Genetic Programming

  • Thomas Bräunl


Genetic programming extends the idea of genetic algorithms discussed in Chapter 20, using the same idea of evolution going back to Darwin [Darwin 1859]. Here, the genotype is a piece of software, a directly executable program. Genetic programming searches the space of possible computer programs that solve a given problem. The performance of each individual program within the population is evaluated, then programs are selected according to their fitness and undergo operations that produce a new set of programs. These programs can be encoded in a number of different programming languages, but in most cases a variation of Lisp [McCarthy et al. 1962] is chosen, since it facilitates the application of genetic operators.


Mobile Robot Genetic Programming Ball Position Program Construct Executable Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buckle, T., Thiele, L.A Comparison of Selection Schemes used in Genetic Algorithms, Computer Engineering and Communication Networks Lab (TIK), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology/ETH Zürich, Report no. 11, 1995Google Scholar
  2. Brooks, R.A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot, IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, vol. 2, no. 1, March 1986, pp. 14–23 (10)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darwin, C.On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, John Murray, London, 1859Google Scholar
  4. Fernandez, J.The GP Tutorial — The Genetic Programming Notebook,, 2003Google Scholar
  5. Graham, P.ANSI Common Lisp, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1995Google Scholar
  6. Hancock, P.An empirical comparison of selection methods in evolutionary algorithms, in T. Fogarty (Ed.), Evolutionary Computing, AISB Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 865, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1994, pp. 80–94 (15)Google Scholar
  7. Hwang, Y.Object Tracking for Robotic Agent with Genetic Programming, B.E. Honours Thesis, The Univ. of Western Australia, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Eng., supervised by T. Bräunl, 2002Google Scholar
  8. Iba, H., Nozoe, T., Ueda, K.Evolving communicating agents based on genetic programming, IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC97), 1997, pp. 297–302 (6)Google Scholar
  9. Koza, J.Genetic Programming — On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, The MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1992MATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Kurashige, K., Fukuda, T., Hoshino, H.Motion planning based on hierarchical knowledge for six legged locomotion robot, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics SMC’99, vol. 6, 1999, pp. 924–929 (6)Google Scholar
  11. Langdon, W., Poli, R.Foundations of Genetic Programming, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2002MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, W., Hallam, J., Lund, H.Applying genetic programming to evolve behavior primitives and arbitrators for mobile robots, IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC97), 1997, pp. 501–506 (6)Google Scholar
  13. Mahadevan, S., Connell, J.Automatic programming of behaviour-based robots using reinforcement learning, Proceedings of the Ninth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol. 2, AAAI Press/MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1991Google Scholar
  14. McCarthy, J., Abrahams, P., Edwards, D., Hart, T., Levin, M.The Lisp Programmers’ Manual, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1962Google Scholar
  15. Walker, M., Messom, C.A comparison of genetic programming and genetic algorithms for auto-tuning mobile robot motion control, Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Design, Test and Applications, 2002, pp. 507–509 (3)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Bräunl
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer EngineeringThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley, PerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations