Advertisement

Congenital Anomalies of the Neonatal Upper Airway

  • D. Manson
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Anomalies of the upper airway constitute a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal respiratory distress. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation of some of these malformations is non-specific, yet potentially life threatening. As well, many of these anomalies require a level of skill in airway management which may require subspecialty intervention from those with extensive airway management skills to secure a functional and patent airway in a proper manner. Early radiological recognition of the type of malformation can direct subsequent investigation and airway management into an effective and efficient course. This chapter reviews the imaging manifestations of some of the more common or classic malformations, in conjunction with the usual clinical presentations with which each is associated.

Keywords

Tracheal Stenosis Oesophageal Atresia Choanal Atresia Oral Airway Pierre Robin Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baxter JD, Dunbar JS (1963) Tracheomalacia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 72:1013–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjamin B, Pitkin J, Cohen D (1981) Congenital tracheal stenosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 90:364–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berdon WE, Baker DH, Wung JT et al (1984) Complete cartilage-ring tracheal stenosis associated with anomalous left pulmonary artery: the ring-sling complex. Radiology 152:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brasch RC, Gould RG, Gooding CA et al (1987) Upper airway obstruction in infants and children: evaluation with ultra-fast CT. Radiology 165:459–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bui TH, Grunewald C, Frenckner B et al (2000) Successful EXIT (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) procedure in a fetus diagnosed prenatally with congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome due to laryngeal atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10:328–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantrell JR, Guild HG (1964) Congenital stenosis of the trachea. Am J Surg 108:297–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen J-C, Holinger LD (1994) Congenital tracheal anomalies. Pediatr Pathol 14:513–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chung CJ, Fordham LA, Mukherji SK (2000) The paediatric airway: a review of differential diagnosis by anatomy and pathology. Neuroimaging Clin North Am 10:161–180Google Scholar
  9. Cunningham MJ, Eavey RD, Vlahakes GJ et al (1998) Slide tracheoplasty for long-segment tracheal stenosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DeCou JM, Jones DC, Jacobs HD et al (1998) Successful Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure for congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) owing to laryngeal atresia. J Pediatr Surg 33:1563–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dohlemann C, Mantel K, Vogl TJ et al (1995) Pulmonary sling: morphological findings. Pre- and postoperative course. Eur J Pediatr 154:2–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elmasalme F, Giacomantonio M, Clarke KD et al (2000) Congenital cervical teratoma in neonates. Case report and review. Eur J Pediatr Surg 10:252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Faerber EN, Swartz JD (1991) Imaging of neck masses in infants and children. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 31:283–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Filler RM, Forte V, Chait P (1998) Tracheobronchial stenting for the treatment of airway obstruction. J Pediatr Surg 33:304–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Green J, Dickinson FL, Rickett A et al (1998) MRI in the assessment of a newborn with cervical teratoma. Pediatr Radiol 28:709–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grillo HC (1996) Pediatric tracheal problems. Chest Surg Clin North Am 6:693–700Google Scholar
  17. Hislop A, Reid L (1970) New pathological findings in emphysema of childhood. 1. Polyalveolar lobe with emphysema. Thorax 25:682–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson DG (1991) Tracheal stenosis. In: Fallis JC, Filler RM, Lemoine G (eds) Pediatric thoracic surgery. (Current topics in general thoracic surgery) Elsevier Science, New York, pp 151–160Google Scholar
  19. Jones JE, Young E, Heier L (1998) Congenital bony nasal cavity deformities. Am J Rhinol 12:81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jordan RB, Gauderer MW (1988) Cervical teratomas: an analysis. Literature review and proposed classification. J Pediatr Surg 23:583–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Joseph PM, Berdon WE, Baker DH et al (1976) Upper airway obstruction in infants and small children. Improved radiographic diagnosis by combining filtration, high kilovoltage, and magnification. Radiology 121:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kathary N, Bulas DI, Newman KD, Schonberg RL (2001) MR imaging of fetal neck masses with airway compromise: utility in delivery planning. Pediatr Radiol 31:727–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Katzen JT, Holliday RA, McCarthy JG (2001) Imaging the neonatal mandible for accurate distraction osteogenesis. J Cra-niofac Surg 12:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keller JL, Kacker A (2000) Choanal atresia, CHARGE association, and congenital nasal stenosis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 33:1343–1351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kirkpatrick BV, Mueller DG (1998) Respiratory disorders of the newborn. In: Churnick V, Boat TF, Kendig EL (eds) Ken-dig’s disorders of the respiratory tract in children, 6th edn, chap 15. Saunders, Toronto, pp 328–363Google Scholar
  26. Koeller KK, Alamo L, Adair CF, Smirniotopoulas JG (1999) Congenital cystic masses of the neck: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 19:121–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Landau LI (1999) Investigation and treatment of chronic stridor in infancy. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 54:18–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lerner DL, Perez Fontan JJ (1998) Prevention and treatment of upper airway obstruction in infants and children. Curr Opin Pediatr 10:265–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mancuso RF (1996) Stridor in neonates. Pediatr Clin North Am 43:1339–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Manson D, Babyn P, Filler R et al (1994) Three-dimensional imaging of the pediatric trachea in congenital tracheal stenosis. Pediatr Radiol 24:175–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Manson D, Filler R, Gordon R (1996) Tracheal growth in congenital tracheal stenosis. Pediatr Radiol 26:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitchell DB, Irwin BC, Bailey CM et al (1987) Cysts of the infant larynx. J Laryngol Otol 101:833–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moungthong G, Holinger LD (1997) Laryngotracheoesopha-geal clefts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106:1002–1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Murphy P, Lloyd-Thomas A, Elliott M (1990) Management of congenital tracheal stenosis in infants. Br J Hosp Med 44:266–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Phipps CD, Gibson WS, Wood WE (1997) Infantile subglottic hemangioma: a review and presentation of two cases of surgical excision. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 18/41:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roth B, Rose KG, Benz-Bohm G et al (1983) Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal cleft. Clinical features, diagnosis and therapy. Eur J Pediatr 140:41–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shikhani AH, Jones MM, Marsh BR et al (1986) Infantile subglottic hemangiomas. An update. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 95:336–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Strife JL (1988) Upper airway and tracheal obstruction in infants and children. Radiol Clin North Am 26:309–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Thurmond M, Cote DN (1996) Stridor in the neonate: laryn-gomalacia. J La State Med Soc 148:375–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Toki A, Todani T, Watanabe Y et al (1997) Spiral computed tomography with 3-dimensional reconstruction for the diagnosis of tracheobronchial stenosis. Pediatr Surg Int 12:334–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tomaski SM, Zalzal GH, Saal HM (1995) Airway obstruction in the Pierre Robin sequence. Laryngoscope 105:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wailoo MP, Emery JL (1979) The trachea in children with tra- cheo-oesophageal fistula. Histopathology 3:329–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Weber PC, Kenna MA, Casselbrant ML (1993) Laryngeal cysts: a cause of neonatal airway obstruction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 109:129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wittenborg WH, Gyepes MT, Crocker D (1967) Tracheal dynamics in infants with respiratory distress, stridor and collapsing trachea. Radiology 88:653–662PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Manson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Paediatric Radiology, Department of Medical ImagingUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations