Protocols

  • Susanne Hummel
Chapter

Abstract

The collection of protocols that is presented in this chapter does not, and is not intended to, represent a complete summary of all protocols available in the ancient DNA literature (also cf. section 3.1). Obviously, as with all protocols, there can be no guarantee that any protocol presented here describes the optimal way to perform a certain task. Nonetheless, because of the extensive experience of our laboratory with ancient DNA analysis, I am confident that all of them are consistent and reliable. Primarily, this is thanks to the many graduate and Ph.D. students, the post-doctoral scientists and all the guests who have carried out research work in our laboratory, all of them putting a great deal of effort into optimizing the procedures, primers and protocols in order to improve aDNA analysis.

Keywords

HPLC Phenol Urea EDTA Agarose 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTRProfilerPlusTM. User ManualGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartels A (2002) Verwandtschaftsrekonstruktion am Rotfuchs (Vulpes vulpes) durch molekulargenetische Analysen an degradierten Gewebeproben. Diplomarbeit, Georg August-Universität, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  3. Bramanti B, Sineo L, Vianello M, Caramelli D, Hummel S, Chiarelli B, Herrmann B (2000) The selective a dvantage of cystic fibrosis heterocygotes tested by aDNA analysis. Int J Anthropol 15:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bollongino R (2000) Bestimmung humanökologisch relevanter Tierarten aus historischen, musealen und forensischen Materialien durch Sequenzierung mitochondrialer Genorte. Diplomarbeit, Georg August-Universität, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  5. Burger J (2000) Sequenzierung, RFLP-Analyse und STR-Genotypisierungen alter DNA aus archäologischen Funden und historischen Werkstoffen. Dissertation Georg August-Universität, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  6. Gerstenberger J, Hummel S, Herrmann B (1998) Assignment of an isolated skeletal element to the skeleton of Duke Christian II. Ancient Biomol 2: 63–68Google Scholar
  7. Gerstenberger J, Hummel S, Schultes T, Häck B, Herrmann B (1999) Reconstruction of a historical genealogy by means of STR a nalysis and Y — haplotyping of ancient DNA. Europ J Hum Genet 7:469–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heyen DW, Beever JE, DA Y, Evert RE, Green C, Bates SR, Ziegele JS, Lewin HA (1997) Exclusion probabilities of 22 bovine microsatellite markers in fluorescent multiplexes for semiautomated parentage testing. Anim Genet 28:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hummel S, Schmidt D, Kahle M, Herrmann B (2002) ABO blood group genotyping of ancient DNA by PCR-RFLP. Int J Legal Med (in press)Google Scholar
  10. Kayser M, Cagliá A, Corach D, Fretwell N, Gehrig C, Graziosi G, Heidorn F, Herrmann S, Herzog B, Hidding M, Honda K, Jobling M, Krawczak M, Leim K, Meuser S, Meyer E, Oesterreich W, Pandya A, Parson W, Penacino G, Perez-Lezaun A, Piccinini A, Prinz M, Schmitt C, Roewer L (1997) Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Int J Legal Med 110:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kimpton C, Walton A, Gill P(1992) A further tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in the vWF gene. Hum Mol Genet 1:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kimpton C, Fisher D, Watson S, Adams M, Urquhart A, Lygo J, Gill P (1994) Evaluation of an automated DNA profiling system employing multiplex amplification of four tetrameric STR loci. Int J Legal Med 106:302–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kogan SC, Doherty M, Gitschier J (1987) An improved method for prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases by analysis of amplified DNA sequences — Application to Hemophilia A. New Engl J Med 317:985–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lareu MV, Barral S, Salas A, Pestoni C, Carracedo A (1998) Sequence variation of a hypervariable short tandem repeat at the D1S 1656 locus. Int J Legal Med 111:244–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mannucci A, Sullivan KM, Ivanov PL, Gill P (1994) Forensic application of a rapid and quantitative DNA sex test by amplification of the X-Y homologous gene amelogenin. Int J Legal Med 106:190–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Müller B (2002) Design einer Multiplex-PCR zur Typisierung von Y-STR Haplotypen aus degradierter DNA. Diplomarbeit, Georg August-Universität, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  17. Panzer SW, Hammond HA, Stephens L, Chai A, Caskey CT (1993) Trinucleotide repeat polymorphism at D6S366. Hum Mol Genet 2:1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Polymeropoulos MH, Rath DS, Xiao H, Merril CR (1991a) Tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human c-fes/fps proto-oncogene (FES). Nucleic Acids Res 19:4018Google Scholar
  19. Polymeropoulos MH, Xiao H, Rath DS, Merril CR (1991b) Tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH) Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human non-histone chromosomal protein HMG14 gene. Nucleic Acids Res 13:3753Google Scholar
  20. Roewer L, Arnemann J, Spurr NK, Grzeschik KH, Epplen JT (1992) Simple repeat sequences on the human Y chromosome are equally polymorphic as their autosomal counterparts. Hum Genet 89:389–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning. A laboratory manual (2nd edn). Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmidt D (2001) DNA-Extraktion aus konservierten Lebensmitteln. Staatsexamensarbeit. Georg August-Universität, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  23. Schultes T (2000) Typisierung alter DNA zur Rekonstruktion von Verwandtschaft in einem bronzezeitlichen Skelettkollektiv. Cuvellier, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  24. Schultes T, Hummel S, Herrmann B (1999) Amplification of Y-chromosomal STRs from ancient skeletal remains. Hum Genet 104:164–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Urquhart A, Oldroyd NJ, Kimpton CP, Gill P (1995) Highly discriminating heptaplex short tandem repeat PCR system for forensic identification. BioTechniaues 18:116–121Google Scholar
  26. Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R (1991) Chelex100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. BioTechniques 10:506–513Google Scholar
  27. Wrischnik LA, Higuchi RG, Stoneking M, Erlich H A, Arnheim N, Wilson AC (1987) Length mutations in human mitochondrial DNA: direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 15:529–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Hummel
    • 1
  1. 1.Historische Anthropologie und Humanökologie, Institut für Zoologie und AnthropologieGeorg August Universität GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations