation and culture of human primordial and primary ovarian follicles. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 169: 95–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hübner K, Fuhrmann G, Christenson LK, Kehler J, Reinbold R, De La Fuente R, Wood J, Strauss III JF, Boiani M, Schöler HR (2003) Derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells. Science 300: 1251–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Humpherys D, Eggan K, Akutsu H, Friedman A, Hochedlinger K, Yanagimachi R, Lander ES, Golub TR, Jaenisch R (2002) Abnormal gene expression in cloned mice derived from embryonic stem cell and cumulus cell nuclei. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12889–12894Google Scholar
  79. Humpherys D, Eggan K, Akutsu H, Hochedlinger K, Rideout WM, III, Biniszkiewicz D, Yanagimachi R, Jaenisch R (2001) Epigenetic instability in ES cells and cloned mice. Science 293: 95–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hunt PA, Hassold TJ (2002) Sex matters in meiosis. Science 296: 2181–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Inoue K, Kohda T, Lee J, Ogonuki N, Mochida K, Noguchi Y, Tanemura K, Kaneko-Ishino T, Ishino F, Ogura A (2002) Faithful expression of imprinted genes in cloned mice. Science 295: 297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jackson KA, Mi T, Goodell MA (1999) Hematopoietic potential of stem cells isolated from murine skeletal muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 14482–14486Google Scholar
  83. Jiang Y, Jahagirdar BN, Reinhardt RL, Schwartz RE, Keene CD, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Reyes M, Lenvik T, Lund T, Blackstad M, Du J, Aldrich S, Lisberg A, Low WC, Largaespada DA, Ver-faillie CM (2002) Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature 418: 41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jurisicova A, Varmuza S, Casper RF (1996) Programmed cell death and human embryo fragmentation. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2: 93–98Google Scholar
  85. Kahraman S, Polat G, Samli M, Sozen E, Ozgun OD, Dirican K, Ozbicer T (1998) Multiple pregnancies obtained by testicular spermatid injection in combination with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum. Reprod. 13: 104–110Google Scholar
  86. Kang Y-K, Koo D-B, Park J-S, Choi Y-H, Chung A-S, Lee K-K, Han Y-M (2001) Aberrant methylation of donor genome in cloned bovine embryos. Nat. Genet. 28: 173–177Google Scholar
  87. Kao RL (2001) Autologous satellite cells for myocardial regeneration. e-biomed 2: 1–8Google Scholar
  88. Kaufman DS, Hanson ET, Lewis RL, Auerbach R, Thomson JA (2001) Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 10716–10721Google Scholar
  89. Kaufman MH, Robertson EJ, Handyside AH, Evans MJ (1983) Establishment of pluripotential cell lines from haploid mouse embryos. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 73: 249–261Google Scholar
  90. Kawase E, Yamazaki Y, Yagi T, Yanagimachi R, Pedersen RA (2000) Mouse embryonic stem ( ES) cell lines established from neuronal cell- derived cloned blastocysts. Genesis 28: 156–163Google Scholar
  91. Khosla S, Dean W, Reik W, Feil R (2001) Culture of preimplantation embryos and its long-term effects on gene expression and phenotype. Hum. Reprod. Update 7: 419–427Google Scholar
  92. Kim J-H, Auerbach JM, Rodriguez-Gomez JA, Velasco I, Gavin D, Lumelsky N, Lee S-H, Nguyen J, Sanchez-Pernaute R, Bankiewicz K, McKay R (2002) Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Nature 418: 50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kim SS, Battaglia DE, Soules MR (2001) The future of human ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation: fertility and beyond. Fertil. Steril. 75: 1049–1056Google Scholar
  94. Klinger FG, De Felici M (2002) In vitro development of growing oocytes from fetal mouse oocytes: stage- specific regulation by stem cell factor and granulosa cells. Dev. Biol. 244: 85–95Google Scholar
  95. Knight J (2001) Biology’s last taboo. Nature 413: 12–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Knight J (2002) An out of body experience. Nature 419: 106–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Komori S, Kato H, Kobayashi S, Koyama K, Isojima S (2002) Transmission of Y chromosomal microdeletions from father to son through intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J. Hum. Genet. 47: 465–468Google Scholar
  98. Kondo T, Raff M (2000) Oligodendrocyte precursor cells reprogrammed to become multipotential CNS stem cells. Science 289: 1754–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Krause DS, Theise ND, Collector MI, Henegariu O, Hwang S, Gardner R, Neutzel S, Sharkis SJ (2001) Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell. Cell 105: 369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kusakabe H, Szczygiel MA, Whittingham DG, Yanagimachi R (2001) Maintenance of genetic integrity in frozen and freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 13501–13506Google Scholar
  101. Lagasse E, Connors H, Al-Dhalimy M, Reitsma M, Dohse M, Osborne L, Wang X, Finegold M, Weissman IL, Grompe M (2000) Purified hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in vivo. Nat. Med. 6: 1229–1234Google Scholar
  102. Lanza RP, Cibelli JB, Faber D, Sweeney RW, Henderson B, Nevala W, West MD, Wettstein PJ (2001) Cloned cattle can be healthy and normal. Science 294: 1893–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lee KF, Chow JF, Xu JS, Chan ST, Ip SM, Yeung WS (2001) A comparative study of gene expression in murine embryos developed in vivo, cultured in vitro, and cocultured with human oviductal cells using messenger ribonucleic acid differential display. Biol. Reprod. 64: 910–917Google Scholar
  104. Leese Hi (2002) Quiet please, do not disturb: a hypothesis of embryo metabolism and viability. Bioessays 24: 845–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Leese Hi, Conaghan J, Martin KL, Hardy K (1993) Early human embryo metabolism. Bioessays 15: 259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Leese HJ, Donnay I, Thompson JG (1998) Human assisted conception: a cautionary tale. Lessons from domestic animals. Hum. Reprod. 13 Suppl 4: 184–202Google Scholar
  107. Lemischka I (2002) Rethinking somatic stem cell plasticity. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Levenberg S, Golub JS, Amit M, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Langer R (2002) Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 4391–4396Google Scholar
  109. Lewin M, Carlesso N, Tung C-H, Tang X-W, Cory D, Scadden DT, Weissleder R (2000) Tat peptide-derivatized magnetic nanoparticles allow in vivo tracking and recovery of progenitor cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 18: 410–414Google Scholar
  110. Lewis CM, Pinel T, Whittaker JC, Handyside AH (2001) Controlling misdiagnosis errors in preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a comprehensive model encompassing extrinsic and intrinsic sources of error. Hum. Reprod. 16: 43–50Google Scholar
  111. Li Z, Düllmann J, Schiedlmeier B, Schmidt M, von Kalle C, Meyer J, Forster M, Stocking C, Wahlers A, Frank O, Ostertag W, Kühlcke K, Eckert H-G, Fehse B, Baum C (2002) Murine leukemia induced by retroviral gene marking. Science 296: 497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Liang L, Bickenbach JR (2002) Somatic epidermal stem cells can produce multiple cell lineages during development. Stem Cells 20: 21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lovell-Badge R (2001) The future for stem cell research. Nature 414: 88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lumelsky N, Blondel O, Laeng P, Velasco I, Ravin R, McKay R (2001) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets. Science 292: 1389–1394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mann JR, Gadi I, L. HM, Abbondanzo SJ, Stewart CL (1990) Androgenetic mouse embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and cause skeletal defects in chimeras: Implications for genetic imprinting. Cell 62: 251–260Google Scholar
  116. Marshall E (1998) Claim of human-cow embryo greeted with skepticism. Science 282: 1390–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Martin GR (1981) Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7634–7638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. May C, Rivella S, Callegari J, Heller G, Gaensler KML, Luzzatto L, Sadelain M (2000) Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in b-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human b-globin. Nature 406: 82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. McEvoy TG, Sinclair KD, Young LE, Wilmut I, Robinson JJ (2000) Large offspring syndrome and other consequences of ruminant embryo culture in vitro: relevance to blastocyst culture in human ART. Hum. Fertil. ( Camb. ) 3: 238–246Google Scholar
  120. McGann CJ, Odelberg SJ, Keating MT (2001) Mammalian myotube dedifferentiation induced by newt regeneration extract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 13699–13704Google Scholar
  121. McGrath J, Solter D (1983) Nuclear transplantation in the mouse embryo by microsurgery and cell fusion. Science 220: 1300–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McKinney-Freeman SL, Jackson KA, Camargo FD, Ferrari G, Mavilio F, Goodell MA (2002) Muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are hematopoietic in origin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 1341–1346Google Scholar
  123. Mezey É, Chandross KJ, Harta G, Maki RA, McKercher SR (2000) Turning blood into brain: cells bearing neuronal antigens generated in vivo from bone marrow. Science 290: 1779–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Moll AC, Imhof SM, Cruysberg JRM, Schouten-van-Meeteren AYN, Boers M, van Leeuwen FE (2003) Lancet 361: 309–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Monk M (1988) Pre-implantation diagnosis. Bioessays 8: 184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Morshead CM, Benveniste P, Iscove NN, van der Kooy D (2002) Hematopoietic competence is a rare property of neural stem cells that may depend on genetic and epigenetic alterations. Nat. Med. 8: 268–273Google Scholar
  127. Mulhall JP, Reijo R, Alagappan R, Brown L, Page D, Carson R, Oates RD (1997) Azoospermic men with deletion of the DAZ gene cluster are capable of completing spermatogenesis: fertilization, normal embryonic development and pregnancy occur when retrieved testicular spermatozoa are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum. Reprod. 12: 503–508Google Scholar
  128. Munne S, Sandalinas M, Escudero T, Fung J, Gianaroli L, Cohen J (2000) Outcome of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of translocations. Fertil. Steril. 73: 1209–1218Google Scholar
  129. Munne S, Weier HU, Grifo J, Cohen J (1994) Chromosome mosaicism in human embryos. Biol. Reprod. 51: 373–379Google Scholar
  130. Munsie MJ, Michalska AE, O’Brien CM, Trounson AO, Pera MF, Mountford PS (2000) Isolation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells from reprogrammed adult somatic cell nuclei. Curr. Biol. 10: 989–992Google Scholar
  131. Naviaux RK, Singh KK (2001) Need for public debate about fertility treatments. Nature 413: 347 Oates RD, Silber S, Brown LG, Page DC (2002) Clinical characterization of 42 oligospermic or azoospermic men with microdeletion of the AZFc region of the Y chromosome, and of 18 chil-dren conceived via ICSI. Hum. Reprod. 17: 2813–2824Google Scholar
  132. Ogawa T, Dobrinski I, Avarbock MR, Brinster RL (2000) Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice. Nat. Med. 6: 29–34Google Scholar
  133. Ogonuki N, Inoue K, Yamamoto Y, Noguchi Y, Tanemura K, Suzuki O, Nakayama H, Doi K, Ohtomo Y, Satoh M, Nishida A, Ogura A (2002) Early death of mice cloned from somatic cells. Nat. Genet. 30: 253–254Google Scholar
  134. Ogura A, Yanagimachi R (1995) Spermatids as male gametes. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 7: 155–158; discussion 158–159Google Scholar
  135. Ohgane J, Wakayama T, Kogo Y, Senda S, Hattori N, Tanaka S, Yanagimachi R, Shiota K (2001) DNA methylation variation in cloned mice. Genesis 30: 45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ono Y, Shimozawa N, Ito M, Kono T (2001) Cloned mice from fetal fibroblast cells arrested at metaphase by a serial nuclear transfer. Biol. Reprod. 64: 44–50Google Scholar
  137. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Jakoniuk I, Anderson SM, Li B, Pickel J, McKay R, Nadal-Ginard B, Bodine DM, Leri A, Anversa P (2001) Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature 410: 701–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Orstavik KH, Eiklid K, van der Hagen CB, Spetalen S, Kierulf K, Skjeldal O, Butting K (2003) Another case of imprinting defect in a girl with Angelman syndrome who was conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72: 218–219Google Scholar
  139. Palermo G, Joris H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem AC (1992) Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet 340: 17–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Palermo GD, Takeuchi T, Rosenwaks Z (2002) Technical approaches to correction of oocyte aneuploidy. Hum. Reprod. 17: 2165–2173Google Scholar
  141. Paria BC, Reese J, Das SK, Dey SK (2002) Deciphering the cross-talk of implantation: advances and challenges. Science 296: 2185–2188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Perlingeiro RCR, Kyba M, Daley GQ (2001) Clonal analysis of differentiating embryonic stem cells reveals a hematopoietic progenitor with primitive erythroid and adult lymphoid- myeloid potential. Development 128: 4597–4604Google Scholar
  143. Perry ACF, Wakayama T (2002) Untimely ends and new beginnings in mouse cloning. Nat. Genet. 30: 243–244Google Scholar
  144. Pickering SJ, Taylor A, Johnson MH, Braude PR (1995) An analysis of multinucleated blastomere formation in human embryos. Hum. Reprod. 10: 1912–1922Google Scholar
  145. Piotrowska K, Zernicka-Goetz M (2001) Role for sperm in spatial patterning of the early mouse embryo. Nature 409: 517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Piotrowska K, Zernicka-Goetz M (2002) Early patterning of the mouse embryo–contributions of sperm and egg. Development 129: 5803–5813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, Jaiswal RK, Douglas R, Mosca JD, Moorman MA, Simon-etti DW, Craig S, Marshak DR (1999) Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 284: 143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Porcu E, Fabbri R, Damiano G, Giunchi S, Fratto R, Ciotti PM, Venturoli S, Flamigni C (2000) Clinical experience and applications of oocyte cryopreservation. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 169: 33–37Google Scholar
  149. Prockop DJ (2002) Adult stem cells gradually come of age. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 791–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Ramiya VK, Maraist M, Arfors KE, Schatz DA, Peck AB, Cornelius JG (2000) Reversal of insulin-dependent diabetes using islets generated in vitro from pancreatic stem cells. Nat. Med. 6: 278–282Google Scholar
  151. Rathjen J, Rathjen PD (2001) Mouse ES cells: experimental exploitation of pluripotent differentiation potential. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 11: 587–594Google Scholar
  152. Ray PF, Munnich A, Nisand I, Frydman R, Vekemans M, Viville S (2002) The place of `social sexing’ in medicine and science. Hum. Reprod. 17: 248–249Google Scholar
  153. Rechitsky S, Strom C, Verlinsky O, Amet T, Ivakhnenko V, Kukharenko V, Kuliev A, Verlinsky Y (1999) Accuracy of preimplantation diagnosis of single-gene disorders by polar body analysis of oocytes. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 16: 192–198Google Scholar
  154. Reik W, Davies K, Dean W, Kelsey G, Constancia M (2001) Imprinted genes and the coordination of fetal and postnatal growth in mammals. Novartis Found. Symp. 237: 19–31; discussion 31–42Google Scholar
  155. Reik W, Walter J (2001) Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2: 21–32Google Scholar
  156. Renard J-P, Chastant S, Chesné P, Richard C, Marchal J, Cordonnier N, Chavatte P, Vignon X (1999) Lymphoid hypoplasia and somatic cloning. Lancet 353: 1489–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Reubinoff BE, Itsykson P, Turetsky T, Pera MF, Reinhartz E, Itzik A, Ben-Hur T (2001) Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 19: 1134–1140Google Scholar
  158. Reubinoff BE, Pera MF, Fong C-Y, Trounson A, Bongso A (2000) Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro [published erratum appears in Nat Biotechnol 2000 May; 18(5):559]. Nat. Biotechnol. 18: 399–404Google Scholar
  159. Richards M, Fong C-Y, Chan W-K, Wong P-C, Bongso A (2002) Human feeders support prolonged undifferentiated growth of human inner cell masses and embryonic stem cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 933–936Google Scholar
  160. Rideout WM, III, Eggan K, Jaenisch R (2001) Nuclear cloning and epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. Science 293: 1093–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rideout WM, III, Hochedlinger K, Kyba M, Daley GQ, Jaenisch R (2002) Correction of a genetic defect by nuclear transplantation and combined cell and gene therapy. Cell 109: 17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rossant J (2002) A monoclonal mouse? Nature 415: 967–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rossi F, Cattaneo E (2002) Neural stem cell therapy for neurological diseases: dreams and reality. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3: 401–409Google Scholar
  164. Roy NS, Wang S, Jiang L, Kang J, Benraiss A, Harrison-Restelli C, Fraser RAR, Couldwell WT, Kawaguchi A, Okano H, Nedergaard M, Goldman SA (2000) In vitro neurogenesis by progenitor cells isolated from the adult human hippocampus. Nat. Med. 6: 271–277Google Scholar
  165. Schuldiner M, Yanuka O, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Melton DA, Benvenisty N (2000) Effects of eight growth factors on the differentiation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 11307–11312Google Scholar
  166. Schultz RM, Williams CJ (2002) The science of ART. Science 296: 2188–2190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sekiya I, Vuoristo JT, Larson BL, Prockop DJ (2002) In vitro cartilage formation by human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma defines the sequence of cellular and molecular events during chondrogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 4397–4402Google Scholar
  168. Shamblott MJ, Axelman J, Littlefield JW, Blumenthal PD, Huggins GR, Cui Y, Cheng L, Gearhart JD (2001) Human embryonic germ cell derivatives express a broad range of developmentally distinct markers and proliferate extensively in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 113–118Google Scholar
  169. Shamblott MJ, Axelman J, Wang S, Bugg EM, Littlefield JW, Donovan PJ, Blumenthal PD, Huggins GR, Gearhart JD (1998) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primor- dial germ cells [published erratum appears in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999 Feb 2; 96(3):1162]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 13726–13731Google Scholar
  170. Sinclair KD, Young LE, Wilmut I, McEvoy TG (2000) In-utero overgrowth in ruminants following embryo culture: lessons from mice and a warning to men. Hum. Reprod. 15 Suppl 5: 6–86Google Scholar
  171. Smith A (1998) Cell therapy: In search of pluripotency. Curr. Biol. 8: R802–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Solter D (1998a) Dolly is a clone-and no longer alone. Nature 394: 315–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Solter D (1998b) Imprinting. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 42: 951–954Google Scholar
  174. Solter D (1999) Cloning and embryonic stem cells: a new era in human biology and medicine. Croat. Med. J. 40: 309–318Google Scholar
  175. Solter D (2000) Mammalian cloning: advances and limitations. Nat. Rev. Genet. 1: 199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Solter D (2001) Nonequivalence of parental genomes and the discovery of imprinting. Great Experiments: Development. http://www.ergito.com Google Scholar
  177. Solter D, De Vries WN, Evsikov AV, Peaston AE, Chen FH, Knowles BB (2002) Fertilization and activation of the embryonic genome. In: Rossant J, Tam PPL (eds) Mouse development. Patterning, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 5–19Google Scholar
  178. Solter D, Gearhart J (1999) Putting stem cells to work. Science 283: 1468–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Steptoe PC, Edwards RG (1978) Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet 2: 366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Stock G (2002) Redesigning humans: our inevitable genetic future. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  181. Surani MA (2001) Reprogramming of genome function through epigenetic inheritance. Nature 414: 122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tada M, Takahama Y, Abe K, Nakatsuji N, Tada T (2001) Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells by in vitro hybridization with ES cells. Curr. Biol. 11: 1553–1558Google Scholar
  183. Tamashiro KLK, Wakayama T, Akutsu H, Yamazaki Y, Lachey JL, Wortman MD, Seeley RJ, D’Alessio DA, Woods SC, Yanagimachi R, Sakai RR (2002) Cloned mice have an obese phenotype not transmitted to their offspring. Nat. Med. 8: 262–267Google Scholar
  184. Terada N, Hamazaki T, Oka M, Hoki M, Mastalerz DM, Nakano Y, Meyer EM, Morel L, Petersen BE, Scott EW (2002) Bone marrow cells adopt the phenotype of other cells by spontaneous cell fusion. Nature 416: 542–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tesarik J, Kopecny V, Plachot M, Mandelbaum J (1988) Early morphological signs of embryonic genome expression in human preimplantation development as revealed by quantitative electron microscopy. Dev. Biol. 128: 15–20Google Scholar
  186. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282: 1145–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tropepe V, Coles BLK, Chiasson BJ, Horsford DJ, Elia AJ, McInnes RR, van der Kooy D (2000)Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye. Science 287: 2032–2036Google Scholar
  188. Trounson A, Mohr L (1983) Human pregnancy following cryopreservation, thawing and transfer of an eight-cell embryo. Nature 305: 707–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Van Blerkom J, Antczak M, Schrader R (1997) The developmental potential of the human oocyte is related to the dissolved oxygen content of follicular fluid: association with vascular endothelial growth factor levels and perifollicular blood flow characteristics. Hum. Reprod. 12: 1047–1055Google Scholar
  190. Van Blerkom J, Davis P (1995) Evolution of the sperm aster after microinjection of isolated human sperm centrosomes into meiotically mature human oocytes. Hum. Reprod. 10: 2179–2182Google Scholar
  191. Van de Velde H, De Vos A, Sermon K, Staessen C, De Rycke M, Van Assche E, Lissens W, Vander- vorst M, Van Ranst H, Liebaers I, Van Steirteghem A (2000) Embryo implantation after biopsy of one or two cells from cleavage-stage embryos with a view to preimplantation genetic diag-nosis. Prenat. Diagn. 20: 1030–1037Google Scholar
  192. Van Steirteghem A, Bonduelle M, Devroey P, Liebaers I (2002) Follow-up of children born after ICSI. Hum Reprod Update 8: 111–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Van Steirteghem AC, Nagy Z, Joris H, Liu J, Staessen C, Smitz J, Wisanto A, Devroey P (1993) High fertilization and implantation rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum. Reprod. 8: 1061–1066Google Scholar
  194. Van Winkle LJ (2001) Amino acid transport regulation and early embryo development. Biol. Reprod. 64: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Vanderzwalmen P, Nijs M, Stecher A, Zech H, Bertin G, Lejeune B, Vandamme B, Chatziparasidou A, Prapas Y, Schoysman R (1998) Is there a future for spermatid injections? Hum. Reprod. 13 Suppl 4: 71–84Google Scholar
  196. Veiga A, Sandalinas M, Benkhalifa M, Boada M, Carrera M, Santalo J, Barri PN, Menezo Y (1997) Laser blastocyst biopsy for preimplantation diagnosis in the human. Zygote 5: 351–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Verlinsky Y, Cieslak J, Freidine M, Ivakhnenko V, Wolf G, Kovalinskaya L, White M, Lifchez A, Kaplan B, Moise J, Valle J, Ginsberg N, Strom C, Kuliev A (1996) Polar body diagnosis of common aneuploidies by FISH. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. 13: 157–162Google Scholar
  198. Wagers AJ, Sherwood RI, Christensen JL, Weissman IL (2002a) Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Science 297: 2256–2259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wagers AJ, Sherwood RI, Christensen JL, Weissman IL (2002b) Response to “Something in the eye of the beholder”. Science 298: 362–363Google Scholar
  200. Wakayama T, Tabar V, Rodriguez I, Perry ACF, Studer L, Mombaerts P (2001) Differentiation of embryonic stem cell lines generated from adult somatic cells by nuclear transfer. Science 292: 740–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Watt FM, Hogan BLM (2000) Out of Eden: stem cells and their niches. Science 287: 1427–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Weissman IL (2000) Translating stem and progenitor cell biology to the clinic: barriers and opportunities. Science 287: 1442–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Western PS, Surani MA (2002) Nuclear reprogramming — alchemy or analysis ? Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 445–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Whittingham DG (1974) The viability of frozen-thawed mouse blastocysts. J. Reprod. Fertil. 37: 159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Whittingham DG, Leibo SP, Mazur P (1972) Survival of mouse embryos frozen to -196 degrees and -269 degrees C. Science 178: 411–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Williams N (2002) Dolly clouds cloning hopes. Curr. Biol. 12: R79 — R80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wilmut I (2002) Are there any normal cloned mammals ? Nat. Med. 8: 215–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wilton L (2002) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy screening in early human embryos: a review. Prenat. Diagn. 22: 512–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wininger JD, Kort HI (2002) Cryopreservation of immature and mature human oocytes. Semin. Reprod. Med. 20: 45–49Google Scholar
  210. Wu P, Tarasenko YI, Gu Y, Huang L-YM, Coggeshall RE, Yu Y (2002) Region-specific generation of cholinergic neurons from fetal human neural stem cells grafted in adult rat. Nat. Neurosci. 5: 1271–1278Google Scholar
  211. Wurmser AE, Gage FH (2002) Cell fusion causes confusion. Nature 416: 485–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Xu C, Inokuma MS, Denham J, Golds K, Kundu P, Gold JD, Carpenter MK (2001a) Feeder-free growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 19: 971–974Google Scholar
  213. Xu JS, Cheung TM, Chan ST, Ho PC, Yeung WS (200 lb) Temporal effect of human oviductal cell and its derived embryotrophic factors on mouse embryo development. Biol. Reprod. 65: 1481–1488Google Scholar
  214. Yamashita J, Itoh H, Hirashima M, Ogawa M, Nishikawa S, Yurugi T, Naito M, Nakao K, Nishikawa S-I (2000) Flkl-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells serve as vascular progenitors. Nature 408: 92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Yanagimachi R (2001) Gamete manipulation for development: new methods for conception. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 13: 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yin H, Baart E, Betzendahl I, Eichenlaub-Ritter U (1998) Diazepam induces meiotic delay, aneuploidy and predivision of homologues and chromatids in mammalian oocytes. Mutagenesis 13: 567–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Ying Q-L, Nichols J, Evans EP, Smith AG (2002) Changing potency by spontaneous fusion. Nature 416: 545–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Young LE, Fernandes K, McEvoy TG, Butterwith SC, Gutierrez CG, Carolan C, Broadbent PJ, Robinson JJ, Wilmut I, Sinclair KD (2001) Epigenetic change in IGF2R is associated with fetal overgrowth after sheep embryo culture. Nat. Genet. 27: 153–154Google Scholar
  219. Yuan L, Liu JG, Hoja MR, Wilbertz J, Nordqvist K, Hoog C (2002) Female germ cell aneuploidy and embryo death in mice lacking the meiosis-specific protein SCP3. Science 296: 1115–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zhang S-C, Wernig M, Duncan ID, Brüstle O, Thomson JA (2001) In vitro differentiation of trans- plantable neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells. Nat. Biotechnol. 19: 1129–1133Google Scholar

2 Adult and Embryonic Stem Cells: Clinical Perspectives

  1. Ahmad I, Tang L, Pham H (2000) Identification of neural progenitors in the adult mammalian eye. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 270: 517–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amit M, Carpenter MK, Inokuma MS, Chiu CP, Harris CP, Waknitz MA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Thomson JA (2000) Clonally derived human embryonic stem cell lines maintain pluripotency and proliferative potential for prolonged periods of culture [In Process Citation]. Dev Biol 227: 271–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonchuk J, Sauvageau G, Humphries RK (2002) HOXB4-Induced Expansion of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells Ex Vivo. Cell 109: 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appelbaum FR, Buckner CD (1986) Overview of the clinical relevance of autologous bone marrow transplantation. Clin Haematol 15: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asahara T, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Kalka C, Pastore C, Silver M, Kearne M, Magner M, Isner JM (1999a) Bone marrow origin of endothelial progenitor cells responsible for postnatal vasculogenesis in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Circ Res 85: 221–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, Silver M, van der Zee R, Li T, Witzenbichler B, Schatteman G, Isner JM (1997) Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science 275: 964–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asahara T, Takahashi T, Masuda H, Kalka C, Chen D, Iwaguro H, Inai Y, Silver M, Isner JM (1999b) VEGF contributes to postnatal neovascularization by mobilizing bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. Embo J 18: 3964–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asakura A, Rudnicki MA (2002) Side population cells from diverse adult tissues are capable of in vitro hematopoietic differentiation. Exp Hematol 30: 1339–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashton BA, Allen TD, Howlett CR, Eaglesom CC, Hattori A, Owen M (1980) Formation of bone and cartilage by marrow stromal cells in diffusion chambers in vivo. Clin Orthop 36: 294–307 Atala A (2000) Tissue engineering of artificial organs. J Endourol 14: 49–57Google Scholar
  10. Atala A (2002) Experimental and clinical experience with tissue engineering techniques for urethral reconstruction. Urol Clin North Am 29: 485–92, ixGoogle Scholar
  11. Badorff C, Brandes RP, Popp R, Rupp S, Urbich C, Aicher A, Fleming I, Busse R, Zeiher AM, Dimmeler S (2003) Transdifferentiation of blood-derived human adult endothelial progenitor cells into functionally active cardiomyocytes. Circulation 107: 1024–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bagutti C, Wobus AM, Fassler R, Watt FM (1996) Differentiation of embryonal stem cells into keratinocytes: comparison of wild-type and beta 1 integrin-deficient cells. Dev Biol 179: 184–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnard CN (1967) The operation. A human cardiac transplant: an interim report of a successful operation performed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. S Afr Med J 41: 1271–4Google Scholar
  14. Baum B.1, Wang S, Cukierman E, Delporte C, Kagami H, Marmary Y, Fox PC, Mooney DJ, Yamada KM (1999) Re-engineering the functions of a terminally differentiated epithelial cell in vivo. Ann N Y Acad Sci 875: 294–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bayes-Genis A, Salido M, Sole Ristol F, Puig M, Brossa V, Camprecios M, Corominas JM, Marinoso ML, Baro T, Vela MC, Serrano S, Padro JM, Bayes de Luna A, Cinca J (2002) Host cell-derived cardiomyocytes in sex-mismatch cardiac allografts. Cardiovasc Res 56: 404–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beatty PG, Boucher KM, Mori M, Milford EL (2000) Probability of finding HLA-mismatched related or unrelated marrow or cord blood donors. Hum Immunol 61: 834–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beatty PG, Kollman C, Howe CW (1995) Unrelated-donor marrow transplants: the experience of the National Marrow Donor Program. Clin Transpl: 271–7Google Scholar
  18. Beltrami AP, Urbanek K, Kajstura J, Yan SM, Finato N, Bussani R, Nadal-Ginard B, Silvestri F, Leri A, Beltrami CA, Anversa P (2001) Evidence that human cardiac myocytes divide after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 344: 1750–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Betthauser J, Forsberg E, Augenstein M, Childs L, Eilertsen K, Enos J, Forsythe T, Golueke P, Jurgella G, Koppang R, Lesmeister T, Mallon K, Mell G, Misica P, Pace M, Pfister-Genskow M, Strelchenko N, Voelker G, Watt S, Thompson S, Bishop M (2000) Production of cloned pigs from in vitro systems. Nat Biotechnol 18: 1055–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar PB (1953) Acquired immunological tolerance for foreign cells. Nature 172: 603–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Billon N, Jolicoeur C, Tokumoto Y, Vennstrom B, Raff M (2002) Normal timing of oligodendrocyte development depends on thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 ( TRalphal ). Embo J 21: 6452–60Google Scholar
  22. Bjornson CR, Rietze RL, Reynolds BA, Magli MC, Vescovi AL (1999) Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. Science 283: 534–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blusch JH, Patience C, Martin U (2002) Pig endogenous retroviruses and xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation 9: 242–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blyszcuk P, Czyz J, Zuschratter W, St-Onge L, Wobus AM Constitutive expression of Pdx-1 and Pax4 in ES cells promotes pancreaticß cell differentiation Keystone Symposium, Stem Cells: Origins, Fates and Functions, Keystone Resort, Colorado 2002, pp no. 447Google Scholar
  25. Blyszczuk P, Czyz J, Kania G, Wagner M, Roll U, St-Onge L, Wobus AM (2003) Expression of Pax4 in embryonic stem cells promotes differentiation of nestin-positive progenitor and insulin-producing cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 998–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bodnar AG, Ouellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu CP, Morin GB, Harley CB, Shay JW, Lichtsteiner S, Wright WE (1998) Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells [see comments]. Science 279: 349–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boiani M, Eckardt S, Scholer HR, McLaughlin KJ (2002) Oct4 distribution and level in mouse clones: consequences for pluripotency. Genes Dev 16: 1209–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bonner-Weir S (2000) Perspective: Postnatal pancreatic beta cell growth. Endocrinology 141: 1926–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Booth C, O’Shea JA, Potten CS (1999) Maintenance of functional stem cells in isolated and cultured adult intestinal epithelium. Exp Cell Res 249: 359–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bouwens L (1998) Transdifferentiation versus stem cell hypothesis for the regeneration of islet beta-cells in the pancreas. Microsc Res Tech 43: 332–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boyan BD, Lohmann CH, Romero J, Schwartz Z (1999) Bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Clin Plast Surg 26: 629–45, ixGoogle Scholar
  32. Bradley A, Evans M, Kaufman MH, Robertson E (1984) Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines. Nature 309: 255–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bradley JA, Bolton EM, Pedersen RA (2002) Stem cell medicine encounters the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2: 859–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Braun T, Arnold HH (1994) ES-cells carrying two inactivated myf-5 alleles form skeletal muscle cells: activation of an alternative myf-5-independent differentiation pathway. Dev Biol 164: 24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brill S, Holst P, Sigal S, Zvibel I, Fiorino A, Ochs A, Somasundaran U, Reid LM (1993) Hepatic progenitor populations in embryonic, neonatal, and adult liver. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 204: 261–9Google Scholar
  36. Brown JP, Wei W, Sedivy JM (1997) Bypass of senescence after disruption of p21CIP1/WAFT gene in normal diploid human fibroblasts. Science 277: 831–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bruder SP, Kraus KH, Goldberg VM, Kadiyala S (1998a) The effect of implants loaded with autologous mesenchymal stem cells on the healing of canine segmental bone defects. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80: 985–96Google Scholar
  38. Bruder SP, Kurth AA, Shea M, Hayes WC, Jaiswal N, Kadiyala S (1998b) Bone regeneration by implantation of purified, culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells. J Orthop Res 16: 155–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brustle O, McKay RD (1996) Neuronal progenitors as tools for cell replacement in the nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol 6: 688–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Burkert U, von Ruden T, Wagner EF (1991) Early fetal hematopoietic development from in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells. New Biol 3: 698–708Google Scholar
  41. Cairo MS, Wagner JE (1997) Placental and/or umbilical cord blood: an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Blood 90: 4665–78Google Scholar
  42. Campbell KH, Mc Whir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I (1996) Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380: 64–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carpenter MK, Rosier E, Xu C, Priest C, Thies RS Human embryonic stem cells: characterisation and differentiation Keystone Symposium: From Stem Cells to Therapy, Steamboat Springs, Colorado 2003Google Scholar
  44. Cascalho M, Platt JL (2001) Xenotransplantation and other means of organ replacement. Nature Rev Immunol 1: 154–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Castro RF, Jackson KA, Goodell MA, Robertson CS, Liu H, Shine HD (2002) Failure of bone marrow cells to transdifferentiate into neural cells in vivo. Science 297: 1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cattaneo E, McKay R (1990) Proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells regulated by nerve growth factor. Nature 347: 762–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cattaneo E, McKay R (1991) Identifying and manipulating neuronal stem cells. Trends Neurosci 14: 338–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cervantes RB, Stringer JR, Shao C, Tischfield JA, Stambrook PJ (2002) Embryonic stem cells and somatic cells differ in mutation frequency and type. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 3586–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chamberlain LJ, Yannas IV, Hsu HP, Spector M (2000a) Connective tissue response to tubular implants for peripheral nerve regeneration: the role of myofibroblasts. J Comp Neurol 417: 415–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chamberlain LJ, Yannas IV, Hsu HP, Strichartz GR, Spector M (2000b) Near-terminus axonal structure and function following rat sciatic nerve regeneration through a collagen-GAG matrix in a ten-millimeter gap. J Neurosci Res 60: 666–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chen U (1992) Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to lympho-hematopoietic lineages in vitro. Dev Immunol 2: 29–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cherny RA, Stokes TM, Merei J, Lom L, Brandon MR, Williams RL (1994) Strategies for the iso- lation and characterization of bovine embryonic stem cells. Reprod Fertil Dev 6: 569–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chesne P, Adenot PG, Viglietta C, Baratte M, Boulanger L, Renard JP (2002) Cloned rabbits produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells. Nat Biotechnol 20: 366–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Chien KR (1995) Cardiac muscle diseases in genetically engineered mice: evolution of molecular physiology. Am J Physiol 269: H755–66Google Scholar
  55. Cibelli JB, Grant KA, Chapman KB, Cunniff K, Worst T, Green HL, Walker SJ, Gutin PH, Vilner L, Tabar V, Dominko T, Kane J, Wettstein PJ, Lanza RP, Studer L, Vrana KE, West MD (2002) Parthenogenetic stem cells in nonhuman primates. Science 295: 819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Clarke DL, Johansson CB, Wilbertz J, Veress B, Nilsson E, Karlstrom H, Lendahl U, Frisen J (2000) Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells. Science 288: 1660–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Colter DC, Sekiya I, Prockop DJ (2001) Identification of a subpopulation of rapidly self-renewing and multipotential adult stem cells in colonies of human marrow stromal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 7841–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Condorelli G, Borello U, De Angelis L, Latronico M, Sirabella D, Coletta M, Galli R, Balconi G, Follenzi A, Frati G, Cusella De Angelis MG, Gioglio L, Amuchastegui S, Adorini L, Naldini L, Vescovi A, Dejana E, Cossu G (2001) Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: implications for myocardium regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 10733–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cotsarelis G, Cheng SZ, Dong G, Sun TT, Lavker RM (1989) Existence of slow-cycling timbal epithelial basal cells that can be preferentially stimulated to proliferate: implications on epithelial stem cells. Cell 57: 201–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dani C, Smith AG, Dessolin S, Leroy P, Staccini L, Villageois P, Darimont C, Ailhaud G (1997) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into adipocytes in vitro. J Cell Sci 110: 1279–85Google Scholar
  61. Deacon T, Dinsmore J, Costantini LC, RatliffJ, Isacson 0 (1998) Blastula-stage stem cells can differentiate into dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons after transplantation. Exp Neurol 149: 28–41Google Scholar
  62. Deveraux QL, Schendel SL, Reed JC (2001) Antiapoptotic proteins. The bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein families. Cardiol Clin 19: 57–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Doetschman TC, Eistetter H, Katz M, Schmidt W, Kemler R (1985) The in vitro development of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines: formation of visceral yolk sac, blood islands and myocardium. J Embryol Exp Morphol 87: 27–45Google Scholar
  64. Donovan PJ, Stott D, Cairns LA, Heasman J, Wylie CC (1986) Migratory and postmigratory mouse primordial germ cells behave differently in culture. Cell 44: 831–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Drab M, Haller H, Bychkov R, Erdmann B, Lindschau C, Haase H, Morano I, Luft FC, Wobus AM (1997) From totipotent embryonic stem cells to spontaneously contracting smooth muscle cells: a retinoic acid and db-cAMP in vitro differentiation model. Faseb J 11: 905–15Google Scholar
  66. Draper S, Gokhale PJ, Andrews PW Adaptation and karyotypic evolution of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture Keystone Symposium: From Stem Cells to Therapy, Steamboat Springs, Colorado 2003Google Scholar
  67. Eguchi G, Kodama R (1993) Transdifferentiation. Curr Opin Cell Biol 5: 1023–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eiges R, Schuldiner M, Drukker M, Yanuka 0, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Benvenisty N (2001) Establishment of human embryonic stem cell-transfected clones carrying a marker for undifferentiated cells. Curr Biol 11: 514–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Eschenhagen T, Fink C, Remmers U, Scholz H, Wattchow J, Weil J, Zimmermann W, Dohmen HH, Schafer H, Bishopric N, Wakatsuki T, Elson EL (1997) Three-dimensional reconstitution of embryonic cardiomyocytes in a collagen matrix: a new heart muscle model system. Faseb J 11: 683–94Google Scholar
  70. Evans MJ, Kaufman MH (1981) Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. Nature 292: 154–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fandrich F, Lin X, Chai GX, Schulze M, Ganten D, Bader M, Holle J, Huang DS, Parwaresch R, Zavazava N, Binas B (2002) Preimplantation-stage stem cells induce long-term allogeneic graft acceptance without supplementary host conditioning. Nat Med 8: 171–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Farkas G, Karacsonyi S (1985) Clinical transplantation of fetal human pancreatic islets. Biomed Biochim Acta 44: 155–9Google Scholar
  73. Ferrari G, Cusella-De Angelis G, Coletta M, Paolucci E, Stornaiuolo A, Cossu G, Mavilio F (1998) Muscle regeneration by bone marrow-derived myogenic progenitors. Science 279: 1528–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Forbes SJ, Poulsom R, Wright NA (2002) Hepatic and renal differentiation from blood-borne stem cells. Gene Ther 9: 625–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Freed CR, Breeze RE, Rosenberg NL, Schneck SA, Kriek E, Qi JX, Lone T, Zhang YB, Snyder JA, Wells TH, et al. (1992) Survival of implanted fetal dopamine cells and neurologic improvement 12 to 46 months after transplantation for Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 327: 1549–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Freed CR, Greene PE, Breeze RE, Tsai WY, DuMouchel W, Kao R, Dillon S, Winfield H, Culver S, Trojanowski JQ, Eidelberg D, Fahn S (2001) Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 344: 710–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Friedenstein AJ, Chailakhjan RK, Lalykina KS (1970) The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. Cell Tissue Kinet 3: 393–403Google Scholar
  78. Friedenstein AJ, Chailakhyan RK, Gerasimov UV (1987) Bone marrow osteogenic stem cells: in vitro cultivation and transplantation in diffusion chambers. Cell Tissue Kinet 20: 263–72Google Scholar
  79. Friedenstein AJ, Chailakhyan RK, Latsinik NV, Panasyuk AF, Keiliss-Borok IV (1974a) Stromal cells responsible for transferring the microenvironment of the hemopoietic tissues. Cloning in vitro and retransplantation in vivo. Transplantation 17: 331–40Google Scholar
  80. Friedenstein Ai, Deriglasova UF, Kulagina NN, Panasuk AF, Rudakowa SF, Luria EA, Ruadkow IA (1974b) Precursors for fibroblasts in different populations of hematopoietic cells as detected by the in vitro colony assay method. Exp Hematol 2: 83–92Google Scholar
  81. Friedenstein AJ, Gorskaja JF, Kulagina NN (1976) Fibroblast precursors in normal and irradiated mouse hematopoietic organs. Exp Hematol 4: 267–74Google Scholar
  82. Gage FH (2000) Mammalian neural stem cells. Science 287: 1433–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gardner MB (1978) Type C viruses of wild mice: characterization and natural history of amphotropic, ecotropic, and xenotropic MuLv. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 79: 215–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Geber S, Winston RM, Handyside AH (1995) Proliferation of blastomeres from biopsied cleavage stage human embryos in vitro: an alternative to blastocyst biopsy for preimplantation diagnosis. Hum Reprod 10: 1492–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gielen V, Faure M, Mauduit G, Thivolet J (1987) Progressive replacement of human cultured epithelial allografts by recipient cells as evidenced by HLA class I antigens expression. Dermatologica 175: 166–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gottlieb DI, Huettner JE (1999) An in vitro pathway from embryonic stem cells to neurons and glia. Cells Tissues Organs 165: 165–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Green DR, Ferguson TA (2001) The role of Fas ligand in immune privilege. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2: 917–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Griffith M, Osborne R, Munger R, Xiong X, Doillon CJ, Laycock NL, Hakim M, Song Y, Watsky MA (1999) Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. Science 286: 2169–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Grigoriadis AE, Heersche JN, Aubin JE (1988) Differentiation of muscle, fat, cartilage, and bone from progenitor cells present in a bone-derived clonal cell population: effect of dexamethasone. J Cell Biol 106: 2139–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gropp M, Itsykson P, Singer O, Ben-Hur T, Reinhartz E, Galun E, Reubinoff BE (2003) Stable genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells by lentiviral vectors. Mol Ther 7: 281–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Habibullah CM, Syed IH, Qamar A, Taher-Uz Z (1994) Human fetal hepatocyte transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Transplantation 58: 951–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, von Kalle C, Schmidt M, Le Deist F, Wulffraat N, McIntyre E, Radford I, Villeval JL, Fraser CC, Cavazzana-Calvo M, Fischer A (2003) A serious adverse event after successful gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 348: 255–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hakuno D, Fukuda K, Makino S, Konishi F, Tornita Y, Manabe T, Suzuki Y, Umezawa A, Ogawa S (2002) Bone marrow-derived regenerated cardiomyocytes ( CMG Cells) express functional adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Circulation 105: 380–6Google Scholar
  94. Haynesworth SE, Goshima J, Goldberg VM, Caplan AI (1992) Characterization of cells with osteogenic potential from human marrow. Bone 13: 81–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hirschi K, Goodell M (2001) Common origins of blood and blood vessels in adults? Differentiation 68: 186–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Humpherys D, Eggan K, Akutsu H, Hochedlinger K, Rideout WM, 3rd, Biniszkiewicz D, Yanagimachi R, Jaenisch R (2001) Epigenetic instability in ES cells and cloned mice. Science 293: 95–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Itskovitz-Eldor J, Schuldiner M, Karsenti D, Eden A, Yanuka O, Amit M, Soreq H, Benvenisty N (2000) Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies compromising the three embryonic germ layers. Mol Med 6: 88–95Google Scholar
  98. Jackson KA, Majka SM, Wang H, Pocius J, Hartley CJ, Majesky MW, Entman ML, Michael LH, Hirschi KK, Goodell MA (2001) Regeneration of ischemic cardiac muscle and vascular endothelium by adult stem cells. J Clin Invest 107: 1395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jiang Y, Jahagirdar BN, Reinhardt RL, Schwartz RE, Keene CD, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Reyes M, Lenvik T, Lund T, Blackstad M, Du J, Aldrich S, Lisberg A, Low WC, Largaespada DA, Ver-faillie CM (2002) Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature 418: 41–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kaihara S, Kim SS, Kim BS, Mooney D, Tanaka K, Vacanti JP (2000) Long-term follow-up of tis-sue-engineered intestine after anastomosis to native small bowel. Transplantation 69: 1927–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Karnezis AN, Dorokhov M, Grompe M, Zhu L (2001) Loss of p27(Kipl) enhances the transplan- tation efficiency of hepatocytes transferred into diseased livers. J Clin Invest 108: 383–90Google Scholar
  102. Karsner HT, Saphir 0, Todd TW (1925) Am J Pathol 1: 351–371Google Scholar
  103. Kato Y, Rideout WM, Hilton K, Barton SC, Tsunoda Y, Surani MA (1999) Developmental potential of mouse primordial germ cells. Development 126: 1823–32Google Scholar
  104. Kaushal S, Amiel GE, Guleserian KJ, Shapira OM, Perry T, Sutherland FW, Rabkin E, Moran AM, Schoen FJ, Atala A, Soker S, Bischoff J, Mayer JE, Jr. (2001) Functional small-diameter neovessels created using endothelial progenitor cells expanded ex vivo. Nat Med 7: 1035–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kawaguchi A, Miyata T, Sawamoto K, Takashita N, Murayama A, Akamatsu W, Ogawa M, Okabe M, Tano Y, Goldman SA, Okano H (2001) Nestin-EGFP transgenic mice: visualization of the self-renewal and multipotency of CNS stem cells. Mol Cell Neurosci 17: 259–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Keefer CL, Baldassarre H, Keyston R, Wang B, Bhatia B, Bilodeau AS, Zhou JF, Leduc M, Downey BR, Lazaris A, Karatzas CN (2001) Generation of dwarf goat ( Capra hircus) clones following nuclear transfer with transfected and nontransfected fetal fibroblasts and in vitro-matured oocytes. Biol Reprod 64: 849–56Google Scholar
  107. Kehat I, Kenyagin-Karsenti D, Snir M, Segev H, Amit M, Gepstein A, Livne E, Binah 0, ItskovitzEldor J, Gepstein L (2001) Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into myocytes with structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes. J Clin Invest 108: 407–14Google Scholar
  108. Keller G, Kennedy M, Papayannopoulou T, Wiles MV (1993) Hematopoietic commitment during embryonic stem cell differentiation in culture. Mol Cell Biol 13: 473–86Google Scholar
  109. Kilpatrick TJ, Bartlett PF (1993) Cloning and growth of multipotential neural precursors: requirements for proliferation and differentiation. Neuron 10: 255–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kim SS, Kaihara S, Benvenuto M, Choi RS, Kim BS, Mooney DJ, Taylor GA, Vacanti JP (1999) Regenerative signals for tissue-engineered small intestine. Transplant Proc 31: 657–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kimikawa M, Sachs DH, Colvin RB, Bartholomew A, Kawai T, Cosimi AB (1997) Modifications of the conditioning regimen for achieving mixed chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys. Transplantation 64: 709–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kirchhof N, Schmittwolf C, Kirsch RD, Harder F, Hacker C, Zenke M, Mueller AM(1993) Enhancing the developmental potentials of somatic stem cells by epigenetic modification Keystone symposium: From Stem Cells to Therapy, Steamboat Springs, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  113. Klug MG, Soonpaa MH, Koh GY, Field LJ (1996) Genetically selected cardiomyocytes from dif- ferentiating embronic stem cells form stable intracardiac grafts. J Clin Invest 98: 216–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kobayashi N, Fujiwara T, Westerman KA, Inoue Y, Sakaguchi M, Noguchi H, Miyazaki M, Cai J, Tanaka N, Fox IJ, Leboulch P (2000) Prevention of acute liver failure in rats with reversibly immortalized human hepatocytes [see comments]. Science 287: 1258–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kocher AA, Schuster MD, Szabolcs MJ, Takuma S, Burkhoff D, Wang J, Homma S, Edwards NM, Itescu S (2001) Neovascularization of ischemic myocardium by human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduces remodeling and improves cardiac function. Nat Med 7: 430–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Boublik J, Theodorou P, Martin U, Ruhparwar A, Fischer S, Eschenhagen T, Kubis HP, Kraft T, Leyh R, Haverich A (2002) In vitro engineering of heart muscle: Artificial myocardial tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 124: 63–69Google Scholar
  117. Krause DS, Theise ND, Collector MI, Henegariu O, Hwang S, Gardner R, Neutzel S, Sharkis SJ (2001) Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell. Cell 105: 369–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. LaBarge MA, Blau HM (2002) Biological progression from adult bone marrow to mononucleate muscle stem cell to multinucleate muscle fiber in response to injury. Cell 111: 589–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Laflamme MA, Myerson D, Saffitz JE, Murry CE (2002) Evidence for cardiomyocyte repopula-tion by extracardiac progenitors in transplanted human hearts. Circ Res 90: 634–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lanza RP, Cibelli JB, Faber D, Sweeney RW, Henderson B, Nevala W, West MD, Wettstein PJ (2001) Cloned cattle can be healthy and normal. Science 294: 1893–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lavker RM, Sun TT (1982) Heterogeneity in epidermal basal keratinocytes: morphological and functional correlations. Science 215: 1239–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lee KY, Huang H, Ju B, Yang Z, Lin S (2002) Cloned zebrafish by nuclear transfer from longterm-cultured cells. Nat Biotechnol 20: 795–9Google Scholar
  123. Lee SH, Lumelsky N, Studer L, Auerbach JM, McKay RD (2000) Efficient generation of midbrain and hindbrain neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 18: 675–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lehrman S (1999) Virus treatment questioned after gene therapy death. Nature 401: 517–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Levy JA (1978) Xenotropic type C viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 79: 111–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Li F, Lu S, Vida L, Thomson JA, Honig GR (2001) Bone morphogenetic protein 4 induces effi- cient hematopoietic differentiation of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells in vitro. Blood 98: 335–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Li Z, Dullmann J, Schiedlmeier B, Schmidt M, von Kalle C, Meyer J, Forster M, Stocking C, Wahlers A, Frank O, Ostertag W, Kuhlcke K, Eckert HG, Fehse B, Baum C (2002) Murine leukemia induced by retroviral gene marking. Science 296: 497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Liang L, Bickenbach JR (2002) Somatic epidermal stem cells can produce multiple cell lineages during development. Stem Cells 20: 21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lin Y, Weisdorf DJ, Solovey A, Hebbel RP (2000) Origins of circulating endothelial cells and endothelial outgrowth from blood. J Clin Invest 105: 71–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Little CW, Cox C, Wyatt J, del Cerro C, del Cerro M (1998) Correlates of photoreceptor rescue by transplantation of human fetal RPE in the RCS rat. Exp Neurol 149: 151–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Logan JS (2000) Prospects for xenotransplantation. Curr Opin Immunol 12: 563–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lois C, Alvarez-Buylla A (1993) Proliferating subventricular zone cells in the adult mammalian forebrain can differentiate into neurons and glia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90: 2074–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lu SJ, Li F, Vida L, Honig GR (2002) Comparative gene expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells. Exp Hemato130: 58–66Google Scholar
  134. Lumelsky N, Blondel O, Laeng P, Velasco I, Ravin R, McKay R (2001) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets. Science 292: 1389–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ma Y, Ramezani A, Lewis R, Hawley RG, Thomson JA (2003) High-level sustained transgene expression in human embryonic stem cells using lentiviral vectors. Stem Cells 21: 111–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Machens HG, Berger AC, Mailaender P (2000) Bioartificial skin. Cells Tissues Organs 167: 88–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Majumdar MK, Thiede MA, Mosca JD, Moorman M, Gerson SL (1998) Phenotypic and functional comparison of cultures of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) and stromal cells. J Cell Physiol 176: 57–66Google Scholar
  138. Makino S, Fukuda K, Miyoshi S, Konishi F, Kodama H, Pan J, Sano M, Takahashi T, Hori S, Abe H, Hata J, Umezawa A, Ogawa S (1999) Cardiomyocytes can be generated from marrow stromal cells in vitro. J Clin Invest 103: 697–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Malouf NN, Coleman WB, Grisham JW, Lininger RA, Madden VJ, Sproul M, Anderson PA (2001) Adult-derived stem cells from the liver become myocytes in the heart in vivo. Am J Pathol 158: 1929–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Marshall E (1999) Gene therapy death prompts review of adenovirus vector. Science 286: 2244–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Martin GR, Evans MJ (1974) The morphology and growth of a pluripotent teratocarcinoma cell line and its derivatives in tissue culture. Cell 2: 163–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Matsui Y, Toksoz D, Nishikawa S, Williams D, Zsebo K, Hogan BL (1991) Effect of Steel factor and leukaemia inhibitory factor on murine primordial germ cells in culture. Nature 353: 750–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Matsui Y, Zsebo K, Hogan BL (1992) Derivation of pluripotential embryonic stem cells from murine primordial germ cells in culture. Cell 70: 841–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McKay R (1997) Stem cells in the central nervous system. Science 276: 66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Meletis K, Frisen J (2001) Have the bloody cells gone to our heads? J Cell Biol 155: 699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Meyerson M, Counter CM, Eaton EN, Ellisen LW, Steiner P, Caddie SD, Ziaugra L, Beijersbergen RL, Davidoff MJ, Liu Q, Bacchetti S, Haber DA, Weinberg RA (1997) hEST2, the putative human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, is up-regulated in tumor cells and during immortalization. Cell 90: 785–95Google Scholar
  147. Michejda M (1987) Treatment of Parkinson’s disease in adult patients by transplantation of human fetal brain tissue obtained from elective abortions. Fetal Ther 2: 129–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Mitalipov SM, Yeoman RR, Nusser KD, Wolf DP (2002) Rhesus monkey embryos produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic blastomeres or somatic cells. Biol Reprod 66: 1367–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mizuno H, Emi N, Abe A, Takahashi I, Kojima T, Saito H, Sumi Y, Hata KI, Ueda M (1999) Successful culture and sustainability in vivo of gene-modified human oral mucosal epithelium. Hum Gene Ther 10: 825–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Morse HC, 3rd, Hartley JW (1982) Expression of xenotropic murine leukemia viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 98: 17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Muller M, Fleischmann BK, Seibert S, Ji GJ, Endl E, Middeler G, Muller OJ, Schlenke P, Frese S, Wobus AM, Hescheler J, Katus HA, Franz WM (2000) Selection of ventricular-like cardiomyocytes from ES cells in vitro. Faseb J 14: 2540–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Muller P, Pfeiffer P, Koglin J, Schafers HJ, Seeland U, Janzen I, Urbschat S, Bohm M (2002) Cardiomyocytes of noncardiac origin in myocardial biopsies of human transplanted hearts. Circulation 106: 31–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mummery C, Ward-van Oostwaard D, Doevendans P, Spijker R, van den Brink S, Hassink R, van der Heyden M, Opthof T, Pera M, Brute] de la Riviere A, Passier R, Tertoolen L (2003) Cardiomyocytes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells induced by coculture with visceral endoderm-like cells Keystone Symposium: From Stem Cells to Therapy, Steamboat SpringsGoogle Scholar
  154. Nakano T, Kodama H, Honjo T (1994) Generation of lymphohematopoietic cells from embryonic stem cells in culture. Science 265: 1098–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nelson PT, Kondziolka D, Wechsler L, Goldstein S, Gebel J, DeCesare S, Elder EM, Zhang PJ, Jacobs A, McGrogan M, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (2002) Clonal human (hNT) neuron grafts for stroke therapy: neuropathology in a patient 27 months after implantation. Am J Pathol 160: 1201–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Niemann C, Watt FM (2002) Designer skin: lineage commitment in postnatal epidermis. Trends Cell Biol 12: 185–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Niklason LE (2000) Engineering of bone grafts. Nat Biotechnol 18: 929–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Niklason LE, Gao J, Abbott WM, Hirschi KK, Houser S, Marini R, Langer R (1999) Functional arteries grown in vitro. Science 284: 489–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Notarianni E, Galli C, Laurie S, Moor RM, Evans MJ (1991) Derivation of pluripotent, embryonic cell lines from the pig and sheep. J Reprod Fertil Supp143: 255–60Google Scholar
  160. O’Connell J (2002) Fas ligand and the fate of antitumour cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology 105: 263–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. O’Connor NE, Mulliken JB (1981) Grafting of burns with cultured epithelium prepared from autologous epidermal cells. Lancet 1: 75–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Oh T, Miura T, Bradfute SB, Chi X, Entman ML, Loyd MH, Schwartz RJ, Schneider (2003) MD Cardiac homing, difefrentiation, and fusion by progenitor cells from adult heart Keystone Symposium: From Stem Cells To Therapy, Steamboat Springs, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  163. Onishi A, Iwamoto M, Akita T, Mikawa S, Takeda K, Awata T, Hanada H, Perry AC (2000) Pig cloning by microinjection of fetal fibroblast nuclei. Science 289: 1188–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Jakoniuk I, Anderson SM, Li B, Pickel J, McKay R, Nadal-Ginard B, Bodine DM, Leri A, Anversa P (2001a) Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature 410: 701–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Orlic D, Kajstura J, Chimenti S, Limana F, Jakoniuk I, Quaini F, Nadal-Ginard B, Bodine DM, Leri A, Anversa P (200 lb) Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 14: 14Google Scholar
  166. Oshima H, Rochat A, Kedzia C, Kobayashi K, Barrandon Y (2001) Morphogenesis and renewal of hair follicles from adult multipotent stem cells. Cell 104: 233–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Papas KK, Long RC, Sambanis A, Constantinidis I (1999) Development of a bioartificial pancreas: I. long-term propagation and basal and induced secretion from entrapped betaTC3 cell cultures. Biotechnol Bioeng 66: 219–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Park HJ, Yoo JJ, Kershen RT, Moreland R, Atala A (1999) Reconstitution of human corporal smooth muscle and endothelial cells in vivo. J Urol 162: 1106–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Perka C, Spitzer RS, Lindenhayn K, Sittinger M, Schultz O (2000) Matrix-mixed culture: new methodology for chondrocyte culture and preparation of cartilage transplants. J Biomed Mater Res 49: 305–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Perron M, Harris WA (2000) Retinal stem cells in vertebrates. Bioessays 22: 685–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Petersen BE, Bowen WC, Patrene KD, Mars WM, Sullivan AK, Murase N, Boggs SS, GreenbergerGoogle Scholar
  172. JS, Goff JP (1999) Bone marrow as a potential source of hepatic oval cells. Science 284: 1168–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pfeifer A, Ikawa M, Dayn Y, Verma IM (2002) Transgenesis by lentiviral vectors: lack of gene silencing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and preimplantation embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 2140–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, Jaiswal RK, Douglas R, Mosca JD, Moorman MA, Simon-etti DW, Craig S,’ Marshak DR (1999) Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 284: 143–7Google Scholar
  175. Platt JL (2000a) Immunobiology of xenotransplantation. Transpl Int 13 Suppl 1: S7–10 Platt JL (2000b) Physiologic barriers to xenotransplantation. Transplant Proc 32: 1547–8Google Scholar
  176. Polejaeva IA, Chen SH, Vaught TD, Page RL, Mullins J, Ball S, Dai Y, Boone J, Walker S, Ayares DL, Colman A, Campbell KH (2000) Cloned pigs produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cells. Nature 407: 86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Pralong D, Mrozik K, Occhiodoro F, Verma P (2002) Nuclear transfer to mouse ES-like cells: pre-and post-fusion enucleation Keystone Symposium, Stem Cells: Origins, Fates and Functions, Keystone Resort, pp 333Google Scholar
  178. Price LH, Spencer DD, Marek KL, Robbins RJ, Leranth C, Farhi A, Naftolin F, Roth RH, Bunney BS, Hoffer PB, et al. (1995) Psychiatric status after human fetal mesencephalic tissue transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 38: 498–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Prockop DJ (1997) Marrow stromal cells as stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissues. Science 276: 71–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Pundt LL, Kondoh T, Conrad JA, Low WC (1996) Transplantation of human fetal striatum into a rodent model of Huntington’s disease ameliorates locomotor deficits. Neurosci Res 24: 415–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rafii S (2000) Circulating endothelial precursors: mystery, reality, and promise. J Clin Invest 105: 17–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ramiya VK, Maraist M, Arfors KE, Schatz DA, Peck AB, Cornelius JG (2000) Reversal of insulin-dependent diabetes using islets generated in vitro from pancreatic stem cells. Nat Med 6: 278–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rao MS (1999) Multipotent and restricted precursors in the central nervous system. Anat Rec 257: 137–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rao MS, Yeldandi AV, Reddy JK (1990) Stem cell potential of ductular and periductular cells in the adult rat pancreas. Cell Differ Dev 29: 155–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Reik RA, Noto TA, Fernandez HF (1997) Safety of large-volume leukapheresis for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells. J Clin Apheresis 12: 10–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Resnick JL, Bixler LS, Cheng L, Donovan PJ (1992) Long-term proliferation of mouse primordial germ cells in culture. Nature 359: 550–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Reubinoff BE, Itsykson P, Turetsky T, Pera MF, Reinhartz E, Itzik A, Ben-Hur T (2001) Neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 19: 1134–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Reyes M, Dudek A, Jahagirdar B, Koodie L, Marker PH, Verfaillie CM (2002) Origin of endothelial progenitors in human postnatal bone marrow. J Clin Invest 109: 337–46Google Scholar
  189. Reyes M, Lund T, Lenvik T, Aguiar D, Koodie L, Verfaillie CM (2001) Purification and ex vivo expansion of postnatal human marrow mesodermal progenitor cells. Blood 98: 2615–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reyes M, Verfaillie CM (2001) Characterization of multipotent adult progenitor cells, a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 938: 231–3; discussion 233–5Google Scholar
  191. Reynolds BA, Tetzlaff W, Weiss S (1992) A multipotent EGF-responsive striatal embryonic pro-genitor cell produces neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci 12: 4565–74Google Scholar
  192. Reynolds BA, Weiss S (1992) Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science 255: 1707–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Richards M, Fong CY, Chan WK, Wong PC, Bongso A (2002) Human feeders support prolonged undifferentiated growth of human inner cell masses and embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 20: 933–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Rideout IW, Eggan K, Jaenisch R (2001) Nuclear cloning and epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. Science 293: 1093–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Rideout WM, Hochedlinger K, Kyba M, Daley GQ, Jaenisch R (2002) Correction of a genetic defect by nuclear transplantation and combined cell and gene therapy. Cell 109: 17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rietze RL, Valcanis H, Brooker GF, Thomas T, Voss AK, Bartlett PF (2001) Purification of a pluripotent neural stem cell from the adult mouse brain. Nature 412: 736–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Risau W, Sariola H, Zerwes HG, Sasse J, Ekblom P, Kemler R, Doetschman T (1988) Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in embryonic-stem-cell-derived embryoid bodies. Development 102: 471–8Google Scholar
  198. Rochat A, Kobayashi K, Barrandon Y (1994) Location of stem cells of human hair follicles by clonal analysis. Cell 76: 1063–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Roell W, Fan Y, Xia Y, Stoecker E, Sasse P, Kolossov E, Bloch W, Metzner H, Schmitz C, Addicks K, Hescheler J, Welz A, Fleischmann BK (2002) Cellular cardiomyoplasty in a transgenic mouse model. Transplantation 73: 462–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Rohwedel J, Kleppisch T, Pich U, Guan K, Jin S, Zuschratter W, Hopf C, Hoch W, Hescheler J, Witzemann V, Wobus AM (1998) Formation of postsynaptic-like membranes during differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro. Exp Cell Res 239: 214–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rohwedel J, Sehlmeyer U, Shan J, Meister A, Wobus AM (1996) Primordial germ cell-derived mouse embryonic germ ( EG) cells in vitro resemble undifferentiated stem cells with respect to differentiation capacity and cell cycle distribution. Cell Biol Int 20: 579–87Google Scholar
  202. Rolletschek A, Wiese C, Czyz J, Navarette-Santos A, Kania G, Blyszczuk P, St-Onge L, Boheler KR, Wobus AM (2003) Nestin-positive progenitor cells cultured from mouse intestinal epithehum are multipotent and differentiate into neural, meso-dermal, hepatic and pancreatic cells in vitro Keystone Symposium: From Stem Cells to Therapy, Steamboat Springs, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  203. Rudolph KL, Chang S, Millard M, Schreiber-Agus N, DePinho RA (2000) Inhibition of experimental liver cirrhosis in mice by telomerase gene delivery [see comments]. Science 287: 1253–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Sathananthan H, Pera M, Trounson A (2002) The fine structure of human embryonic stem cells. Reprod Biomed Online 4: 56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sauer H, Rahimi G, Hescheler J, Wartenberg M (1999) Effects of electrical fields on cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells. J Cell Biochem 75: 710–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Schaller RT, Jr., Stevenson JK (1965) Induction of transplantation tolerance by allogeneic thymus grafts. Surg Forum 16: 213–5Google Scholar
  207. Schmitt RM, Bruyns E, Snodgrass HR (1991) Hematopoietic development of embryonic stem cells in vitro: cytokine and receptor gene expression. Genes Dev 5: 728–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Schneider AI, Maier-Reif K, Graeve T (1999) Constructing an in vitro cornea from cultures of the three specific corneal cell types. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 35: 515–26Google Scholar
  209. Schuldiner M, Eiges R, Eden A, Yanuka O, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Goldstein RS, Benvenisty N (2001) Induced neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Brain Res 913: 201–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Schuldiner M, Yanuka O, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Melton DA, Benvenisty N (2000) Effects of eight growth factors on the differentiation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 11307–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Schwartz RE, Reyes M, Koodie L, Jiang Y, Blackstad M, Lund T, Lenvik T, Johnson S, Hu WS, Verfaillie CM (2002) Multipotent adult progenitor cells from bone marrow differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. J Clin Invest 109: 1291–302Google Scholar
  212. Schwedes U, Kaul S, Wdowinski J, Klempa I, Bastert G, Usadel KH (1983) The use of human fetal pancreas for transplantation: experimental and clinical results. Horm Metab Res Suppl: 87–90Google Scholar
  213. Sedivy JM (1998) Can ends justify the means?: telomeres and the mechanisms of replicative senescence and immortalization in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 9078–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Seshi B, Kumar S, Sellers D (2000) Human bone marrow stromal cell: coexpression of markers specific for multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. Blood Cells Mol Dis 26: 234–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Shamblott MJ, Axelman J, Littlefield JW, Blumenthal PD, Huggins GR, Cui Y, Cheng L, Gearhart JD (2001) Human embryonic germ cell derivatives express a broad range of developmentally distinct markers and proliferate extensively in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 113–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Shamblott MJ, Axelman J, Wang S, Bugg EM, Littlefield JW, Donovan PJ, Blumenthal PD, Huggins GR, Gearhart JD (1998) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 13726–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Sharpe AH, Freeman GJ (2002) The B7–CD28 superfamily. Nature Rev Immunol 2: 116–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Shi Q, Rafii S, Wu MH, Wijelath ES, Yu C, Ishida A, Fujita Y, Kothari S, Mohle R, Sauvage LR, Moore MA, Storb RF, Hammond WP (1998) Evidence for circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial cells. Blood 92: 362–7Google Scholar
  219. Shin T, Kraemer D, Pryor J, Liu L, Rugila J, Howe L, Buck S, Murphy K, Lyons L, Westhusin M (2002) A cat cloned by nuclear transplantation. Nature 415: 859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Slavin S, Kedar E (1988) Current problems and future goals in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Blood Rev 2: 259–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Sodian R, Hoerstrup SP, Sperling JS, Martin DP, Daebritz S, Mayer JE, Vacanti JP (2000) Evaluation of biodegradable, three-dimensional matrices for tissue engineering of heart valves. Asaio J 46: 107–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Solter D, Knowles BB (1975) Immunosurgery of mouse blastocyst. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 72: 5099–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Soria B, Roche E, Berna G, Leon-Quinto T, Reig JA, Martin F (2000) Insulin-secreting cells derived from embryonic stem cells normalize glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes 49: 157–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Spangenberg KM, Farr MM, Roy AK (1998) Tissue Engineering of tracheal epithelium: a model of isolation and culture in pluronic F 127NF. Tissue Engineering 4: 476Google Scholar
  225. Spencer DD, Robbins RJ, Naftolin F, Marek KL, Vollmer T, Leranth C, Roth RH, Price LH, Gjedde A, Bunney BS, et al. (1992) Unilateral transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue into the caudate nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 327: 1541–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Stamm C, Westphal B, Kleine HD, Petzsch M, Kittner C, Klinge H, Schumichen C, Nienaber CA, Freund M, Steinhoff G (2003) Autologous bone-marrow stem-cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration. Lancet 361: 45–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Steindler DA, Pincus DW (2002) Stem cells and neuropoiesis in the adult human brain. Lancet 359: 1047–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Steinhoff G, Stock U, Karim N, Mertsching H, Timke A, Meliss RR, Pethig K, Haverich A, Bader A (2000) Tissue engineering of pulmonary heart valves on allogenic acellular matrix conduits: In vivo restoration of valve tissue. Circulation 102: I1150–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Stemple DL, Anderson DJ (1992) Isolation of a stem cell for neurons and glia from the mammalian neural crest. Cell 71: 973–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Stock UA, Vacanti JP (2001) Tissue engineering: current state and prospects. Annu Rev Med 52: 443–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Stoye JP, Coffin JM (1987) The four classes of endogenous murine leukemia virus: structural relationships and potential for recombination. J Virol 61: 2659–69Google Scholar
  232. Stranzinger GF (1996) Embryonic stem-cell-like cell lines of the species rat and Bovinae. Int J Exp Pathol 77: 263–7Google Scholar
  233. Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, Gattermann N, Hernandez A, Sorg RV, Kogler G, Wernet P (2001) Intracoronary, human autologous stem cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration following myocardial infarction. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 126: 932–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Suemori H, Tada T, Torii R, Hosoi Y, Kobayashi K, Imahie H, Kondo Y, Iritani A, Nakatsuji N (2001) Establishment of embryonic stem cell lines from cynomolgus monkey blastocysts produced by IVF or ICSI. Dev Dyn 222: 273–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Summer R, Kotton DN, Sun X, Ma B, Fitzsimmons K, Fine A (2003) SP ( Side Population) Cells and Bcrpl Expression in Lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 7: 7Google Scholar
  236. Taylor G, Lehrer MS, Jensen PJ, Sun TT, Lavker RM (2000) Involvement of follicular stem cells in forming not only the follicle but also the epidermis. Cell 102: 451–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Temenoff JS, Mikos AG (2000) Review: tissue engineering for regeneration of articular cartilage. Biomaterials 21: 431–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Temple S (1989) Division and differentiation of isolated CNS blast cells in microculture. Nature 340: 471–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Terada N, Hamazaki T, Oka M, Hoki M, Mastalerz DM, Nakano Y, Meyer EM, Morel L, Petersen BE, Scott EW (2002) Bone marrow cells adopt the phenotype of other cells by spontaneous cell fusion. Nature 416: 542–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Theise ND, Nimmakayalu M, Gardner R, Illei PB, Morgan G, Teperman L, Henegariu O, Krause DS (2000) Liver from bone marrow in humans. Hepatology 32: 11–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Thivolet J, Faure M, Demidem A, Mauduit G (1986) Long-term survival and immunological tolerance of human epidermal allografts produced in culture. Transplantation 42: 274–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Thomas M, Yang L, Hornsby PJ (2000) Formation of functional tissue from transplanted adrenocortical cells expressing telomerase reverse transcriptase [see comments]. Nat Biotechnol 18: 39–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM (1998a) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282: 1145–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Thomson JA, Kalishman J, Golos TG, Durning M, Harris CP, Becker RA, Hearn JP (1995) Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92: 7844–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Thomson JA, Kalishman J, Golos TG, Durning M, Harris CP, Hearn JP (1996) Pluripotent cell lines derived from common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus) blastocysts. Biol Reprod 55: 254–9Google Scholar
  246. Thomson JA, Marshall VS, Trojanowski JQ (1998b) Neural differentiation of rhesus embryonic stem cells. Apmis 106: 149–56; discussion 156–7Google Scholar
  247. Toma C, Pittenger MF, Cahill KS, Byrne BJ, Kessler PD (2002) Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart. Circulation 105: 93–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Toma JG, Akhavan M, Fernandes KJ, Barnabe-Heider F, Sadikot A, Kaplan DR, Miller FD (2001) Isolation of multipotent adult stem cells from the dermis of mammalian skin. Nat Cell Biol 3: 778–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Tornita S, Li RK, Weisel RD, Mickle DA, Kim EJ, Sakai T, Jia ZQ (1999) Autologous transplantation of bone marrow cells improves damaged heart function. Circulation 100: I1247–56Google Scholar
  250. Tornita S, Mickle DA, Weisel RD, Jia ZQ, Tumiati LC, Allidina Y, Liu P, Li RK (2002) Improved heart function with myogenesis and angiogenesis after autologous porcine bone marrow stromal cell transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123: 1132–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Torok E, Pollok JM, Ma PX, Vogel C, Dandri M, Petersen J, Burda MR, Kaufmann PM, Kluth D, Rogiers X (2001) Hepatic tissue engineering on 3-dimensional biodegradable polymers within a pulsatile flow bioreactor. Dig Surg 18: 196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Tosh D, Slack JM (2002) How cells change their phenotype. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3: 187–94 Touraine JL (1992) In-utero transplantation of fetal liver stem cells into human fetuses. Hum Reprod 7: 44–8Google Scholar
  253. Travis J (1993) The search for liver stem cells picks up. Science 259: 1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Tropepe V, Coles BL, Chiasson BJ, Horsford DJ, Elia AJ, McInnes RR, van der Kooy D (2000) Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye. Science 287: 2032–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Tzanakakis ES, Hess DJ, SielaffTD, Hu WS (2000) Extracorporeal tissue engineered liver-assist devices. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2: 607–32Google Scholar
  256. Uchida N, Buck DW, He D, Reitsma MJ, Masek M, Phan TV, Tsukamoto AS, Gage FH, Weissman IL (2000) Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 14720–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Uchida N, Fujisaki T, Eaves AC, Eaves CJ (2001) Transplantable hematopoietic stem cells in human fetal liver have a CD34(+) side population ( SP)phenotype. J Clin Invest 108: 1071–7Google Scholar
  258. Vassilopoulos G, Wang PR, Russell DW (2003) Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion. Nature 30: 30Google Scholar
  259. Wagers AJ, Sherwood RI, Christensen JL, Weissman IL (2002) Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Science 297: 2256–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wakayama T, Perry AC, Zuccotti M, Johnson KR, Yanagimachi R (1998) Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with cumulus cell nuclei. Nature 394: 369–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Wakitani S, Goto T, Pineda SJ, Young RG, Mansour JM, Caplan AI, Goldberg VM (1994) Mesenchymal cell-based repair of large, full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Am 76: 579–92Google Scholar
  262. Wakitani S, Saito T, Caplan AI (1995) Myogenic cells derived from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exposed to 5-azacytidine. Muscle Nerve 18: 1417–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Waldmann H (1999) Transplantation tolerance-where do we stand? Nat Med 5: 1245–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Walsh CJ, Goodman D, Caplan AI, Goldberg VM (1999) Meniscus regeneration in a rabbit partial meniscectomy model. Tissue Eng 5: 327–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Wang JS, Shum-Tim D, Galipeau J, Chedrawy E, Eliopoulos N, Chiu RC (2000) Marrow stromal cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty: feasibility and potential clinical advantages. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 120: 999–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wang X, Willenbring H, Akkari Y, Torimaru Y, Foster M, Al-Dhalimy M, Lagasse E, Finegold M, Olson S, Grompe M (2003) Cell fusion is the principal source of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes. Nature 30: 30Google Scholar
  267. Watt FM (1998) Epidermal stem cells: markers, patterning and the control of stem cell fate. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353: 831–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Watt FM (2000) Epidermal stem cells as targets for gene transfer. Hum Gene Ther 11: 2261–6 Watt FM (2001) Stem cell fate and patterning in mammalian epidermis. Curr Opin Genet Dev 11: 410–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Watt FM (2002) The stem cell compartment in human interfollicular epidermis. J Dermatol Sci 28: 173–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Weiss RA (1998) Transgenic pigs and virus adaptation. Nature 391: 327–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Wernet P, Koegler G, Fischer J, Mueller HW, Rosenbaum C, Degistirici O, Knipper A, Beerheide W, Udolf G, Hengstler J Pluripotent stem cells indentified in human cord blood Keystone Symposium, Stem cells: Origins, fates and functions, Keystone Resort 2002, pp 445Google Scholar
  272. Wiles MV, Keller G (1991) Multiple hematopoietic lineages develop from embryonic stem ( ES) cells in culture. Development 111: 259–67Google Scholar
  273. Wobus AM, Rohwedel J, Maltsev V, Hescheler J (1995) Development of cardiomyocytes expressing cardiac-specific genes, action potentials, and ionic channels during embryonic stem cell-derived cardiogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 752: 460–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Woo SL, Hildebrand K, Watanabe N, Fenwick JA, Papageorgiou CD, Wang JH (1999) Tissue engineering of ligament and tendon healing. Clin Orthop 19: S312–23Google Scholar
  275. Wright NA (1997) Stem cell repertoire in the intestine. In: Potten CS (ed) Stem Cells. Academic Press, London, pp 315–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Xu C, Inokuma MS, Denham J, Golds K, Kundu P, Gold JD, Carpenter MK (2001) Feeder-free growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 19: 971–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Xu RH, Chen X, Li DS, Li R, Addicks GC, Glennon C, Zwaka TP, Thomson JA (2002) BMP4 ini- tiates human embryonic stem cell differentiation to trophoblast. Nat Biotechnol 20: 1261–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Yamada T, Yoshikawa M, Kanda S, Kato Y, Nakajima Y, Ishizaka S, Tsunoda Y (2002) In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells identified by cellular uptake of indocyanine green. Stem Cells 20: 146–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Yang J, Chang E, Cherry AM, Bangs CD, Oei Y, Bodnar A, Bronstein A, Chiu CP, Herron GS (1999) Human endothelial cell life extension by telomerase expression. J Biol Chem 274: 26141–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Yang L, Li S, Hatch H, Ahrens K, Cornelius JG, Petersen BE, Peck AB (2002) In vitro trans-differentiation of adult hepatic stem cells into pancreatic endocrine hormone-producing cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 8078–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Ying QL, Nichols J, Evans EP, Smith AG (2002) Changing potency by spontaneous fusion. Nature 416: 545–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Yoo J, Ashkar S, Atala A (1998) Excretion of urine-like fluid in vivo from engineered functional kidney structures. Tissue Eng. 4Google Scholar
  283. Yoo JJ, Park HJ, Atala A (2000) Tissue-engineering applications for phallic reconstruction. World J Urol 18: 62–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Zappone MV, Galli R, Catena R, Meani N, De Biasi S, Mattei E, Tiveron C, Vescovi AL, Lovell-Badge R, Ottolenghi S, Nicolis SK (2000) Sox2 regulatory sequences direct expression of a (beta)-geo transgene to telencephalic neural stem cells and precursors of the mouse embryo, revealing regionalization of gene expression in CNS stem cells. Development 127: 2367–82Google Scholar
  285. Zhang SC, Wernig M, Duncan ID, Brustle O, Thomson JA (2001) In vitro differentiation of trans- plantable neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 19: 1129–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Zhao LR, Duan WM, Reyes M, Keene CD, Verfaillie CM, Low WC (2002) Human bone marrow stem cells exhibit neural phenotypes and ameliorate neurological deficits after grafting into the ischemic brain of rats. Exp Neurol 174: 11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Zhou S, Schuetz JD, Bunting KD, Colapietro AM, Sampath J, Morris JJ, Lagutina I, Grosveld GC, Osawa M, Nakauchi H, Sorrentino BP (2001) The ABC transporter Bcrpl/ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells and is a molecular determinant of the side-population phenotype. Nat Med 7: 1028–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H, Huang J, Futrell JW, Katz AJ, Benhaim P, Lorenz HP, Hedrick MH (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Eng 7: 211–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Zulewski H, Abraham EJ, Gerlach MJ, Daniel PB, Moritz W, Muller B, Vallejo M, Thomas MK, Habener JF (2001) Multipotential nestin-positive stem cells isolated from adult pancreatic islets differentiate ex vivo into pancreatic endocrine, exocrine, and hepatic phenotypes. Diabetes 50: 521–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Zwaka TP, Thomson JA (2003) Homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 21: 319–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar

3 The Regulation of Embryo Research in Europe: Situation and Prospects

  1. Bartram C R et. al. (2000) Humangenetische Diagnostik, Wissenschaftsethik und Technikfolgenbeurteilung, vol. 7, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckmann JP (2003) Ethik nach Vorgaben des Gesetzes? — Überlegungen zur Aufgabe der Ethik gem. §§ 5 und 6 Stammzellgesetz (StZG). In: Amelung/Beulke/Lilie/Rosenau/Rüping/Wolfslast (eds.), Strafrecht — Biorecht — Rechtsphilosophie, Festschrift für Hans-Ludwig Schreiber, C. F. Müller, Heidelberg, pp. 593–602Google Scholar
  3. Benda E (2001) Verständigungsversuche über die Würde des Menschen, NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 2147–2148Google Scholar
  4. Beyleveld B, Pattinson S (2001) Embryo Research in the UK: Is Harmonisation in the EU Needed or Possible? In: Friele MB (ed.) Embryo Experimentation in Europe. Europaeische Akademie, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Grey Series Nr. 24. pp. 58–74Google Scholar
  5. von Bülow D (2001) Embryonenschutzgesetz. In: Winter/Fenger/Schreiber, Genmedizin und Recht, C. H. Beck, Munich. Margin. 300–380Google Scholar
  6. von Bülow D (1997) Dolly und das Embryonenschutzgesetz. In: DtÄB1. (Deutsches Ärzteblatt) Deutscher Arzteverlag, Köln, A-718—A-725Google Scholar
  7. Brazier M (1999) Regulating the Reproduction Business? In: Medical Law Review 7. pp. 166–193Google Scholar
  8. Charlesworth M (1990) Community Control of IVF and Embryo Experimentation. In: Singer P, Khuse H, Buckle S, Dawson K und Kasimba P (eds.) Embryo Experimentation. University of Cambridge, Cambridge. pp. 147–152Google Scholar
  9. Clothier C (1986) Introduction: Research on Early Human Embryos. In: Bock G und O’Connor M (eds.) Human Embryo Research — Yes or No? Tavistock Publications, London. pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  10. Dederer H-G (2002) Menschenwürde des Embryos in vitro? In: AöR (Archiv des öffentlichen Rechts), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 1–26Google Scholar
  11. Deutsch E (1991) Embryonenschutz in Deutschland. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C.H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 721–725Google Scholar
  12. Department of Health (1997) Advisory Group on the Ethics of Xenotransplantation, U.K. Animal Tissue into Humans. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Faßbender K (2001) Präimplantationsdiagnostik und Grundgesetz. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 2745–2753Google Scholar
  14. Fikentscher W (1976) Methoden des Rechts, vol. 3, J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) TübingenGoogle Scholar
  15. Gauthier D (1986) Morals By Agreement. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Gethmann F, Thiele F (2001) Moral arguments against the cloning of humans, Poisis und Praxis 1, pp. 35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graumann S (2001) Zehn Thesen zur Präimplantationsdiagnostik in: Chancen und Grenzen der Biomedizin Symposium des Diakonischen Werkes der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland e. V, Stuttgart, Oktober 2001, published in: Informationen und Materialien aus dem Diakonischen Werk der EKD 05/02, pp. 39–50Google Scholar
  18. Gutmann T (2001) Strafbarkeit des Klonens von Menschen. In: Roxin C, Schroth U, Medizinstrafrecht, 2nd edition, Boorberg, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  19. Herdegen M (2001) Menschenwürde im Fluß des bioethischen Diskurses. In: JZ ( Juristenzeitung) Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 773–779Google Scholar
  20. Herzog F (2001) Präimplantationsdiagnostik — Im Zweifel für ein Verbot? In: ZRP (Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik) C. H. Beck, Munich, pp. 339–347Google Scholar
  21. Heun W (2002) Embryonenforschung und Verfassung — Lebensrecht und Menschenwürde des Embryos. In: JZ ( Juristenzeitung) Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 517–524Google Scholar
  22. HFEA (1994) Ovarian tissue in embryo research und assisted conception: public consultation document. Human Fertilisation und Embryology Authority, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Hilgendorf E (2001) Klonverbot und Menschenwürde — Vom Homo sapiens zum Homo xerox? Überlegungen zu § 6 Embryonenschutzgesetz. In: Arndt/Geis/Lorenz (Hrsg.) Staat-KircheVerwaltung, Festschrift für Hartmut Maurer zum 70. Geburtstag, C. H. Beck, München. pp. 1147–1164Google Scholar
  24. Höfling W (2001) Verfassungsrechtliche Aspekte der Verfügung über menschliche Embryonen und „humanbiologisches Material“ Gutachten für die Enquete-Kommission des Deutschen Bundestages, Recht und Ethik in der modernen Medizin, http://www.bundestag.de/gremien/medi/ medi_gut_hoe.pdfGoogle Scholar
  25. Ipsen J (2001) Der verfassungsrechtliche Status des Embryos in vitro. In: JZ ( Juristenzeitung) Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 989–996Google Scholar
  26. Jähnke B (1989) In: Leipziger Kommentar zum Strafgesetzbuch (Commentary on the Criminal Code), 10th edition, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin und New York, section 219Google Scholar
  27. Keller R, Günther H-L, Kaiser P (1992) Embryonenschutzgesetz, Kommentar, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, Berlin, KölnGoogle Scholar
  28. Kirejczyk M (1999) Parliamentary Cultures and Human Embryos: The Dutch and British Debates Compared. In: Social Studies of Science 29/6 (December 1999 ) pp. 889–912Google Scholar
  29. Kloepfer M (2002) Humangentechnik als Verfassungsfrage. In: JZ (Juristenzeitung), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 417–428Google Scholar
  30. Köcher R (2001) Menschenwürde–Leitbild der modernen Gesellschaft? In: Katholische Akademie ( Catholic Academy) Freiburg (editor ), Leben als Gottes Bild–Die Bedeutung ethischer Ressourcen, pp. 51–63Google Scholar
  31. Köcher R (1996) Emotionen - ein Standortfaktor. Eine Dokumentation des Beitrags in der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung Nr. 164 vom 17. Juli 1996, Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach Larenz, K (1995) Methodenlehre, 3`d edition, Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Laufs A (1998) Arzt und Recht–Fortschritte und Aufgaben. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift), C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 1750–1761Google Scholar
  33. Laufs A (1999) Arzt, Patient und Recht am Ende des Jahrhunderts, NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 1758–1769Google Scholar
  34. Laufs A (2000) Nicht nur der Arzt allein muß bereit sein, das Notwendige zu tun. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift). C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 1757–1769Google Scholar
  35. Lee RG, Morgan D (2001) Human Fertilisation and Embryology: Regulating the Reproductive Revolution, Blackstone Press LimitedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lema Anón C (2000a) Los problemas pendientes de la regulación jurídica espanola sobre reproducción assistida: la sentencia de Tribunal Constitucional y el I. informe de la Comisión Nacional de Reproducción Humana Asistida (Parte I). In: Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano (Law and the Human Genome Review), No. 12, Bilbao, p. 47–66Google Scholar
  37. Lema Anón C (2000b) Los problemas pendientes de la regulación jurídica espanola sobre reproducción assistida: la sentencia de Tribunal Constitucional y el I. informe de la Comisión Nacional de Reproducción Humana Asistida (Parte II). In: Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano (Law and the Human Genome Review), No. 13, Bilbao, p. 103–118Google Scholar
  38. Lilie H (2003) Biorecht und Politik am Beispiel der internationalen Stammzelldiskussion. In: Amelung/Beulke/Lilie/Rosenau/Rüping/Wolfslast (eds), Strafrecht-Biorecht-Rechtsphilosophie, Festschrift für Hans-Ludwig Schreiber, C. E Müller, Heidelberg, p. 729–740Google Scholar
  39. Lilie H, Albrecht D (2001) Strafbarkeit im Umgang mit Stammzellinien aus Embryonen und damit im Zusammenhang stehender Tätigkeiten nach deutschem Recht. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 2774–2776Google Scholar
  40. Merkel R (2002) Forschungsobjekt Embryo - verfassungsrechtliche und ethische Grundlagen der Forschung an menschlichen embryonalen Stammzellen, Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  41. Mildenberger EH (2002) Der Streit um die Embryonen: Warum ungewollte Schwangerschaften, Embryoselektion und Embryonenforschung grundsätzlich unterschiedlich behandelt werden müssen. In: MedR ( Medizinrecht) Springer, Berlin, pp. 293–300Google Scholar
  42. Neidert R (1998) Brauchen wir ein Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz? In: MedR ( Medizinrecht) Springer, Berlin, pp. 347–353Google Scholar
  43. Neidert R (2000) Präimplantationsdiagnostik: Zunehmendes Lebensrecht In: DÄBI. ( Deutsches Ärzteblatt) Deutscher Ärzteverlag, Köln, 2000, pp. A3483 - A3486Google Scholar
  44. Neidert R (2002) Das überschätzte Embryonenschutzgesetz–was es verbietet und nicht verbietet. In: ZRP (Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik), C. H. Beck, Munich, pp. 467–471Google Scholar
  45. Pattinson SD (2002) Influencing Traits Before Birth. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  46. Renzikowski J (2001) Die strafrechtliche Beurteilung der Präimplantationsdiagnostik, NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift). C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 2753–2758Google Scholar
  47. Romeo Casabona CM (1996) Del Gen al Derecho, BogotaGoogle Scholar
  48. Romeo Casabona CM (2001) Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Therapy at European Level: Is a common legal framework needed? Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano (Law and the Human Genome Review), No. 15, Bilbao, p. 121–138Google Scholar
  49. Romeo Casabona CM (2002) Los llamados delitos relativos a la manipulación genetica, Escuela Judicial — Consejo General del Poder Judicial/Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Médicos de Madrid, Genética y derecho, Separata, 36, Madrid, p. 331–400Google Scholar
  50. Rosenau H (2002) Das Verbot des Klonens menschlichen Lebens: Reproduktives und therapeutisches Klonen, Vortrag (unpublished paper), Kyoto 14. September 2002Google Scholar
  51. Sandor J (1998) Reproductive Rights in Hungary. Central European University, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  52. Schick PJ (1991) Der Entwurf eines Fortpflanzungshilfegesetzes (FHG) — eine kritischeGoogle Scholar
  53. Wertungsanalyse, In: Bernat (ed.) Fortpflanzungsmedizin, Wertung und Gesetzgebung, Verlag-Österreichische Staatsdruckerei, Wien. pp. 3–43Google Scholar
  54. Schlink B (2002) Aktuelle Fragen des pränatalen Lebensschutzes, series of articles of the Juristis-chen Gesellschaft zu Berlin (Jurists Association of Berlin), De Gruyter Recht, Berlin, Heft 172Google Scholar
  55. Schneider S (2000) Auf dem Weg zur gezielten Selektion — Strafrechtliche Aspekte der Präimplan-tationsdiagnostik. In: MedR ( Medizinrecht) Springer, Berlin, pp. 360–364Google Scholar
  56. Schneider S (2002) Präimplantations- und Pränataldiagnostik (unpublished paper), Kyoto 14. September 2002Google Scholar
  57. Schreiber H-L (2000) Von den richtigen rechtlichen Voraussetzungen ausgehen. In: DÄBI. ( Deutsches Ärzteblatt ). A1135 — A1136Google Scholar
  58. Schroth U (2002) Forschung mit embryonalen Stammzellen und Präimplantationsdiagnostik im Lichte des Rechts. In: JZ ( Juristenzeitung) Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 170–179Google Scholar
  59. Sendler H (2001) Menschenwürde, PID und Schwangerschaftsabbruch. In: NJW (Neue Juristis-che Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp. 2148–2149Google Scholar
  60. Starck C (2002) Verfassungsrechtliche Grenzen der Biowissenschaft und Fortpflanzungsmedizin. In: JZ (Juristenzeitung). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 1065–1072Google Scholar
  61. Taupitz J (2001) Der rechtliche Rahmen des Klonens zu therapeutischen Zwecken. In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, pp: 3433–3440Google Scholar
  62. Taupitz J (2002) Der Status des Embryos, insbesondere die Produktion und Verwendung von Embryonen zur Forschung (unpublished paper) Kyoto, 14. September 2002Google Scholar
  63. Taupitz J (2003) Rechtliche Regelung der Embryonenforschung im internationalen Vergleich. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Tröndle H (1999) In: Tröndle/Fischer, Kommentar zum Strafgesetzbuch, 49. edition, C. H. Beck, MunichGoogle Scholar
  65. Warnock M (1984) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology. HMSO London, Cmnd 9314. As republished in: Warnock M ( 1985 ) A Question of Life. The Warnock Report on Human Fertilization and Embryology. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Zuck R (2002) Wie führt man eine Debatte? Die Embryonennutzung und die Würde des Menschen (Art. 1 Abs. 1 GG). In: NJW (Neue Juristische Wochenschrift) C. H. Beck, Munich und Frankfurt, p. 869Google Scholar

4 Attitudes to Embryo Research in Europe

  1. Beck U (1992) The Risk Society: Toward a new Modernity. London: SageGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck U (1999) World Risk Society. Oxford: Blackwell PublishersGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonfadelli H, Dahinden U, Leonarz M (2002) Biotechnology in Switzerland: high on the public agenda, but only moderate support. In: Public Understanding of Science 11 (2002), 113–130Google Scholar
  4. Campbell A, Converse PE, Miller WE, Stokes DE (1976) The American Voter. Chicago and Lon-don: The University Chicago Press (original edition 1960 )Google Scholar
  5. Converse P (1964) The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics. In: David E. Apter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent. New York: Free Press. Pp. 206–61Google Scholar
  6. Converse P (1970) Attitudes and Non-Attitudes: Continuation of a Dialogue. In: Tufte ER (ed.) The Qualitative Analysis of Social Problems. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  7. Daamen, Dancker DL, Van der Lans IA, Midden CJH (1990) Cognitive Structures in the Perception of Modern Technologies. In: Science, Technology, und Human Values, Vol. 15 No. 2, Spring 1990, 202–225Google Scholar
  8. Einsiedel EF, Jelsee E, Breck T (2001) Publics at the technology table: the consensus conferences in Denmark, Canada, and Australia. In: Public Understanding of Science 10, 83–98Google Scholar
  9. Evans G, Durant J (1995) The relationship between knowledge and attitudes in the public under- standing of science in Britain. In: Public Understanding of Science 4, 57–74Google Scholar
  10. Gaskell G et al. (1997) Europe ambivalent on biotechnology“. In: Nature, vol. 387, 845–847Google Scholar
  11. Gaskell G, Bauer M, Durant J, Allum NC (1999) Worlds Apart? The Reception of Genetically Modified Foods in Europe and the U.S.. In: Science, Vol. 285, 16 July 1999, 384–387Google Scholar
  12. Gaskell G et al. (2002) Europeans and Biotechnology in 2002. Eurobarometer 58.0. A report of the EC Directorate General for Research from the Project `Life Sciences in European Society’ GLG7-CT-1999–00286. http://europa. eu. int/comm/public_opinion/archives/eb/ebs_ 177_en.pdfGoogle Scholar
  13. Guston DH, Keniston K (1994) Introduction: The Social Contract for Science. In: Guston DH, Keniston K (eds.) The Fragile Contract. University Science and the Federal Government. Cambridge, MA: The MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Heise UK (forthcoming) Science, Technology and Postmodernism. The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism. Ed. Steven Connor. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  15. Hornig Priest S (2001) A Grain of Truth. The Media, the Public, and Biotechnology. LanhamBoulder-New York-Oxford: Rowman und Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  16. House of Lords (Select Committee on Science and Technology) (2000), Science and Society. London: The Stationery OfficeGoogle Scholar
  17. INRA (Europe) and Report International (1993) Europeans, Science and Technology. Public Understanding and Attitudes. Brussels: European Commission — Directorate General X IIGoogle Scholar
  18. Joss S, Durant J (1995) Public participation in science. The role of consensus conferences in Europe. London: Science MuseumGoogle Scholar
  19. Levitt Norman (1999) Science and the Contradictions of Contemporary Culture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  20. Lévy-Leblond J-M (1992) About Misunderstandings about Misunderstandings. In: Public Understanding of Science 1, 17–21Google Scholar
  21. Lyotard J-F (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota PressGoogle Scholar
  22. Marx L (1998) The Domination of Nature and the Redefinition of Progress. In: Leo Marx y Bruce Mazlish (eds.) Progress. Fact or Illusion? Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Mertig AG, Dunlap RE (1995) Public Approval of Environmental Protection and Other New Social Movement Goals in Western Europe and the United States. In: International Journal of Public Opinion Research Vol. 7, No. 2., pp. 145–156Google Scholar
  24. Miller JD (1983) The American People and Science Policy. New York: Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Miller JD, Pardo R (2000) Civic Scientific Literacy and Attitude to Science and Technology: A Comparative Analysis of the European Union, the United States, Japan, and Canada. In: Dierkes M, von Grote C (eds.) Between Understanding and Trust. The Public, Science, and Technology. Australia-Canada-France: Harwood Academic Publishers, 81–130Google Scholar
  26. National Science Board (2002) Science and Engineering Indicators-2002. Arlington, VA: National Science FoundationGoogle Scholar
  27. Nelkin D (1992) Controversy: politics of technical decisions (3`d edition). Newbury Park, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  28. Nelkin D, Lindee MS (1998) Cloning in the Popular Imagination. In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, vol. 7 no. 2, 145–149Google Scholar
  29. Pardo R (2001) La cultura cientifico-tecnologica de las sociedades de modernidad tardia. In: Tre-balls de la Societat Catalana de Biologia, Volum 51, 64–86Google Scholar
  30. Pardo R, Midden C, Miller JD (2002) Attitudes toward biotechnology in the European Union, Journal of Biotechnology 98, 9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pardo R, Calvo F (2002) Attitudes toward science among the European public: a methodological analysis, Public Understanding of Science 11, 155–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Patzig G (2001) Moral Problems of Preimplantation Diagnostics. In: Friele MB (ed.) Embryo Experimentation in Europe. Bio-medical, Legal, and Philosophical Aspects. Bad-NeuenahrAhrweiler: Europäische Akademie, Graue Reihe vol. 24, 105–115Google Scholar
  33. Perrow C (1999) Normal Accidents. Princeton: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  34. Prewitt K (1983) Scientific Illiteracy and Democratic Theory. In: Daedalus, Spring, 49–64Google Scholar
  35. Shamos MH (1995) The Myth of Scientific Literacy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Slovic P (1987) Perception of Risk. In: Science, vol. 236, 280–285Google Scholar
  37. Turney J (1998) Frankenstein’s Footsteps. Science, Genetic, and Popular Culture. New Haven and London: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Spencer RW (1989) Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  39. Weimann G (1994) The Influentials. People Who Influence People. Albany, NY: State University of New York PressGoogle Scholar
  40. Wellcome Trust (1998) Public Perspectives on Human Cloning. A Social Research Study. London: The Wellcome TrustGoogle Scholar
  41. Worcester RM (1993) Public and Élite Attitudes to Environmental Issues. In: International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 315–334Google Scholar

5 Toward a Rational Debate on Embryo Research

  1. Arnst C, Kerry C (2001) “A Ban Won’t Make Cloning Go Away”, Business Week, 10 DecemberGoogle Scholar
  2. Beasley S (1999) Contraception and the Moral Status of the Early Human Embryo. In: Evans D (ed.) (1996) Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human Embryology; The Hague, etc.: Martinus Nijhoff PublishersGoogle Scholar
  3. Bettelheim A (2001) House Bill to Ban Cloning. CQ Weekly 28 July, vol 57, #30: 1857Google Scholar
  4. Beyleveld D, Brownsword R (2001) Human Dignity in Bioethics and Biolaw, Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Boukhari S (1999) Religion, Genetics and the Embryo, UNESCO Courier, Sept. 99: 24Google Scholar
  6. Breyer SG (2000) Genetic Advances and Legal Institution. In: Journal of Law, Medicine und Ethics, Winter Supplement, Vol. 28, Issue 4Google Scholar
  7. Brody AB (1998) Ethics of Biomedical Research. An International Perspective, Oxford: University PressGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell PW (1999) Fight over Stem-Cell Research Is Unlikely to Tie up Spending Bill. Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 October, vol: 46, #8Google Scholar
  9. Carney TP (2001) Bioethics Guru Unclear of When to Protect Life, Human Events 10 September, vol 57, #33: 4Google Scholar
  10. Carey J, Licking E (2002) “The Stem-Cell Debate Just Got Thornier”, Business Week, 11 FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  11. Coulter A (2001) Embryos in the Rain Forest. Human Events, 30 July, vol 57, #28: 1Google Scholar
  12. Daar JF (2001) “Frozen Embryo Disputes Revisited”, Journal of Law, Medicine und Ethics, vol 29, #3: 197Google Scholar
  13. Douglas M (1966) Purity and Danger, Hammondsworth: Pengu in BooksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dworkin R (1978) Taking Rights Seriously. Revised edition, London: DuckworthGoogle Scholar
  15. Dyson A, Harris J (1994) Ethics and Biotechnology, London and New York: Routledge Economist, “The Facts of Life”, 8/17/96 vol 340 #7979: 47Google Scholar
  16. Economist, “The Politics of Cloning”, 12/1/2001, vol 361, #8250: 34Google Scholar
  17. Economist, “The Cutting Blob of Ethical Politics,” 7/7/2001, vol 360, #8229: 31Google Scholar
  18. Eder K (1996) The Social Construction of Natrue; London, etc: SAGE PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans D (ed.) 1996: Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human Embryology; The Hague, etc.: Martinus Nijhoff PublishersGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans D (1996a) Conceiving the Embryo. In: Evans D (ed.) (1996) Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human EmbryologyGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans D (1996b) Pro-attitudes and Pre-embryos. In: Evans D (ed.) (1996) Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human EmbryologyGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans D (1996c) Procuring Gametes for Research and Therapy. In: Evans D (ed.) (1996) Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human EmbryologyGoogle Scholar
  23. Finnis J (1980) Natural Law and Natural Rights; London: Clarendon PressGoogle Scholar
  24. Fischer JS (2000) Copies upon Copies, US News and World Report, 02/07/2000, vol: 128, #5: 52 Ford Norman: When Did I Begin? Ref?Google Scholar
  25. Freud S (1938) Totem and Taboo, London: Pelican BooksGoogle Scholar
  26. Gethmann CF, Thiele F Moral Arguments against Cloning of Humans. In: Poiesis und Praxis. 2001 #1: 35–46Google Scholar
  27. Gerrand N (1993) Creating Embryos for Research. In: Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol 10 #2Google Scholar
  28. Giles TS, Ferranti J (1995) Test-Tube Wars. In: Christianity Today, 1/9/95, vol 39, # 1: 38Google Scholar
  29. Habermas J (1970) Toward a Theory of Communicative Competence. In:H. P. Dreitzel. (ed.) Recent Sociology No. 2, 114–148: New York: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  30. Hare RM (1999) Abortion and the Golden Rule. In: Kuhse and Singer: BioethicsGoogle Scholar
  31. Harris J (1992) Wonderwoman and Superman: The Ethics of Human Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris J (1994) Biotechnology, Friend or Foe? Ethics and Control, in Dyson and Harris: Ethics and BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  33. Häyry M (1994) Categorical Objections to Genetic Engineering — A Critique. In: Dyson and Harris: Ethics and BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  34. Henderson CW (2000) UK Doctors Defend Embryo Research- In: Blood Weekly: 11/23/200011 /30/2000: 11Google Scholar
  35. Holm S (1999) The Moral Status of the Pre-Personal Human Being. In: Evans D (ed.) (1996) Conceiving the Embryo: Ethics, Law and Practice in Human Embryology; The Hague, etc.: Martinus Nijhoff PublishersGoogle Scholar
  36. Hursthouse R (1987) Beginning Lives; Oxford: Blackwell und the Open UniversityGoogle Scholar
  37. Jefferey TP (2001) Think Again, Mr. President. In: Human Events, 8/20/2001, vol. 57, 31Google Scholar
  38. John Paul II (1996) Encykliki Ojca ?wi?tego Jana Paw?a II [Encyclicals of His Holiness John Paul II], Krakow: Wydawnictwo Znak (in Polish)Google Scholar
  39. Kelsen H (1967) Pure Theory of Law. Translated by Max Knight form the 2nd revised and enlarged German edition. Berkeley: California University PressGoogle Scholar
  40. Kischer CW (2001) Why Hatch is Wrong on Human Life. In: Human Events, 7/16/2001, vol 57, #26: 1Google Scholar
  41. Kolakowski L (2000) Kultura i fetysze [in Polish], Warszawa: PWNGoogle Scholar
  42. Kuhse H, Singer P (1999) Bioethics; An Anthology, Malden Mass: Blackwell PublishersGoogle Scholar
  43. Lamb D (1998) Down the Slippery Slope: Arguing in Applied Ethics; London: Croom HelmGoogle Scholar
  44. Lancet (1999) First Principles in Cloning, 01/09/99, vol 353 #9147: 81Google Scholar
  45. Lauritzen P (2001) Neither Person nor Property, America 03/26/2001, vol: 184, #10: 20Google Scholar
  46. Mason JK, McCall Smith RA, Laurie GT (1999) Law and Medical Ethics, London, Edinburgh, Dublin: ButterworthsGoogle Scholar
  47. Mayor S (2001) Common Votes for Human Embryo Stem Cell Research“, British Medical Journal, 01/06/2001, vol 322 #7277: 7Google Scholar
  48. McCarthy TA (1973) A Theory of Communicative Competence. In: Philosophy of the Social Sciences, vol. 3 135–156Google Scholar
  49. McLaren A, Marinho da Silva P, Schroten E (2000) Ethical Aspects of Research Involving the Use of Human Embryo in the Context of the 5th Framework Programme. Opinion of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  50. McNeill PM (1993) The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation, Cambridge, University PressGoogle Scholar
  51. Norman F (1992) When Did I Begin? Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  52. Mead M (1970) Culture and Commitment; A Study of the Generation Gap; Garden City, NY: Natural History PressGoogle Scholar
  53. Meyers MJ, Nelson LJ (2001) Respecting What We Destroy. Hastings Center Report, Jan/Feb 2001, vol 31 #1: 16Google Scholar
  54. New Perspectives Quarterly, 2000 Special Issue, vol 17 #5: 58Google Scholar
  55. van Niekirk A, van Zyl L (1996) Embryo Experimentation, Personhood and Human Rights. In: South African Journal of Philosophy, Nov. 1996, vol 15, #4: 139Google Scholar
  56. Novak M (2001) “The Stem-Cell Slide”, National Review, 9/3/2001, vol 53, #17Google Scholar
  57. O’Leary D (1999) Embryo Research Contested. Christianity Today 05/24/1999, vol. 43, #6: 26Google Scholar
  58. Orellana C (2002) Germany’s Parliament Approves Imports of Embryonic Stem Cells. Lancet, 2/9/2002, vol. 359 #9305: 506Google Scholar
  59. Peters T (1994) Designer Children: The Market World of Reproductive Choice. Christian Century, 12/14/1994: vol. 111, #36: 1193Google Scholar
  60. Pulford C (2001) Human Embryo Cloning Legalized. Christianity Today, 03/05/2001, vol 45, #4: 32Google Scholar
  61. Resnik DB (1998) The Commodification of Human Reproductive Materials. Journal of Medical Ethics, Dec. 1998, vol: 24, #6: 388Google Scholar
  62. Robertson J (1994) Children of Choice: Freedom and the New Reproductive Technologies, Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  63. Rogers A (1998) European Union Approves Gene-Patent Directive, Lancet, 05/16/98, Vol. 351, Issue 9114Google Scholar
  64. Shannon TA (1998) Remaking Ourselves? Commonweal, 12/04/98, vol: 125, #21: 9Google Scholar
  65. Steinbock B (1994) The Moral Status of Extracorporeal Embryos, in Dyson and Harris: Ethics and BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  66. Tesler P (2001) Cell Mates. Current Science, 09/14/2001, vol 87, #2: 8Google Scholar
  67. Thompson JJ (1999) A Defense of Abortion. In: Kuhse and Singer: BioethicsGoogle Scholar
  68. Tooley M (1999) Abortion and Infanticide, in Kuhse and Singer: BioethicsGoogle Scholar
  69. Vorraut J-M (1989) Le possible et l’interdit. Les devoirs du droit, Paris 1989: Edition de la Table RondeGoogle Scholar
  70. Wessels U (1994) Genetic Engineering and Ethics in Germany. In: Dyson and Harris: Ethics and BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  71. Wood-Harper J (1994) Manipulation of the Germ-Line. In: Dyson, Harris: Ethics and BiotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  72. Zuckerman MB (2001) “A Rare Gift of Life”, US News and World Report 7/23/2001, vol: 131 #3: 116Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davor Solter
    • 1
  • D. Beyleveld
  • M. B. Friele
  • J. Hołówka
  • H. Lilie
  • R. Lovell-Badge
  • C. Mandla
  • U. Martin
  • R. Pardo Avellaneda
  1. 1.Institut für ImmunbiologieMax-Planck-InstitutFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations