Advertisement

Application of Molecular Markers in Brassica Coenospecies: Comparative Mapping and Tagging

  • M. Lakshmikumaran
  • S. Das
  • P. S. Srivastava
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 52)

Abstract

The great bulk of genetic variation at the nucleotide level may not be visible at the phenotypic level. It is this variation that is exploited to generate molecular markers. The study of molecular genetics and plant breeding has been aided variously and to an unprecedented degree and accuracy with the developments in the field of molecular markers. Techniques such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have permitted rapid and precise analysis of germplasm, trait mapping, and marker-assisted breeding and selection. These markers have also been used to further our insight into genome evolution, and to study gene order in terms of conservation (synteny) and rearrangement across taxa. Molecular or DNA-based markers offer many advantages over conventional phenotypic markers. They are heritable, easy to score, free from developmental and environmental influences, detectable in all tissues, insensitive to epistatic or pleiotropic interactions, and they provide a choice of codominant (simultaneous detection of various alleles) or dominant (no allelic information conveyed) markers.

Keywords

Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Erucic Acid Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Cleave Amplify Polymorphic Sequence Brassica Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham V, Bhatia CR (1986) Development of strains with yellow seed coat in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea Czern. and Coss.). Plant Breed 97:86–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acarkan A, Rossberg M, Koch M, Schmidt R (2000) Comparative genome analysis reveals extensive conservation of genome organization for Arabidopsis thaliana and Capsella rubella. Plant J 23:55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams MD, Kelley JM, Gocayne JD, Dubnick M, Polymeropoluos M H, Xiao H, Merril CR, Wu A, Olde B, Moreno RF, Kerlavage AR, McCombie W R, Venter JC (1991) Complimentary DNA sequencing: expressed sequence tags and human genome project. Science 252:1651–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed SU, Zuberi MI (1971) Inheritance of seed coat colour in Brassica campestris—variety Toria. Crop Sci 11:309–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anand IJ, Reddy WR, Rawat DS (1985) Inheritance of seed colour in mustard. Indian J Genet 45:34–37Google Scholar
  6. Arondel V, Lemieux B, Hwang T, Gibson S, Goodman HM, Somerville CR (1992) Map-based cloning of a gene controlling omega-3 fatty acid desaturation in Arabidopsis. Science 258:1352–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arus P, Orton TJ (1983) Inheritance and linkage relationships of isozyme loci in Brassica oleracea. J Hered 74:405–412Google Scholar
  8. Axelson T, Bowman CM, Sharpe AG, Lydiate DJ, Lagercrantz U (2000) Amphidiploid Brassica juncea contains conserved progenitor genomes. Genome 43:679–688Google Scholar
  9. Axelsson T, Shavorskaya O, Lagercrantz U (2001) Multiple flowering time QTLs within several Brassica species could be the result of duplicated copies of one ancestral gene. Genome 44:856–64Google Scholar
  10. Barret P, Delourme R, Foisset N, Renard M (1998a) Development of a SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) marker for molecular tagging of the dwarf BREIZH (Bzh) gene in Brassica napus L. Theor Appl Genet 97:828–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barret P, Delourme R, Renard M, Domergue F, Lessire L Delseny M, Roscoe TJ (1998b) A rape-seed FAE1 gene is linked to the El locus associated with variation in the content of erucic acid. Theor Appl Genet 96:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker J, Vos P, Kuiper M, Salamini F, Heun M (1995) Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley. Mol Gen Genet 249:65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennetzen JL (2000) Comparative sequence analysis of the plant nuclear genomes: micro-collinearity and its many exceptions. Plant Cell 12:1021–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bevan M, Murphy G (1999) The small, the large and the wild: the value of comparisons in plant genetics. Trends Genet 15:211–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhatia S, Das S, Jain A, Lakshmikumaran M (1995) DNA fingerprinting of the B. juncea cultivars using the microsatellite probes. Electrophoresis 16:1750–1754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bohuon EJR, Keith DJ, Parkin IAP, Sharpe AG, Lydiate DJ (1996) Alignment of the conserved C genomes of Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 93:833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bohuon EJ, Ramsay LD, Craft JA, Arthur AE, Marshall DF, Lydiate DJ, Kearsey MJ (1998) The association of flowering time quantitative trait loci with duplicated regions and candidate loci in Brassica oleracea. Genetics 50:393–401Google Scholar
  18. Botha AM, Venter E (2000) Molecular maker technology linked to pest and pathogen resistance in wheat breeding. S Afr J Sci 96:233–240Google Scholar
  19. Brunei D, Froger N, Pelletier G (1999) Development of amplified consensus genetic marker (ACGM) in Brassica napus from Arabidopsis thaliana sequences of known biological function. Genome 42:387–402Google Scholar
  20. Butruille DV, Guries RP, Osborn TC (1999) Linkage analysis of molecular markers and quantitative trait loci in populations of inbred backcross lines of Brassica napus L. Genetics 153: 949–964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Camarago LEA, Osborn TC (1996) Mapping loci controlling flowering time in Brassica oleracea. Theor Appl Genet 92:610–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Camarago LEA, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1995) Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance of Brassica oleracea to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in the field and green house. Phytopathology 85:1296–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Camarago LEA, Savides L, Jung G, Nienhuis J, Osborn TC (1997) Location of self-incompatibility locus in an RFLP and RAPD map of Brassica oleracea. J Hered 88:57–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cavell AC, Lydiate DJ, Parkin IA, Dean C, Trick M (1998) Collinearity between a 30-centimor-gan segment of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4 and duplicated regions within the Brassica napus genome. Genome 41:62–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chauhan YS, Kumar K (1987) Genetics of seed colour in mustard (Brassica juncea Czern. and Coss.). Cruciferae Newsl 12:22–23Google Scholar
  26. Chen BY, Heneen WK (1992) Inheritance of seed color in Brassica campestris L. and breeding for yellow-seeded B. napus L. Euphytica 59:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen BY, Heneen WK, Jönsson R (1988) Resynthesis of Brassica napus L. through interspecific hybridization between B. alboglabra Bailey and B. campestris L. with special emphasis on seed color. Plant Breed 101:52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen BY, Heneen WK, Simonsen V (1989) Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in re-synthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., B. campestris and B. alboglabra Bailey. Theor Appl Genet 77:673–679Google Scholar
  29. Chen BY, Simonsen V, Lanner-Herrera C, Heneen WK (1992) A Brassica campestris-alboglabra addition line and its use for gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and generation of trisomics. Theor Appl Genet 84:592–599Google Scholar
  30. Chen BY, Jorgensen RB, Cheng BF, Heneen WK (1997) Identification and chromosomal assignment of RAPD marker linked with a gene for seed coat colour in a Brassica campestris-alboglabra addition line. Hereditas 126:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheng BF, Chen BY, Heneen WK (1994a) Addition of Brassica alboglabra Bailey chromosome to B. campestris with special emphasis to seed colour. Heredity 73:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheng BF, Heneen WK, Chen BY (1994b) Meiotic studies of a Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition line and derived B. campestris primary trisomics. Genome 37:584–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cheng BF, Heneen WK, Chen BY (1995) Mitotic karyotypes of Brassica campestris and B. alboglabra and identification of the B. alboglabra chromosome in an addition line. Genome 38:313–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cheung WY, Friesen L, Rakow GFW, Seguin-Swartz G, Landry BS (1997) An RFLP based linkage map of mustard [Brassica juncea (L) Czern. and Coss.]. Theor Appl Genet 94:841–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cheung WY, Gugel RK, Landry BS (1998) Identification of RFLP markers linked to the white rust resistance gene (Acr) in mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss.). Genome 41: 626–628Google Scholar
  36. Chevre AM, This P, Eber F, Deschamps M, Renard M, Delseny M, Quiros CF (1991) Characterization of disomic addition lines of Brassica napus-Brassica nigra by isozymes, fatty acids and RFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 81:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chyi YS, Hoeneke ME, Sernyk JL (1992) A genetic linkage map of restriction fragment length polymorphism loci for Brassica rapa (syn. campestris). Genome 35:746–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Conner JA, Conner P, Nasrallah ME, Nasrallah JB (1998) Comparative mapping of the Brassica S locus region and its homolog in Arabidopsis: implications for the evolution of mating systems in the Brassicaceae. Plant Cell 10:801–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Costa P, Pot D, Dubos C, Frigerio JM, Pion C, Bodeness C, Bertocchi E, Cervera M-T, Remington DL, Plomion C (2000) A genetic map of maritime pine based on AFLP, RAPD and protein markers. Theor Appl Genet 100:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Das S, Rajagopal J, Bhatia S, Srivastava PS, Lakshmikumaran M (1999) Assessment of genetic variation within Brassica campestris cultivars using AFLP and RAPD markers. J BioSci 24:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Daun JK, DeClercq DR (1988) Quality of yellow and dark seeds in Brassica campestris canola varieties Candle and Tobin. JAOCS 65:122–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Delourme R, Bouchereau A, Hubert N, Renard M, Landry BS (1994) Identification of RAPD markers linked to a fertility restorer gene for the Ogura radish cytoplasmic male sterility of rapeseed (Brassica napus L). Theor Appl Genet 88:741–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Delourme R, Foisset N, Horvais R, Barret P, Champagne G, Cheung WY, Landry BS, Renard M (1998) Characterization of the radish introgression carrying the Rfo restorer gene for the Ogu-INRA cytoplasmic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L). Theor Appl Genet 97:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Demeke T, Adams RP, Chibbar R (1992) Potential taxonomic use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD): a case study in Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 84:990–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. De Quiroz HC, Mithen R (1996) Molecular markers for low-glucosinolate alleles in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Mol Breed 2:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Devic M, Albert S, Delseny M, Roscoe TJ (1997) Efficient PCR-walking on plant genomic DNA. Plant Physiol Biochem 35:331–339Google Scholar
  47. Dion Y, Gugel RK, Rakow GFW, Seguin-Swartz G, Landry BS (1995) RFLP mapping of resistance to the blackleg disease [casual agent, Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not.] in canola (Brassica napus L.). Theor Appl Genet 91:1190–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Divaret I, Margale E, Thomas G (1999) RAPD markers on seed bulks efficiently assess the genetic diversity of a Brassica oleracea L. collection. Theor Appl Genet 98:1029–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Drenkard E, Richter BG, Rozen S, Stutius LM, Angell NA, Mindrinos M, Cho RJ, Oefner PJ, Davis RW, Ausubel FM (2000) A simple procedure for the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms facilitates map-based cloning in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 124:1483–1492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dreyer F, Graichen K, Jung C (2001) A major quantitative trait locus for resistance to Turnip Yellow Virus (TuYV, syn. beet western yellows virus, BWYV) in rapeseed. Plant Breed 120:457–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ecke W, Uzunova M, Weissleder K (1995) Mapping the genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus L) II. Localization of genes controlling erucic acid synthesis and oil content. Theor Appl Genet 91:972–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Eiadthong W, Yonemori K, Kanzaki S, Sugiura A, Utsunomiya N, Subhadrabandhu S (2000) Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for studying genetic relationships among Mangifera species in Thailand. J Am Hortic Soc 125:160–164Google Scholar
  53. Erschadi S, Haberer G, Schöniger M, Torres-Ruiz RA (2000) Estimating genetic diversity of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes with amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Theor Appl Genet 100:633–640Google Scholar
  54. Ferreira ME, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1994) RFLP mapping of Brassica napus using doubled haploid lines. Theor Appl Genet 89:615–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ferreira ME, Rimmer SR, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1995a) Mapping loci controlling Brassica napus resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans under different screening conditions. Genetics 85:213–217Google Scholar
  56. Ferreira ME, Satagopan J, Yandell BS, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1995b) Mapping loci controlling vernalization requirement and flowering time in Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 90:727–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ferreira ME, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1995c) Mapping loci controlling resistance to Albugo candida in Brassica napus using molecular markers. Phytopathology 85:218–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Figdore SS, Ferreira ME, Slocum MK, Williams PH (1993) Association of RFLP markers with trait loci affecting clubroot resistance and morphological characters in Brassica oleracea L. Euphytica 69:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Foisset N, Delourme R, Barret P, Renard M (1995) Molecular tagging of the dwarf BREIZH (Bzh) gene in Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 91:756–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Foisset N, Delourme R, Barret P, Hubert N, Landry BS, Renard M (1996) Molecular mapping analysis of Brassica napus using isozyme, RAPD and RFLP markers on doubled haploid progeny. Theor Appl Genet 93:1017–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fourmann M, Barret P, Renard M, Pelletier G, Delourme R, Brunei D (1998) The two genes homologous to Arabidopsis FAE1 co-segregate with the two loci governing erucic acid content in Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 96:852–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Francisco-Ortega J, Fuertes-Aguilar J, Gomez-Campo C, Santos-Guerra A, Jansen RK (1999) Internal transcribed spacer sequence phylogeny of Crambe L. (Brassicaceae): molecular data reveal two Old World disjunctions. Mol Phylogenet Evol 11:361–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gale MD, Devos KM (1998) Comparative genetics in the grasses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:1971–1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gupta PK, Varshney RK, Sharma PC, Ramesh B (1999) Molecular markers and their application in wheat breeding. Plant Breed 118:369–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hall C, McCallum D, Prescott A, Mithen R (2001) Biochemical genetics of glucosinolate modification in Arabidopsis and Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 102:369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Henderson CAP, Pauls KP (1992) The use of haploidy to develop plants that express several recessive traits using light-seeded canola (Brassica napus) as an example. Theor Appl Genet 83:476–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heslop Harrison JS (2000) Comparative genome organization in plants: from sequence and markers to chromatin and chromosomes. Plant Cell 12:617–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Heusden AW van, Ooijen JW van, Vrielink-van Ginkel R, Verbeek W HJ, Wietsma WA, Kik C (2000) A genetic map of interspecific cross in Allium based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Theor Appl Genet 100:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoenecke M, Chyi YS (1991) Comparison of Brassica napus and B. rapa genomes based on restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping. In: McGregor DI (ed) Rapeseed in a changing world. Proc 8th International Rapeseed Congr Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada 4, pp 221–226Google Scholar
  70. Hongtrakul V, Heustis GM, Knapp SJ (1997) Amplified fragment length polymorphisms as a tool for DNA fingerprinting sunflower germplasm: genetic diversity among oilseed inbred lines. Theor Appl Genet 95:400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hosaka K, Kianian SF, McGrath JM, Quiros CF (1990) Development and chromosomal localization of genome-specific DNA markers of Brassica and the evolution of amphidiploids and n = 9 diploid species. Genome 33:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hu J, Quiros CF (1991) Molecular and cytological evidence of deletions in alien chromosomes for two monosomic addition lines of Brassica campestris-oleracea. Theor Appl Genet 81: 221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hu J, Quiros C, Arus P, Struss D, Robbelen G (1995) Mapping of a gene determining linolenic acid concentration in rapeseed with DNA-based markers. Theor Appl Genet 90:258–262Google Scholar
  74. Hu J, Li G, Struss D, Quiros CF (1999) SCAR and RAPD markers associated with 18-carbon fatty acids in rapeseed, Brassica napus. Plant Breed 118:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ignatov AN, Kuginuki Y, Suprunova TP, Pozmogova GE, Seitova A M, Dorokhov DB, Hirai M (2000) RAPD-markers linked to the locus for resistance to the race 4 pathogen for black rot, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pamm.) Dow., in Brassica rapa L. Genetika 36: 357–360Google Scholar
  76. Jackson SA, Cheng Z, Wang ML, Goodman HM, Jiang J (2000) Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana bacterial artificial chromosome contig reveals the role of chromosomal duplications in the expansion of the Brassica rapa genome. Genetics 2000 156:833–838Google Scholar
  77. Jain A, Bhatia S, Banga SS, Prakash S, Lakshmikumaran M (1994) Potential use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to study the genetic diversity in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and its relationship to heterosis. Theor Appl Genet 88:116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jean M, Brown GG, Landry BS (1997) Genetic mapping of nuclear fertility restorer genes for the Polima cytoplasmic male sterility in canola (Brassica napus L) using DNA markers. Theor Appl Genet 95:321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jeffrey AJ, Wilson V,Thein SL (1985) Individual specific fingerprints of human DNA. Nature 316: 76–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jende-Strid B (1991) Gene-enzyme relations in the pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis in barley. Theor Appl Genet 81:668–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jönsson R (1975) Yellow-seeded rape and turnip rape. II. Breeding for improved quality of oil and meal in yellow-seeded materials. J Swed Seed Assoc 85:271–275Google Scholar
  82. Jönsson R (1977) Breeding for improved oil and meal quality in rape (Brassica napus L.) and turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Hereditas 87:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jorgensen RB, Chen BY, Cheng BF, Heneen WK, Simonsen V (1996) Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers of the Brassica alboglabra chromosome of a B. campestris-alboglabra addition line. Chromosome Res 4:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jourden C, Barret P, Brunei D, Delourme R, Renard M (1996a) Specific molecular marker of genes controlling linolenic acid content in rapeseed. Theor Appl Genet 93:512–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jourden C, Barret P, Horvais R, Delourme R, Renard M (1996b) Identification of RAPD marker linked to linolenic acid genes in rapeseed. Euphytica 90:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jourden C, Barret P, Horvais R, Foisset N, Delourme R, Renard M (1996c) Identification of RAPD markers linked to loci controlling erucic acid level in rapeseed. Mol Breed 2:61–71Google Scholar
  87. Kaneko Y, Bang SW, Matsuzawa Y (2000)Early bolting trait and RAPD markers in the specific monosomic addition line of radish carrying the e-chromosome of Brassica oleracea. Plant Breed 119:137–140Google Scholar
  88. Kaneko Y, Yano H, Bang SW, Matsuzawa Y (2001) Production and characterization of Raphanus sativus-Brassica rapa monosomic addition lines. Plant Breed 120:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kearsey MJ, Ramsay LD, Jennings DE, Lydiate DJ, Bohuon EJR, Marshall DF (1996) Higher recombination frequency in female compared to male meiosis in Brassica oleracea.Theo Appl Genet 92:363–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Keller B, Feulliet C (2000) Collinearity and gene density in grass genomes. Trends Plant Sci 5: 246–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kellog EA (1998) Relationship of cereal crops and other grasses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 2005–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kianian SF, Quiros CF (1991) Genetic analysis of major multigene families in Brassica oleracea and related species. Genome 35:516–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kianian SF, Quiros CF (1992) Generation of a Brassica oleracea composite RFLP map: linkage arrangements among various populations and evolutionary implications. Theor Appl Genet 84:544–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kole C, Teutonico R, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1996) Molecular mapping of a locus controlling resistance to Albugo candida in Brassica rapa. Genetics 86:367–369Google Scholar
  95. Kole C, Quijada P, Michaels SD, Amasino RM, Osborn TC (2001) Evidence for homology of flowering-time genes VFR2 from Brassica rapa and FLC from Arabidopsis thaliana. Theor Appl Genet 102:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Konieckzny A, Ausubel M (1993) A procedure for mapping Arabidopsis mutations using co-dominant ecotype-specific PCR-based markers. Plant J 4:403–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kowalaski SP, Lan T-H, Feldmann KA, Paterson AH (1994) Comparative mapping of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea chromosomes reveals islands of conserved organization. Genetics 138:499–510Google Scholar
  98. Kurata N, Moore G, Nagamura Y, Foote T, Yano M, Minobe Y, Gale M (1994) Conservation of genome structure between rice and wheat. Bio/Technology 12:276–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lagercrantz U (1998) Comparative mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica nigra indicates that Brassica genome have evolved through extensive genome replication accompanied by chromosome fusions and frequent rearrangements. Genetics 150:1217–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lagercrantz U, Lydiate D (1995) RFLP mapping in Brassica nigra indicates differing recombination rates in male and female meioses. Genome 38:255–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lagercrantz U, Lydiate D (1996) Comparative genome mapping in Brassica. Genetics 144: 1903–1910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lagercrantz U, Putterill J, Coupland G, Lydiate D (1996) Comparative mapping of Arabidopsis and Brassica, fine scale genome collinearity and congruence of genes controlling flowering time. Plant J 9:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lan T-H, Paterson AH (2000) Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci sculpting the curd of Brassica oleracea. Genetics 155:1927–1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lan T-H, Paterson AH (2001) Comparative mapping of QTLs determining the plant size of Brassica oleracea. Theor Appl Genet 103:383–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lan T-H, DelMonte TA, Reischmann KP, Hyman J, Kowalski SP, McFerson J, Kresovich SN, Paterson AH (2000) An EST-enriched comparative map of Brassica oleracea and Arabidop-sis thaliana. Genome Res 10:776–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Landry BS, Hubert N, Etoh T, Harada JJ, Lincoln SE (1991) A genetic map for Brassica napus based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms detected with expressed DNA sequences. Genome 34:543–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Landry BS, Hubert N, Crete R, Chiang MS, Lincoln SE, Etoh T (1992) A genetic map for Brassica oleracea based on RFLP markers detected with expressed DNA sequences and mapping of resistance genes to race 2 of Plasmodiophora brassicae (Woronin). Genome 35:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lanner C, Bryngelsson T, Gustafson M (1997) Relationship of wild Brassica species with chromosome number 2n = 18, based on RFLP studies. Genome 40:302–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Leung J, Fenton TW, Mueller MR, Clandinin (1979) Condensed tannins of rapeseed meal. J Food Sci 44:1313–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Li G, Quiros CF (2001) Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 103:455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Li X-Q, Jean M, Landry BS, Brown GG (1998) Restorer genes for different forms of Brassica cytoplasmic male sterility map to a single nucleus locus that modifies transcripts of several mitochondrial genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:10032–10037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lin X, Kaul S, Rounsley S, Shea TP, Benito M-I, Town CD, Fujii CY, Mason T, Bowman CL, Barnstead M, Feldblyum TV, Buell CR, Ketchum KA, Lee J, Ronning CM, Koo HL, Moffat KS, Cronin LA, Shen M, Pai G, Van Aken S, Umayam L, Talion LJ, Gill JE, Venter JC (1999) Sequence and analysis of chromosome 2 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 402:761–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:6535–6540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lombard V, Delourme R (2001) A consensus linkage map for rapeseed (Brassica napus L.): construction and integration of three individual maps from DH populations. Theor Appl Genet 103:491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lukowitz W, Gillmor CS, Scheibel W-R (2000) Positional cloning in Arabidopsis. Why it feels good to have a genome initiative working for you. Plant Physiol 123:795–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Manzanares-Dauleux MJ, Delourme R, Baron F, Thomas G (2000) Mapping of one major gene and of QTLs involved in resistance to clubroot in Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 101: 885–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mayer K, Schüller C, Wambutt R et al. (1999) Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 402:769–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mayer KFX, Schoof H, Häcker A, Lenard M, Jürgens G, Laux T (1998) Role of WUSCHEL in regulating stem cell fate in Arabidopsis shoot meristem. Cell 95:805–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mazur BJ, Tingey SV (1995) Genetic mapping and introgression of genes of agronomic importance. Curr Opin Biotech 6:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McCouch S (1998) Towards a plant genome initiative: thoughts on the value of cross genera comparisons in the grasses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:1983–1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McGrath JM, Quiros CF (1991) Inheritance of isozyme and RFLP markers in Brassica campestris and comparison with B. oleracea. Theor Appl genet 82:668–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McGrath JM, Quiros CF, Harada JJ, Landry BS (1990) Identification of Brassica oleracea mono-somic alien chromosome addition lines with molecular markers reveals extensive gene duplication. Mol Gen Genet 223:198–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Meinke DW, Cherry JM, Dean C, Rounsley SD, Koornneef M (1998) Arabidopsis thaliana: a model plant for genome analysis. Science 282:662–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Michaels SD, Amasino RM (1998) A robust method for detecting single-nucleotide changes as polymorphic markers by PCR. Plant J 14:381–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Michelmore RW, Paran I, Kesseli RV (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9828–9832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Miller JC, Tanksley SD (1990) RFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in the genus Lycopersicon. Theor Appl Genet 80:437–448Google Scholar
  127. Mohammed A, Sikka S M, Aziz MA (1942) Inheritance of seed colour in some oleiferous Brassicae. Ind J Genet Plant Breed 2:112–127Google Scholar
  128. Mohan M, Nair S, Bhagwat A, Krishna TG, Yano M, Bhatia CR, Sasakai T (1997) Genome mapping, molecular markers and marker-assisted selection in crop plants. Mol Breed 3:87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Moore G (1995) Cereal genome evolution: pastoral pursuits with “Lego” genomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:717–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Moore G (2000) Cereal chromosome structure, evolution and pairing. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:195–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Negi MS, Devic M, Delseny M, Lakshmikumaran M (2000) Identification of AFLP fragments linked to seed coat colour in Brassica juncea and conversion to SCAR marker for rapid selection. Theor Appl Genet 101:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. O’Neill CM, Bancroft I (2000) Comparative physical mapping of segments of the genome of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra that are homoeologous to sequenced regions of chromosomes 4 and 5 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 23:233–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Osborn TC, Kole C, Parkin IA, Sharpe AG, Kuiper M, Lydiate DJ, Trick M (1997) Comparison of flowering time genes in Brassica rapa, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 146: 1123–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Paran I, Michelmore RW (1993) Development of reliable PCR-based markers linked to downy mildew genes in lettuce. Theor Appl Genet 85:985–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Parkin IA, Sharpe AG, Keith DJ, Lydiate DJ (1995) Identification of the A and C genomes of amphidiploid Brassica napus (oilseed rape). Genome 38:1122–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pilet ML, Delourme R, Foisset N, Renard M (1998a) Identification of loci controlling field resistance to blackleg disease, causal agent Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not., in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Theor Appl Genet 96:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Pilet ML, Delourme R, Foisset N, Renard M (1998b) Identification of QTL involved in field resistance to light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) and blackleg resistance (Leptosphaeria maculans) in winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Theor Appl Genet 97:398–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Plieske J, Struss D (2001a) STS markers linked to Phoma resistance genes of the Brassica B-genome revealed sequence homology between Brassica nigra and Brassica napus. Theor Appl Genet 102:483–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Plieske J, Struss D (2001b) Microsatellite markers for genome analysis in Brassica. I. development in Brassica napus and abundance in Brassicaceae species. Theor Appl Genet 102:689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ponce MR, Robles P, Micol JL (1999) High throughput mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet 261:408–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Prabhu K V, Somers DJ, Rakow G, Gugel RK (1998) Molecular markers linked to white rust resistance in mustard Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet 97:865–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prakash S, Hinata K (1980) Taxonomy, cytogenetics and origin of crop Brassicas, a review. Opera Bot 55:1–57Google Scholar
  143. Prasad M, Varshney RK, Roy JK, Balyan HS, Gupta PK (2000) The use of microsatellites for detecting DNA polymorphism, genotype identification and genetic diversity in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 100:584–592Google Scholar
  144. Putterill J, Robson F, Lee K, Coupland G (1993) Chromosome walking with YAC clones in Arabidopsis: isolation of 1700kb of contiguous DNA on chromosome 5, including a 300kb region containing the flowering time gene CO. Mol Gen Genet 239:145–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Quiros CF, Ochoa O, Kianian SF, Douches D (1987) Analysis of Brassica oleracea genome by the generation of B. campestris-oleracea addition lines: Characterization by isozymes and rDNA genes. Theor Appl Genet 74:758–766Google Scholar
  146. Quiros CF, Ochoa O, Douches DS (1988) Exploring the role of x = 7 species in Brassica evolution: hybridization with B. nigra and B. oleracea. J Hered 79:351–358Google Scholar
  147. Quiros CF, Hu J, This P, Chevre AM, Delseny M (1991) Development and chromosomal localization of genome-specific markers by polymerase chain reaction in Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 88:402–406Google Scholar
  148. Quiros CF, Hu J, Truco MJ (1994) DNA-based marker Brassica maps. In: Phillips RL, Vasil IK (eds) Advances in cellular and molecular biology of plants, vol. I: DNA based markers in plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 199–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ramsay LD, Jennings DE, Bohuon EJR, Arthur AE, Lydiate DJ, Kearsey MJ, Marshall DF (1996) The construction of a substitution library of recombinant backcross lines in Brassica oleracea for the precision mapping of quantitative loci. Genome 39:558–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rashid A, Rakow G, Downey RK (1993) Development of yellow seeded Brassica napus L. through interspecific crosses. In:8th Crucifer Genetics Workshop, Saskatoon, SaskatchewanGoogle Scholar
  151. Riaz A, Li G, Quresh Z, Swati MS, Quiros CF (2001) Genetic diversity of oilseed Brassica napus inbred lines based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism and its relation to hybrid performance. Plant Breed 120:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Robert LS, Robson F, Sharpe A, Lydiate D, Coupland G (1998) Conserved structure and function of the Arabidopsis flowering time gene CONSTANS in Brassica napus. Plant Mol Biol 37:763–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ryals J, Weymann K, Lawton K, Freidrich L, Ellis D, Steiner HY, Johnson J, Delaney TP, Jesse T, Vos P, Uknes S (1997) The Arabidopsis NIM1 protein shows homology to the mammalian transcription factor inhibitor I k B. Plant Cell 9:425–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Saal B, Plieske J, Hu J, Quiros CF, Struss D (2001) Microsatellite markers for genome analysis in Brassica. II. Assignment of rapeseed microsatellites to the A and C genomes and genetic mapping in Brassica oleracea L. Theor Appl Genet 102:695–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sadowski J, Gaubier P, Delseny M, Quiros CF (1996) Genetic and physical mapping in Brassica diploid species of a gene cluster defined in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet 251:298–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sakai H, Medrano LJ, Meyerowitz EM (1995) Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries. Nature 378:199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schierholt A, Becker HC, Ecke W (2000) Mapping a high oleic acid mutation in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Theor Appl Genet 101:897–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schilling A (1991) Development of a molecular genetic linkage map in Brassica rapa (syn. Campestris L.). MSc Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USAGoogle Scholar
  159. Schmidt R, Acarkan A, Boivin K (2001) Comparative structural genomics in the Brassicaceae family. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schwetka A (1982) Inheritance of seed color in turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Theor Appl Genet 62:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sebastian RL, Howell EC, King GJ, Marshall DF, Kearsey MJ (2000) An integrated AFLP and RFLP of Brassica oleracea linkage from two morphologically distinct doubled-haploid mapping populations. Theor Appl Genet 100:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Seki M, Narusaka M, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Carninci P, Kawal J, Hayashizaki Y, Shinozaki K (2001) Arabidopsis encyclopedia using full length cDNAs and its application. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:211–220Google Scholar
  163. Sharma A, Mohopatra T, Sharma RP (1994) Molecular mapping and character tagging in Brassica juncea. I: Degree, nature and linkage relationship of RFLPs and their association with quantitative traits. J Plant Biochem Biotech 3:85–89Google Scholar
  164. Sharpe AG, Parkin IA, Keith DJ, Lydiate DJ (1995) Frequent nonreciprocal translocations in the amphidiploid genome of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Genome 38:1112–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Shirley BW, Hanley S, Goodman HM (1992) Effects of ionizing radiation on a plant genome: analysis of two Arabidopsis transparent testa mutations. Plant Cell 4:333–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Shirley BW, Kubasek WL, Storz G, Bruggemann E, Koorneef M, Ausubel FM, Goodman HM (1995) Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis. Plant J 8:659–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shirzadegan M (1986) Inheritance of seed colour in Brassica napus L. Z Pflanzenzuchtg 96:140–146Google Scholar
  168. Siebert PD, Chenchick A, Kellogg DE, Lukyanov KA, Lukyanov SA (1995) An improved PCR method for walking in uncloned genomic DNA. Nucleic Acids Res 23:1087–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sillito D, Parkin IA, Mayerhofer R, Lydiate DJ, Good AG (2000) Arabidopsis thaliana: a source of candidate disease-resistance genes for Brassica napus. Genome 43:452–460Google Scholar
  170. Slocum MK (1989) Analyzing the genomic structure of Brassica species using RFLP analysis. In: Helentjaris T, Burr B (eds) Development and application of molecular markers to problems in plant genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp 73–80Google Scholar
  171. Slocum MK, Figdore SS, Kenard WC, Suzuki JY, Osborn TC (1990) Linkage arrangement of restriction fragment length polymorphic loci in Brassica oleracea. Theor Appl Genet 80:75–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Somers DJ, Rakow G, Rimmer SR (2002) Brassica napus DNA markers linked to white rust resistance in Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet DOI 10.1007/s00122–001–0812-l (online first article)Google Scholar
  173. Song KM, Osborn TC, Williams PH (1988a) Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs). 1. Genome evolution of diploid and amphidiploid species. Theor Appl Genet 75:784–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Song KM, Osborn TC, Williams PH (1988b) Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs). 2: Preliminary analysis of sub-species within B. rapa (syn. campestris) and B. oleracea. Theor Appl Genet 76:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Song KM, Osborn TC, Williams PH (1990) Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs). 3. Genome relationship in Brassica and related genera and the origin of B. oleracea and B. rapa (syn. campestris). Theor Appl Genet 79:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Song KM, Suzuki JY, Slocum MK, Williams PH, Osborn TC (1991) A linkage map of Brassica rapa (syn. campestris) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism loci. Theor Appl Genet 82:296–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Song KM, Lu P, Tang K, Osborn TC (1995a) Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:7719–7723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Song KM, Slocum, MK, Osborn TC (1995b) Molecular marker analysis of genes controlling morphological variation in Brassica rapa (syn. Campestris). Theor Appl Genet 90:1–10Google Scholar
  179. Sparvoli F, Martin C, Scienza A, Gavazzi G, Tonelli C (1994) Cloning and molecular analysis of structural genes involved and stilbene biosynthesis in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant Mol Biol 24:743–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Springer PS (2000) Gene traps: tools for plant development and genomics. Plant Cell 12:1007–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Srivastava A, Gupta V, Pental D, Pradhan AK (2001) AFLP-based genetic diversity assessment amongst agronomically important natural and some newly synthesized lines of Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet 102:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stringam GR (1980) Inheritance of seed color in turnip rape. Can J Plant Sci 60:331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Stringam GR, McGregor DI, Pawlowski SH (1974) Chemical and morphological characteristics associated with seed coat colour in rapeseed. In: Proc 4th Int Rapeseed Conf, Giessen, Germany, pp 99–108Google Scholar
  184. Struss D, Bellin U, Robbelen G (1991) Development of B-genome chromosome addition lines of B. napus using different interspecific Brassica hybrids. Plant Breed 106:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Struss D, Quiros CF, Plieske J, Robbelen G (1996) Construction of Brassica B genome synteny groups based on chromosomes extracted from three different sources by phenotypic, isozyme and molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 93:1026–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tanhuanpää PK, Vilkki JP, Vilkki HJ (1995) Association of a RAPD marker with linolenic acid concentration in the seed oil of rapeseed (Brassica napus L). Genome 38:414–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tanhuanpää PK, Vikki JP, Vikki HJ (1996) Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera). Theor Appl Genet 92:952–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Teutonico RA, Osborn TC (1995) Mapping loci controlling vernalization requirement in Brassica rapa. Theor Appl Genet 91:1279–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Teutonico RA, Osborn TC (1994) Mapping of RFLP and quantitative trait loci in Brassica rapa and comparison to the linkage maps of B. napus, B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana. Theor Appl Genet 89:885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Theander O, Aman P, Mikscha GE, Yasuda S (1977) Carbohydrates, polyphenols and lignins in seed hulls of different colours from turnip rape. J Agric Food Chem 25:270–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. This P, Ochoa O, Quiros CF (1990) Dissection of Brassica nigra genome by chromosome addition lines. Plant Breed 105:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Thomas MR, Scott NS (1994) Sequence-tagged site markers for microsatellites: simplified technique for rapidly obtaining flanking sequences. Plant Mol Biol Rep 12:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Thormann CE, Ferreira ME, Camarago LEA,Tivang JG, Osborn TC (1994) Comparison of rFLP and RAPD markers for estimating genetic relationship among and within cruciferous species. Theor Appl Genet 88:973–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Thormann CE, Romero J, Mantet J, Osborn TC (1996) Mapping loci controlling the concentration of erucic and linolenic acids in seed oil of Brassica napus L. Theor Appl Genet 93:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Toroser D, Thormann CE, Osborn TC, Mithen R (1995) RFLP mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling seed aliphatic glucosinolate content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L).Theor Appl Genet 91:802–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Truco MJ, Quiros CF (1994) Structure and organization of the B genome based on a linkage map in Brassica nigra. Theor Appl Genet 89:590–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Truco MJ, Hu J, Sadowski J, Quiros CF (1996) Inter- and intragenomic homology of the Brassica genomes: implications for their origin and evolution. Theor Appl Genet 93:1225–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Ulloa M, Meredith WR Jr, Shappley ZW, Kahler AL (2002) RFLP genetic linkage maps from four F2.3 populations and a joinmap of Gossypium hirsutum L. Theor Appl Genet 104:200–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. U N (1935) Genomic analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. Jpn J Bot 7:389–452Google Scholar
  200. Uzunova M, Ecke W, Weissleder K, Robbelen G (1995) Mapping the genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus L). I. Construction of an RFLP linkage map and localization of QTLs for seed glucosinolate content. Theor Appl Genet 90:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Van Caseele L, Mills JT, Summer M, Gillespie R (1982) Cytological study of the palisade development in the seed coat of Candle canola. Can J Bot 60:2469–2475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Van Deynze AE, Pauls KP (1994) The inheritance of seed colour and vernalization requirement in Brassica napus using doubled haploid populations. Euphytica 74:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Van Deynze AE, Beversdorf WD, Pauls KP (1993) Temperature effects on seed colour in black- and yellow-seeded rapeseed. Can J Plant Sci 73:383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Van Deynze AE, Landry BS, Pauls KP (1995) The identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms linked to seed colour genes in Brassica napus. Genome 38:534–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Van-Tunen AJ, Koes RE, Spelt CE, van der Krol AR, Stuitje AR, Mol JNM (1988) Cloning of the two chalcone flavonone isomerase genes from Petunia hybrida: coordinate, light-regulated and differential expression of flavonoid genes. EMBO J 7:1253–1263Google Scholar
  206. Vaughan JG (1956) The seed coat structure of Brassica intergrifolia (West) O.E. Schulz var. cannata (A. Br.). Phytomorphology 6:363–367Google Scholar
  207. Vaughan JG, Hemingway JS, Schofield HJ (1963) Contributions to a study of variation in Brassica juncea Czern. and Coss. J Linn Soc (Bot) 58:435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Vera CL, Woods DL, Downey RK (1979) Inheritance of seed coat color in Brassica juncea. Can J Plant Sci 59:635–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Vera CL, Woods DL (1982) Isolation of independent gene pairs at two loci for seed coat color in Brassica juncea. Can J Plant Sci. 62:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Vicente JG, King GJ (2001) Characterisation of disease resistance gene-like sequences in Brassica oleracea L. Theor Appl Genet 102:555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Vierhover A, Calvenger JF, Ewing CO (1920) Studies in mustard seeds and substitutes: I. Chinese Colza (Brassica campestris chinoleifera Viehoever). Agric Res 20:117–140Google Scholar
  212. Voorrips RE, Jongerius MC, Kanne HJ (1997) Mapping of two genes for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) in a population of doubled haploid lines of Brassica oleracea by means of RFLP and AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 94:75–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Vos P, Hogers R, Bleeker M, Reijans M, van de Lee T, Homes M, Frijters A, Pot J, Peleman J, Kuipers M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Walsh JA, Sharpe AG, Jenner CE, Lydiate DJ (1999) Characterization of resistance to turnip mosaic virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and genetic mapping of TuRBOl. Theor Appl Genet 99:1149–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wang C-S, Todd JJ, Vodkin LO (1994) Chalcone synthase mRNA and activity are reduced in yellow soybean seed coats with dominant I alleles. Plant Physiol 105:739–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Warwick SI (1993) Guide to wild germplasm of Brassica and allied crops. Part I: Taxonomy and genome status in the tribe Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Technical Bulletin 1993–14E. Center for Land and Biological Resources Research, Research Branch, Agriculture CanadaGoogle Scholar
  217. Welsh J, McClelland M (1990) Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primer. Nucleic Acid Res 18:7213–7218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wienand U, Weydemann U, Niesbach-Kloesgen U, Peterson PA, Saedler H (1986) Molecular cloning of C2 locus of Zea mays, the gene coding for chalcone synthase. Mol Gen Genet 203:202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Williams GK, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA,Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531–6535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Wisman E, Ohlrogge J (2000) Arabidopsis microarray service facilities. Plant Physiol 124: 1468–1471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Yang YW, Lai KN, Tai PY, Ma DP, Li WH (1999) Molecular phylogenetic studies of Brassica, Rorippa, Arabidopsis and allied genera based on the internal transcribed spacer region of 18S-25S rDNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 13:455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zheng K, Qian H, Shen B, Zhuang J, Lin H, Lu J (1994) RFLP-based phylogenetic analysis of wide compatibility varieties in Oryza sativa L. Theor Appl Genet 88:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Zhu T, Wang X (2000) Large-scale profiling of the Arabidopsis transcriptome. Plant Physiol 124:1472–1476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zhu T, Budworth P, Han B, Brown D, Chang H-C, Zou G, Wang X (2001) Toward elucidating the global gene expression patterns of developing Arabidopsis: parallel analysis of 8300 genes by a high density oligonucleotide probe array. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:221–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Lakshmikumaran
    • 1
  • S. Das
    • 2
  • P. S. Srivastava
    • 2
  1. 1.Bioresources and Biotechnology DivisionTERI, Habitat PlaceNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceHamdard UniversityHamdard Nagar, New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations