• A. E. Eiben
  • J. E. Smith
Part of the Natural Computing Series book series (NCS)


Evolutionary computing is a research area within computer science. As the name suggests, it is a special flavour of computing, which draws inspiration from the process of natural evolution- That some computer scientists have chosen natural evolution as a source of inspiration is not surprising, for the power of evolution in nature is evident in the diverse species that make up our world, with each tailored to survive well in its own niche. The fundamental metaphor of evolutionary computing relates this powerful natural evolution to a particular style of problem solving — that of trial-and-error.


Evolutionary Computing Adaptive Landscape Learning Classifier System Trait Combination Diploid Organism 
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  1. 1.
    Charles Darwin. The Origin of Species. John Murray, 1859. The world-famous book introducing the theory of evolution, based on Darwin’s observations from his trip in the Beagle.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Dawkins. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press, 1976. A “pop-science” classic, promoting “neo-Darwinism” as a synthesis of evolution with modern genetics. Its very “gene-centric” view of evolution, has been questioned by some.Google Scholar
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    J. Maynard-Smith. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press, 1978. A good, readable introduction to the biological basics of reproduction in haploid and diploid organisms.Google Scholar
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    S. Wright. The roles of mutation, inbreeding, cross-breeding, and selection in evolution. In: Proc. of 6th Int. Congr. on Genetics, vol. 1, pp. 356–366. Ithaca, NY, 1932. The paper introducing the idea of the adaptive landscapes.Google Scholar
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    D.B. Fogel, ed. Evolutionary Computation: the Fossil Record. IEEE Press, 1998. Fascinating collection of early works in the field, interesting not just for historical insight.MATHGoogle Scholar
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    S.A. Kauffman. Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993. Offers a different perspective on the processes that lead to the origins of life.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Eiben
    • 1
  • J. E. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of SciencesVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Mathematical SciencesUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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