Advertisement

Diagnostic Imaging of Neonatal Pneumonia

  • D. Manson
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Respiratory infections remain a significant and formidable threat to the health and well-being of the neonate, despite potent antibiotics, increasingly sophisticated laboratory detection methods, and technologically advanced neonatal intensive care nurseries. Incidence rates for neonatal pneumonia range between 1.5 and 5.0 per 1,000 live births (Keyserling 1997; Webber et al. 1990). Analysis of mortality rates from pneumonia alone as distinct from mortality from neonatal sepsis is more difficult to analyse. Neonatal sepsis mortality rates of up to 50% are still quoted (Speck et al. 1979), but the mortality rates quoted for neonatal pneumonia alone vary between 5% and 20% (Whitsett et al. 1999). A recent publication by the Centers for Disease Control reviewing 1998 annual statistics quotes an overall mortality rate from neonatal pneumonia of 12.6 per 1,000 live births. Approximately 50% of the deaths this figure is based upon were in neonates of greater than 2,500 g at birth (Document # LFWK 1998).

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Chlamydia Trachomatis Neonatal Sepsis Aetiologieal Agent Ureaplasma Urealyticum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ablow RC, Driscoll SG, Effmann EL et al (1976) A comparison of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection and the respiratory-distress syndrome of the newborn. N Engl J Med 294:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abzug MJ, Levin MJ (1991) Neonatal adenovirus infection: four patients and review of the literature. Pediatrics 87:890–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albritton WL (1998) Varicella pneumonia. In: Chernick V, Boat TF, Kendig EL (eds) Kendig’s disorders of the respiratory tract in children. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 999–1003Google Scholar
  4. Arvin A, Maldonado Y (2001) Other viral infections of the fetus and newborn. In: Remington J, Klein J (eds) Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant, 5th edn. Saunders, Toronto, pp 858–878Google Scholar
  5. Baley JE, Kliegman RM, Fanaroff A A (1984) Disseminated fungal infections in very low-birth-weight infants: clinical manifestations and epidemiology. Pediatrics 73:144–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Belady PH, Farkouh LJ, Gibbs RS (1997) Intra-amniotic infection and premature rupture of the membranes. Clin Perinatal 24:43–57Google Scholar
  7. Berkovich S, Taranko L (1964) Acute respiratory illness in the premature nursery associated with respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics 34:753–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohin S, Field DJ (1994) The epidemiology of neonatal respiratory disease. Early Hum Dev 37:73–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bortolussi R, Schlech W (2001) Listeriosis. In: Remington J, Klein K (eds) Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant. Saunders, Toronto, pp 1157–1177Google Scholar
  10. Burko H (1962) Considerations in the roentgen diagnosis of pneumonia in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol [Radium Ther Nucl Med] 88:555–565Google Scholar
  11. Cheeseman SH, Hirsch MS, Keller EW et al (1977) Fatal neonatal pneumonia caused by echovirus type 9. Am J Dis Child 131:1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Crouse DT, Odrezin GT, Cutter GR et al (1993) Radiographic changes associated with tracheal isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum from neonates. Clin Infect Dis 17 [Suppl 1]:S122–S130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Currarino G, Silverman FN (1957) Roentgen diagnosis of pulmonary disease of the newborn infant. Pediatr Clin North Am 1957:27–52Google Scholar
  14. Dennehy PH (1987) Respiratory infections in the newborn. Clin Perinatol 14:667–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Document #LFWK 73 (1998) Infant deaths and mortality rates by race of mother andfor 61 selected causes of death and birth-weight. US 1998 period data.statab/unpubd/mortabs.htmGoogle Scholar
  16. Dominguez R, Rivero H, Gaisie G et al (1984) Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonia: radiographic findings. Radiology 153:395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dworsky ME, Stagno S (1982) Newer agents causing pneumonitis in early infancy. Pediatr Infect Dis 1:188–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hammerschlag MR (1994) Chlamydia trachomatis in children. Pediatr Ann 23:349–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Haney PJ, Bohlman M, Chen-Chih JS (1984) Radiographic findings in neonatal pneumonia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 143:23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Harris GBC (1963) The newborn with respiratory distress: some roentgenographic features. Radiol Clin North Am 1:497–518Google Scholar
  21. Harrison HR, English MG, Lee CK et al (1978) Chlamydia trachomatis infant pneumonitis: comparison with matched controls and other infant pneumonitis. N Engl J Med 298:702–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hemming VG, Overall JC Jr, Britt MR et al (1976) Nosocomial infections in a newborn intensive-care unit. Results of forty-one months of surveillance. N Engl J Med 294:1310–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hess DL (1993) Chlamydia in the neonate. Neonatal Netw 12:9–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hubbell C, Dominguez R, Kohl S (1988) Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonitis. Rev Infect Dis 10:431–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keyserling HL (1997) Other viral agents of perinatal importance: varicella, parvovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and enterovirus. Clin Perinatol 24:193–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kirkpatrick B, Mueller DG (1998) Respiratory disorders in the newborn. In: Chernick V, Boat TF, Kendig EL (eds) Disorders of the respiratory tract in children. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 338–340Google Scholar
  27. Kohl S (1997) Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Clin Perinatol 24:129–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Leonidas JC, Hall RT, Beatty EC et al (1977) Radiographic findings in early onset neonatal group B streptococcal septicemia. Pediatrics 59 [Suppl]:1006–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lilien LD, Harris VJ, Pildes RS (1977) Significance of radiographic findings in early-onset group B streptococcal infection. Pediatrics 60:360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Meissner HC, Murray SA, Kiernan MA et al (1984) A simultaneous outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in a newborn nursery. Pediatrics 104:680–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Papageorgiou A, Bauer CR, Fletcher BD et al (1973) Klebsiella pneumonia with pneumatocele formation in a newborn infant. Can Med Assoc J 109:1217–1219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Payne NR, Burke BA, Day DL et al (1988) Correlation of clinical and pathologic findings in early onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection with disease severity and prediction of outcome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7:836–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Potter B, Philipps AF, Bierny JP et al (1995) Neonatal radiology. Acquired diaphragmatic hernia with group B streptococcal pneumonia. J Perinatol 15:160–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Radkowski MA, Kranzler JK, Beem MO et al (1981) Chlamydia pneumonia in infants: radiology in 125 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137:703–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rettig PJ (1988) Perinatal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. Clin Perinatol 15:321–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Roberton NRC (1996) Pneumonia. In: Milner AD, Richerton NR (eds) Neonatal respiratory disorders. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 286–312Google Scholar
  37. Sanchez PJ, Wendel GD (1997) Syphilis in pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 24:71–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Speck WT, Fanaroff AA, Klaus M (1979) Neonatal infections.Google Scholar
  39. In: Klaus M, Fanaroff AA (eds) Care of the high risk neonate. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 267–279Google Scholar
  40. Stagno S, Pifer LL, Hughes WT et al (1980) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in young immunocompetent infants. Pediatrics 66:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Stagno S, Brasfield DM, Brown MB et al (1981) Infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, Pneumocystis, and Ureaplasma: a prospective study. Pediatrics 68:322–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Starke JR (1997) Tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to the mother, fetus, and neonate. Clin Perinatol 24:107–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Starke JR, Smith M (2001) Tuberculosis. In: Remington J, Klein J (eds) Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant. Saunders, Toronto, pp 1179–1193Google Scholar
  44. Thompson PJ, Greenough A, Nicolaides KH (1992) Nosocomial bacterial infections in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr 151:451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang EEL, Matlow AG, Ohlsson A (1997) Ureaplasma urea-lyticum infections in the perinatal period. Clin Perinatol 24:91–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Webber S, Wilkinson AR, Lindsell D et al (1990) Neonatal pneumonia. Arch Dis Child 65:207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weiss SG, Newcomb RW, Beem MO (1986) Pulmonary assessment of children after chlamydial pneumonia of infancy. J Pediatr 108:659–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Whitsett JA, Pryhuber GS, Rice WR (1999) Acute respiratory disorders. In: Avery BB, Fletcher MA, MacDonald MG (eds) Neonatology — pathophysiology and management of the newborn. Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 485–508Google Scholar
  49. Wiesenberg RI (1973) Neonatal pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage. In: Wiesenberg RI (eds) The newborn chest. Harper and Row, New York, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  50. Willich E (1967) The roentgenological appearance of pulmonary listeriosis. Prog Pediatr Radiol 1:160–176Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Manson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Paediatric Radiology, Department of Medical ImagingUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations