Industry Cluster Analysis
Early chapters in this book discussed how, during the three decades that followed the end of World War II, national governments of all persuasion had embarked upon programs to develop national industries to create employment and to achieve greater self-sufficiency in the production of domestic goods and services. Large heavy industry and assembly towns emerged under national industry plans. Many of those industries had strong horizontal and vertically integrated systems of production orientated to the manufacture of total or fully assembled products. Interaction between industry sectors was limited, and there was significant duplication of research, service provision and resource consumption. National industries were also protected by tariffs and monopoly provisions, leading to inefficiencies, reduced competitiveness and declining innovation. By the 1980s, national restructuring policies, globalization and new production technology began challenging traditional production systems leading to emerging global corporations looking at ways to improve efficiencies and competitiveness.
KeywordsEurope Transportation Income Marketing Agglomeration
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