Brassica and Legume Chromosomes
The numbers of the chromosomes of Brassica and legumes were identified at an early stage of chromosome research. The earliest report on the chromosome numbers of Brassica species was back in 1916 when Takamine precisely determined the chromosome number of B. rapa (B. campestris, A genome) as 20. Trouard-Riolle also determined the chromosome number of Raphanus sativus as 18 in 1916. The chromosome numbers of B. oleracea and B. nigra, which contain the C and B genomes, respectively, were also determined as 18 and 16, respectively, by Karpechenko in 1924 (Gomez-Campo and Hinata 1980). By 1980, chromosome numbers of more than 240 taxa of the tribe Bras-sicaceae had been determined and listed (Gomez-Campo and Hinata 1980). Chromosome research into the legumes has a similar history to that of Bras-sica. The chromosome number of Glycine max, with typical small type (S-type; Fukui 1996; Fukui et al. 2000) chromosomes, was reported by Karpechenko in 1925 and by Veatch in 1934 (Singh et al. 2001). The chromosome number of Lotus japonicus was reported as 2n = 24 in 1930 (Kawakami 1930). The fact, however, that all the chromosomes are similar in both size and morphology at mitotic metaphase, made it difficult to identify individual chromosomes. Although Yanagisawa et al. (1991) found that there are marker chromosomes commonly observed in the species of the genus Glycine, it is far from complete identification of all the chromosomes.
KeywordsProximal Region Rice Chromosome rDNA Locus Lotus Japonicus Plant Chromosome
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