Exchange of Sulphur Pollution between Bulgaria and Greece

  • D. Syrakov
  • C. Zerefos
  • M. Prodanova
  • K. Ganev
  • N. Miloshev
Chapter

Abstract

The Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air pollutants in Europe (EMEP) was lunched to serve the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This convention, signed in 1979, is one of the central means for protection of our environment. It establishes a broad framework for cooperative action on reducing the impact of air pollution and sets up a process for negotiating concrete measures to control emissions of air pollutants through legally binding protocols. The main objective of the EMEP programme to is to regularly provide parties under the Convention with qualified scientific information. EMEP have three main tasks: (1) collection of emission data, (2) measurements of air and precipitation quality and (3) modeling of transport and deposition of air pollution. Three main bodies are established for their implementation. The co-ordination and intercallibration of chemical air quality and precipitation measurements are carried out at the Chemical Coordinating Centre (CCC). The storage and distribution of reliable information on emissions is the duty of the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West (MSC-W). The MSC-W is also responsible for the modeling assessment of acid and photooxidant pollutants. The modeling development for heavy metals and POPs is responsibility of the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East (MSC-E). Initially, all model estimates were performed for a grid with 150 km step covering mainly Europe. Last years the region was enlarged and the resolution was improved to 50 km.

Keywords

Dioxide Europe Income Turkey Advection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. BC-EMEP (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997) Bulgarian contribution to EMEP. Annual Reports for 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997. NIMH, Sofia, EMEP/MSC-E, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  2. Gusev A, Ilyin I, Peterson G, van Pul A, Syrakov D (2000) Long-range transport model in-tercomparison studies. EMEP/MSC-E Technical Note 2/2000, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  3. Barret K, Berge E (1996) Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe. EMEP/MSC-W report 1/96, Part Two: Numerical Adenddum. NMI, Oslo, pp. B3–B46Google Scholar
  4. Syrakov D (1995) On a PC-oriented Eulerian Multi-Level Model for Long-Term Calculations of the Regional Sulphur Deposition. In: Gryning S-E, Schiermeier F (eds) Air Pollution Modelling and its Application XL NATO/CMS Series, vol 21, Plenum Press, New York London, pp 645–646Google Scholar
  5. Syrakov D (1996) On the TRAP advection scheme — description, tests and applications. In: Geernaert G, Walloe-Hansen A, Zlatev Z (eds) Regional Modelling of Air Pollution in Europe. NERI, Copenhagen, pp 141–152Google Scholar
  6. Syrakov D (1997a) An effective advection scheme for tracer transport — description, properties and tests. Bulgarian Journal of Meteorology and Hydrology 8:14–22Google Scholar
  7. Syrakov D (1997b) A PC-oriented multi-level Eulerian dispersion model — model description, Bulgarian Journal of Meteorology and Hydrology 8:41–49Google Scholar
  8. Syrakov D, Galperin M (1997a) A model for airborne poli-dispersive particle transport and deposition. In: Proceedings of the 22nd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, June 2–6, 1997, Clermont-Ferrand, France, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  9. Syrakov D, Galperin M (1997b) On a new Bott-type advection scheme and its further im­provement. In: Hass H, Ackermann I (eds) Proceedings of the first GLOREAM Workshop, Aachen, Germany, September 1997, Ford Forschungszentrum, pp. 103–109Google Scholar
  10. Syrakov D, Prodanova M (1998) Bulgarian Emergency Response Models - Validation against ETEX First Release. Atmospheric Environment 32:4367–4375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Syrakov D, Yordanov D (1997) On the Surface Layer Parametrization in an Eulerian Multi-Level Dispersion Model, Bulgarian Journal of Meteorology and Hydrology 8:74–81Google Scholar
  12. Yordanov D, Syrakov D; Djolov G (1983) A barotropic planetary boundary layer. Boundary Layer Meteorology 25:363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Syrakov
    • 1
  • C. Zerefos
    • 2
  • M. Prodanova
    • 1
  • K. Ganev
    • 3
  • N. Miloshev
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Meteorology and HydrologySofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Atm. PhysicsAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Institute of GeophysicsBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations