Advertisement

Congenital Heart and Great Vessel Disease

  • B. Smevik
  • G. Stake
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Modern radiological imaging has opened up new areas for precise diagnosis of congenital heart disease. The most important and frequently performed radiological examination is still chest radiography, but magnetic resonance imaging and multislice spiral computed tomography have gained much ground over the more invasive angiocardiography. Invasive studies are still needed in the more complex conditions or as postoperative controls, and also as a complement to the more and more frequently performed interventional procedures. In this chapter, the approach to patients with congenital heart and great vessel disease is presented. The different radiological modalities used to arrive at a proper diagnosis are discussed, together with their advantages and drawbacks. Examples of the most common congenital heart defects are given, and some very complex, rare cases that illustrate the need for a combination of different modalities are presented. Transcatheter interventional techniques will also be presented.

Keywords

Pulmonary Artery Congenital Heart Disease Aortic Arch Left Atrium Ventricular Septal Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson RH, Becker AE (1994) The anatomy of ventricular septal defects and their conduction tissues. In : Stark J, de Laval M (eds) Surgery for congenital heart defects. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  2. Anderson RH, Ho S Y (1990a) Cardiac situs and malpositions: echocardiographic evaluation. In: Higgins CB, Silverman NH, Kersting-Sommerhoff BA, Schmidt K (eds) Congenital heart disease. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Raven, New York, pp 73–88Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RH, Ho SY (1990b) Tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart. In: Higgins CB, Silverman NH, Kersting-Sommerhoff BA, Schmidt K (eds) Congenital heart disease. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Raven, New York, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  4. Anderson RH, Webb S, Brown NA (1998) Defective lateralisation in children with congenitally malformed hearts. Cardiol Young 8:512–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balis JU, Chan AS, Conen PE (1967) Morphogenesis of human aortic coarctation. Exp Mol Pathol 6:25–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bharati S, Lev M (1984) The surgical anatomy of hypoplasia of aortic tract complex. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 88:97–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berdon WE (2000) Rings, slings, and other things: vascular compression of the infant trachea updated from the midcentury to the millennium — the legacy of Robert E Gross, MD, and Edward BD Neuhauser, MD. Radiology 216:624–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjørnstad PG, Lindberg HL, Smevik B (1993) Staged expanding pulmonary artery band. Ann Thorac Surg 55:566–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bjornstad PG, Smevik B, Fiane AE et al (1997) Catheter-based closure of atrial septal defects with a newly developed nitinol double disc: an experimental study. Cardiol Young 7:220–224Google Scholar
  10. Borghi A, Agnoletti G, Poggiani C (2001) Surgical cutdown of the right carotid artery for aortic balloon valvuloplasty in infancy: midterm follow-up. Pediatr Cardiol 22:194–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borthne A, Carteret M, Baraton J et al (1997) Vein of Galen vascular malformations in infants: clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspect. Eur Radiol 7:1252–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burrows PE, Dubois J, Kassarjian A (2001) Pediatric hepatic vascular anomalies. Pediatr Radiol 31:533–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choe KO, Hong YK, Kim HJ et al (2000) The use of high-resolution computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with congenital heart disease: in pulmonary vessels larger than 1 mm in diameter. Pediatr Cardiol 21:202–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collett RW, Edwards JE (1949) Persistent truncus arteriosus: a classification according to anatomic types. Surg Clin North Am 29:1245–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornell SM (1966) Myocardial sinusoids in pulmonary valvular atresia. Radiology 86:421–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. de Laval M (1994) Persistent truncus arteriosus. In: Stark J, de Laval M (eds) Surgery for congenital heart defects. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 539–548Google Scholar
  17. Delisle G, Ando M, Calder AL et al (1976) Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Report of 93 autopsied cases with emphasis on diagnostic and surgical considerations. Am Heart J 91:99–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El Sisi A, Tofeig M, Arnold R et al (2001) Mechanical occlusion of the patent ductus arteriosus with Jackson coils. Pediatr Cardiol 22:29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fellows KE, Freed MD, Keane JF et al (1975) Results of routine pre-operative coronary angiography in tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation 51:561–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freedom RM, Moes CAF (1985) The hypoplastic right heart complex. Semin Roentgenol 20:169–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freedom RM, Culham JAG, Moes CAF (1984a) Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (valve, subvalve, or supravalve. In: Freedom RM, Culham JAG, Moes CAF (eds) Angiocardiography of congenital heart disease. Macmillan, New York, pp 369–388Google Scholar
  22. Freedom RM, Culham JAG, Moes CAF (1984b) Single ventricle. In: Freedom RM, Culham JAG, Moes CAF (eds) Angiocardiography of congenital heart disease. Macmillan, New York, pp 593–628Google Scholar
  23. Gutgesell HP, Speer ME, Rosenberg HS (1980) Characterization of the cardiomyopathy in infants of diabetic mothers. Circulation 61:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hellenbrand WE, Allen HD, Golinko RJ et al (1990) Balloon angioplasty for aortic recoarctation: results of valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol 65:793–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hernanz-Schulman M, Fellows KE (1985) Persistent truncus arteriosus: pathologic, diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Semin Roentgenol 20:121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ho SY, Anderson RH (1979) Coarctation, tubular hypoplasia and the ductus arteriosus. Histological study of 45 specimens. Br Heart J 41:268–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoffman JIE (1995) Incidence of congenital heart disease. I. Postnatal incidence. Pediatr Cardiol 16:103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacobs ML (2000) Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project: truncus arteriosus (review). Ann Thorac Surg 69:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kan JS, White RJ, Mitchell SE et al (1982) Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty: a new method for treating congenital pulmonary-valve stenosis. N Engl J Med 307:540–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kao SC, Kimura K, Smith WL, Sato Y (1995) Tracheomalacia before and after aortosternopexy: dynamic and quantitative assessment by electron beam computed tomography with clinical correlation. Pediatr Radiol 25:187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kersting-Sommerhoff BA, Diethelm L, Stanger P et al (1990) Evaluation of complex congenital ventricular anomalies with magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J 120:133–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kingston HM, Patel RG, Watson GH (1983) Unilateral absence or extreme hypoplasia of pulmonary veins. Br Heart J 49:148–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohn MM, Moores BM, Schibilla H, Schneider K, St Stender H, Stieve FE, Teunen D, Wall B (eds) (1996) EUR 16261 — European guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images in paediatrics. Office for Officiai Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  34. Kommerell B (1937) Verlagerung des Oesophagus durch eine abnorm verlaufende Arteria subclavia dextra (Arteria luso-ria). Fortschr Röntgenstr 2:56Google Scholar
  35. Kretschmar O, Dähnert I, Berger F et al (2000) Percutaneous transcatheter interventions in the treatment of congenital heart disease in infants with a body weight below 2.5 kilograms. Z Kardiol 89:1126–1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kvam G (1980) Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. 1. Interventricular septum during systolic contraction. Acta Radiol 21:53–64Google Scholar
  37. Levin DC, Beckmann CF, Garnic JD et al (1981) Frequency and clinical significance of failure to visualize the conus artery during coronary arteriography. Circulation 63:833–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Luke MJ, McDonnel EJ (1968) Congenital heart disease and scoliosis. J Pediatr 73:725–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marin-Garcia J, Tandon R, Lucas RV Jr et al (1975) Cor tria-triatum. Study of 20 cases. Am J Cardiol 35:59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Markowitz RI, Fellows KE (1998) The effect on congenital heart disease on the lungs. Semin Roentgenol 23:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Maron BJ, Anan TJ, Roberts WC (1981) Quantitative analysis of the distribution of cardiac muscle cell disorganization in the left ventricular wall of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 63:882–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mathew R, Simon G, Joseph M (1972) Collateral circulation in coarctation of aorta in infancy and childhood. Arch Dis Child 47:950–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nora JJ (1993) Causes of CHD Old and new modes, mechanisms, and models. Am Heart J 125:1409–1418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Norwood WI, Jakobs ML (1994) Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In: Stark J, de Laval M (eds) Surgery for congenital heart defects. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 587–598Google Scholar
  45. O’Brian KM (1985) Congenital syndromes with congenital heart disease. Semin Roentgenol 20:104–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Patel HT, Madani A, Paris YM et al (2001) Balloon angioplasty of native coarctation of the aorta in infants and neonates: is it worth the hassle? Pediatr Cardiol 22:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Powell AJ, Geva T (2000) Blood flow measurement by magnetic resonance imaging in congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 21:47–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radtke W, Keane JF, Fellows KE et al (1986) Percutaneous balloon valvotomy of congenital pulmonary stenosis using oversized balloon. J Am Coll Cardiol 8:909–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rebergen SA, de Roos A (2000) Congenital heart disease. Evaluation of anatomy and function by MRI. Herz 25:365–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rebergen SA, Ottenkamp J, Doornbos J et al (1993) Postoperative pulmonary flow dynamics after Fontan surgery: assessment with nuclear magnetic resonance velocity mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol 21:123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Samanek M, Voriskova M (1999) Congenital heart disease among 815569 children born between 1980 and 1990 and their 15-year survival: a prospective Bohemia survival study. Pediatr Cardiol 20:411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schwartz DG (1985) Atrioventricular septal defects. Semin Roentgenol 20:226–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Semb BKH, Tjonneland S, Stake G et al (1979) “Balloon valvulotomy” of congenital pulmonary valve stenosis with tricuspid valve insufficiency. Cardiovasc Radiol 2:239–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sinha SN, Rusnak SL, Sommers HM et al (1968) Hypoplastic left ventricle syndrome. Am J Cardiol 21:166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith HJ (1999) Cardiac MR imaging. Acta Radiol 40:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Soto B, Bargeron LM Jr, Diethelm E (1985) Ventricular septal defect. Semin Roentgenol 20:200–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sridaromont S, Ritter DG, Feldt, RH et al (1978) Double outlet right ventricle: anatomic and angiocardiographic correlations. Mayo Clin Proc 53:555–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Stafford EG, Mair DD, McGoon DC et al (1973) Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve. Surgical considerations and results. Circulation 48:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stake G, Smevik B, Westvik J (1991) The role of X-rays in children with congenital heart disease. In: Nitter Hauge S, Allison D (eds) Cardiac imaging X-ray, MR and ultrasound. Elsevier Science, New York, pp 21–31Google Scholar
  60. Stanger P, Cassidy SC, Girod DA et al (1990) Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: results of valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol 65:775–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stark J (1994) Coarctation of the aorta. In : Stark J, de Laval M (eds) Surgery for congenital heart defects. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 285–298Google Scholar
  62. Tynan M, Finley JP, Fontes V et al (1990) Balloon angioplasty for the treatment of native coarctation: results of valvuloplasty and angioplasty of congenital anomalies registry. Am J Cardiol 65:790–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Van Praagh R, Van Praagh S (1965) The anatomy of common aorticopulmonary trunk (truncus arteriosus communis) and its embryologie implications. Am J Cardiol 16:406–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Praagh R, Bernhard WF, Rosenthal A et al (1971) Interrupted aortic arch: surgical treatment. Am J Cardiol 27:200–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Smevik
    • 1
  • G. Stake
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, RikshospitaletThe National HospitalOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations