Drugs used for control of blood pressure

  • Georg E. Cold
  • Bent L. Dahl


Controlled hypotension in neurosurgical practice has been used for decades, the aims being 1) to decrease blood loss during surgery, 2) to provide a dry surgical field and 3) to diminish the risk of intraoperative aneurysm rupture. The benefits of controlled hypotension must be discussed in connection with the risks of development of cerebral ischaemia.


Cerebral Blood Flow Sodium Nitroprusside Cerebral Oxygen Cerebral Autoregulation Cereb Blood Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe K, Demizu A, Kamada K, et al. Local cerebral blood flow with prostaglandin El or trimethaphan during cerebral aneurysm clip ligation. Can J Anaesth 1991: 38: 831–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe K, Demizu A, Yoshiya I. Effect of prostaglandin El-induced hypotension on carbon dioxide reactivity and local cerebral blood flow after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Anaesth 1992a: 68: 268–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abe K, Demizu A, Mima T, et al. Carbon dioxide reactivity during Prostaglandine El induced hypotension for cerebral aneurusm surgery. Can J Anaesth 1992b: 39: 253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abe K, Demizu A, Kamada K, et al. Prostaglandin El and carbon dioxide reactivity during cerebral anuerysm surgery. Can J Anaesth 1992c: 39: 247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdul-Rahman A, Dahlgren N, Johansson BB, et al. Increase in local cerebral blood flow induced by circulating adrenaline: involvment of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Acta Physiol Scand 1979: 107: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Abiuso P, Abelow G Atrioventricular dissociation in a patient recieving Clonidine. JAMA 1978: 240: 108–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aghajanian GK, Wang YY. Pertussis toxin blocks the outward current evoked by opiate and alpha2-agonist in locus coeruleus neurons. Brain Res 1986: 371: 390–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allberry RAW, Drake HF, Peroperative beta blockade for patients undergoing craniotomy: a comparison between propanolol and atenolol. Can J Anaesth 1990: 37: 448–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allcock JM, Drake CG. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms- the role of arterial spasm. J Neurosurg 1965: 22: 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Alojado ME, Ohta Y, Kemmotsu O. The effect of Clonidine on the activity of neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus in vivo: Anesth Analg 1994: 79: 257–260.Google Scholar
  11. Altura BM, Gebrewold A, Lassoff S. Biphasic responsiveness of rat pial arterioles to dopamine: direct observations on the microcirculation. Br J Pharmacol 1980: 69: 543–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Anger C, van Aken H, Feldhaus P, et al. Permeation of the blood-brain barriere by irupadil and its influence on intracranial pressure in man in the presence of compromized intracranial dynamics. J Hypertension 1988: 6: (suppl 2): 63–64.Google Scholar
  13. Artru A, Nugent M, Michenfelder JD. Anaesthetics affect the cerebral metabolis response to circulatory catecholamines. J Neurochem 1981: 36: 1941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Artru AA, Colley PS. Cerebral blood flow responses to hypocapnia during hypotension. Stroke 1984: 15: 878–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Artru AA. Cerebral metabolism and the electroencephalogram during hypocapnia plus hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside or trimethaphan in dogs. Neurosurgery 1986: 18: 36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Artru AA, Wright K, Colley PS. Cerebral effects of hypocapnia plus nitroglycerin-induced hypotension in dogs. J Neurosurg 1986: 64: 924–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Asgeirsson B, Grände PO, Nordström C-H. A new therapy of post-trauma brain edema based on haemodynamic principles for brain volume regulation. Intensive Care Med 1994: 20: 260–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Asgeirsson B, Grande PO, Nordstrom C-H, et al. Effect of hypotensive treatment with α2-agonist and β1 -antagonist on cerebral haemodynamics in severely head injured patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995: 39: 347–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Asgeirsson B. Post-traumatic brain oedema therapy. Grahns Boktryckeri AB, Lund (thesis) 1995.Google Scholar
  20. Asmussen J, Cold GE, Elkjaek S, et al. Changes in AVDO2 in the postoperative period in patients subjected to craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. Acta Neurochir 1989: 101: 9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baba H, Shimoji K, Yoshimura M. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinose of adult rat spinal cord (Part 1) Effect on axon terminals of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Anesthesiology 2000a: 92: 473–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Baba H, Goldstein PA, Okamoto M, et al. Norepinephrine facilitates inhibitory transmission in substantia gelatinose of adult rat spinal cord (Part 2) Effects on somatodendrites sites of GABAergic neurons. Anesthesiology 2000b: 92: 485–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bandres J, Yao L, Nemoto EM, et al. Effects of dobutamine and dopamine on whole brain blood flow and metabolism in unanesthetized monkeys. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1992: 4: 250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Barry DI, Strandgaard S, Graham DI, et al. Cerebral blood flow in rats with renal and spontaneous hypertension: Resetting of the lower limit of autoregulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1982: 2: 347–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barry DI, Jarden JO, Paulson OB, et al. Cerebrovascular aspects of converting-enzyme inhibition: I. Effects of intravenous Captopril in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats. J Hypertens 1984: 2: 589–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bernard J-M, Hommeril J-L, Passuti N, Pinaud M. Postoperative analgesia by intravenous Clonidine. Anesthesiology 1991: 75: 577–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bernard J-M, Passuti N, Pinaud M. Long-term hypotensive technique with nicardipine and nitroprusside during isoflurane anesthesia for spinal surgery. Anesth Analg 1992: 75: 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Berne RM, Rubio R, Curnish RR. Release of adenosine from ischaemic brain. Effect on cerebral vascular resistance and incorporation into cerebral adenine nucleiotides. Circ Res 1974: 35: 262–271.Google Scholar
  29. Berntman L, Carlsson C, Hägerdal M, Siesjö BK. Circulatory and metabolic effects in the brain induced by amphetamine sulphate. Acta Physiol Scand 1978: 102: 310–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Berntman L, Dahlgren N, Siesjö BK. Influence of intravenously administered catecholamines on cerebral oxygen consumption and blood flow in the rat. Acta Physiol Scand 1978: 104: 101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Boisvert DP, Gelb AW, Tang C, et al. Brain tolerance to middle cerebral artery occlusion during hypotension in primates. Surg Neurol 1989: 31: 6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bouaziz H, Hewitt C, Eisenach JC, Subarachnoid neostigmine potentiation of alpha 2-adrenergic agonist analgesia. Dexmedetomidine versus Clonidine. Reg Anesth 1995: 20: 121–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bruandet N, Rentero N, Debeer L, Quintin L. Catecholamine activation in the vasomotor center on emergency from anesthesia: The effect of a α2 Agonist. Anesth Analg 1998: 86: 240–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bryan RM, Eichler MY, Swafford MWG, et al. Stimulation of α2 adrenoceptors dilates the rat middle cerebral artery. Anesthesiology 1996: 85: 82–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bundgaard H, von Oettingen G, Jorgensen HA, Cold GE. The effects of dihydroergotamine on ICP, CBF and cerebral metabolism in patients with cerebral tumours. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand (suppl 114) 1999: 98Google Scholar
  36. Bunegin L, Albin MS, Ruiz M. Intracranial pressure responses following rapid induction of hypotension with trimetha-pan. Anesthesiology 1984: 61: A369.Google Scholar
  37. Bunegin L, Albin MS, Gelineau ER Effect of esmolol on cerebral blood flow during intracranial hypertension and hemorrhagic hypovolemia. Anesthesiology 1987: 67: A424.Google Scholar
  38. Bünemann L, Jensen K, Thomsen L, Riisager S. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during controlled hypotension with sodium-nitroprusside and general anaesthesia for total hip replacement a.m. Charnley. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1987: 31: 487–490.Google Scholar
  39. Butterworth RJ, Cluckie A, Jackson SH, et al. Pathophysiological assessment of nitric oxide (given as sodium nitroprus-side) in acute ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998: 8: 158–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Byrd BF III, Collins HW, Primm RK. Risk factors for severe bradycardia during oral therapy for hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1988: 148: 729–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Carlsson C, Hägerdal M, Siesjö BK. Influence of amphetamine sulphate on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Acta Physiol Scand 1975: 94: 128–129.Google Scholar
  42. Carter LP, Atkinson JR. Cortical blood flow in controlled hypotension as measured by thermal diffusion. J Neurol Neuro-surg Psychiat 1973: 36: 906–913.Google Scholar
  43. Casthely PA, Lear S, Cottrell JE, Lear E. Intrapulmonary shunting during induced hypotension. Anesth Analg 1982: 61: 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Castor G, Schmidt U. Uradipil permeates the intact blood-brain barrier. Intensive Care Med 1994: 20: 278–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chadha R, Padmanabhan V, Joseph A, Mohanda K. Oral Clonidine pretreatment for haemodynamic stability during craniotomy. Anaesth Intens Care 1992: 2: 341–344.Google Scholar
  46. Chen RYZ, Matteo RS, Fan F, et al. Resetting of baroreflex sensitivity after induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1982: 56: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chiache M, Fukunaga AF, Bloor BC, van Etten A. A comparative study on the sympathetic and the metabolic activities during induced hypotension with adenosine triphosphate and sodium nitroprusside. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A10.Google Scholar
  48. Clawson CC, Hartmann JF, Vernier RL. Electron microscopy on the effect of gram-negative endotoxin on the blood-brain barrier. J Comp Neurol 1966: 127: 183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cole DJ, Drummond JC, Shapiro HM, Zornow MH. Influence of hypotension and hypotensive technique on the area of profound reduction in cerebral blood flow in the rat. Br J Anaesth 1990: 64: 498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Colley PS, Cheney FW. Sodium nitroprusside increases Qs/Qt in dogs with regional atelectasis. Anesthesiology 1977: 47: 338–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Colley PS, Sivarajan M. Regional blood flow in dogs during halothane anesthesia and controlled hypotension produced by nitroprusside or nitroglycerin. Anesth Analg 1984: 63: 503–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cottrell JE, Casthely P, Brodie JD, et al. Prevention of nitro-prusside-induced cyanide toxicity with hydroxocobalamin. N Engl J Med 1978: 298: 809–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cottrell JE, Gupta B, Rappaport H, et al. Intracranial pressure during nitroglycerin-induced hypotension. J Neurosurg 1980:53:309–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Crockard HA, Brown FD, Mullan JF. Effect of trimethapan and sodium nitroprusside on cerebral blood flow in rhesus monkeys. Acta Neurochir 1976: 35: 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Crowell RM, Olsson Y, Klatzo I Ommaya A (1970) Temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the monkey: clinical and pathological observations. Stroke 1: 439–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Crozier WC, Henney JB, Rogers MC, Traystman RJ. Persistence of cerebral blood flow auto regulation during nitroprusside administration. Anesthesiology 1986: 65: A574.Google Scholar
  57. Dahl A, Russell D, Nyberg-Hansen R, Rootwelt K. Effect of nitroglycerin on cerebral circulation measured by transcranial Doppler and SPECT. Stroke 1989: 20: 1733–1736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Davies DW, Kadar D, Steward DJ, Munro IR. A sudden death associated with the use of sodium nitroprusside for induction of hypotension during anaesthesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 1975:22: 547–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. DeGuerra O, Bunegin L, Albin MS. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) following rapid induction of hypotension with sodium nitroprusside. Critical Care Med 1986: 388.Google Scholar
  60. Delaunay L, Bonnet F, Duvaldstin P. Clonidine decreases postoperative oxygen consumption in patients recovering from general anaesthesia. Br. J Anaesth 1991: 67: 397–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dohl S, Matsumoto M, Takahashi T. The effects of nitroglycerin on cerebrospinal fluid pressure in awake and anaesthetized humans. Anesthesiology 1981: 54: 511–514.Google Scholar
  62. Dowlatshahi P Yaksh TL. Differential effects of two intraven-tricularly in jected alpha-2 agonists, ST-91 and dexmede-tomidine, on electroencephalogram, feeding, and electromyogram. Anesth Analg 1997: 84: 133–138.Google Scholar
  63. Dubois M, Caputy A, MacCosbe P, et al. Cerebral blood flow measurements during blood pressure control with labetalol following craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1992: 4: 176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Durieux ME, Monk CR, Sperry RJ, Matthern GE. Labetalol preserves blood flow to vital organs during deliberate hypotension induced by isoflurane. Anaesthesiology 1988: 69: A899.Google Scholar
  65. Dux E, Fredholm B, Rudolphi K. Adenosine in the ischaemic-induced changes in the gerbil hippocampus. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1989: 9: suppl 1: S271.Google Scholar
  66. Edmondson RH, Delvalle OE, Shah N, et al. Esmolol infusion during nitro- prusside- induced hypotension: Impact on the cardiovascular, renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems. Anesthesiology 1988: 69: A36.Google Scholar
  67. Edvinsson L, Hardebo JE, McCulloch J, Owman CH. Effects of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists on isolated cerebral blood vessels. Acta Physiol Scand 1978: 104: 349–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Edvinsson L, McCulloch J, Sharkey J. Vasomotor responses of cerebral arterioles in situ to putative dopamine receptor agonists. Br J Pharmacol 1985: 85: 403–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ehrmantraut WR, Shea JG, Ticktin HE, Fazekas JF. Influence of promazine and methylphenidate on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism. Arch Int Med 1957: 100: 66–69.Google Scholar
  70. Eintrei C, Carlsson C. Effects of hypotension induced by adenosine on brain surface oxygen pressure and cortical cerebral blood flow in the pig. Acta Physiol Scand 1986: 126: 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Eisenach JC, Tong C, Limauro D. Intrathecal Clonidine and the response to hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 1992: 77: 522–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Eisenach JC, Shafer SL, Bucklin BA, et al. Pharmacokinitics and pharmacodynamics of intraspinal dexmedetomidine in sheep. Anesthesiology 1994: 80: 1349–1359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Eisenach JC, de Kock M, Klinscha W. α2-adrenergic agonists for regional anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1996: 85: 655–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ekstöm-Jodal B, Häggendal J, Larsson LE, et al. Cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen uptake and cerebral arteriovenous differences of catecholamines following E Coli endotoxin in dogs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1982: 26: 446–452.Google Scholar
  75. Ekström-Jodal B, Larsson LE. Effects of dopamine on cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism in endoxic shock: an experimental study in dogs. Crit Care Med 1982: 10: 375–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Endoe H, Honda T, Komura N, et al. Effects of nicardipine-, nitroglycerin-, prostaglandin El-induced hypotension on human cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity during propofol-fentanyl anaesthesia. J Clin Anesth 1999: 11: 545–549.Google Scholar
  77. Endoe H, Honda T, Komura N, et al. The effects of nicardipine on dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients anaesthetised with propofol and fentanyl. Anesth Analg 2000: 91: 642–646.Google Scholar
  78. Engberg M, Öberg B, Christensen KS,et al. The arterio-venous oxygen content differences (AVDO2) during halothane and neuroleptanaesthesia in patients subjected to craniotomy. Acta Anaesthiol Scand 1989: 33: 642–646.Google Scholar
  79. Engberg M, Meisen NC, Herlevsen P, et al. Changes of blood pressure and cerebral arterio-venous oxygen content differences (AVDO2) with and without bupivacain scalp infiltration during craniotomy. Acta Anaesthiol Scand 1990: 34: 346–349.Google Scholar
  80. Fahmy NR, Gavras HP. Captopril decreases nitroprusside requirements and prevents rebound hypertension following cessation of nitroprusside infusion in humans. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A359.Google Scholar
  81. Fahmy NR. Nitroprusside vs. a nitroprusside-trimethaphan mixture for induced hypotension: Haemodynamic effects and cyanide release. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985: 37: 264–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fahmy NR, Bottros M, Dimedale J, et al. A comparison of the haemodynamic and hormonal effects of a nitroprusside-trimethaphan mixture with nitroprusside or tripethapan alone for induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1986: 65: A70.Google Scholar
  83. Fale A, Kirsch JR, McPherson RW. Alpha-2-adrenergic agonist effecton normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebral blood flow in the dog are anaesthetic dependent. Anesth Analg 1994: 79: 892–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Farrar JK, Gamache FW, Ferguson GG, et al. Effects of profound hypotension on cerebral blood flow during surgery for intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 1981: 55: 857–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Felding M, Jacobsen C-J, Cold GE, et al. The effect of meto-prolol upon blood pressure, cerebral blood flow, and oxygen consumption in patients usbjected to craniotomy for cerebral tumours. Avta Anaesthesiol Scand 1994: 38: 271–276.Google Scholar
  86. Felding M, Cold GE, Cacopsen C-J, et al. The effects of ketanserin upon cerebral blood flow, and oxygen cpnsumption in patients subjected to craniotomy for cerebral tumours. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995:39: 582–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Fitch W, MacKenzie ET, Harper AM. Effects of decreasing arterial blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in the baboon: Influence of sympathetic nervous system. Circ Res 1975: 37: 550–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fitch W, Ferguson GG, Sengupta D, et al. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow during controlled hypotension in baboons. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1976: 39: 1014–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Fitch W. Editorial. Sodium nitroprusside and the cerebral circulation. Br J Anaesth 1977: 49: 399–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Forrester T, Harper AM, MacKenzie ET, Thomson EM. Effect of adenosine trophosphate and some derivates on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. J Physiol 1979: 296: 343–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Forster A, VanHorn K, Marshall LF, Shapiro HM. Anesthetic effects on blood-brain barrier function during acute arterial hypertension. Anesthesiology 1978: 49: 26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Fukunaga AF, Olewine SK, van Etten AP. Haemodynamic effects of ATP and nitroprusside. Anesthesiology 1981: 53: A13.Google Scholar
  93. Fukunaga AF, Flacke WE, Bloor BC. Hypotensive effects of adenosine and adenosine Triphsiophate compared with sodium nitroprusside. Anesth Analg 1982: 61: 273–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Fukunaga AF, Sodeyama O, Matsuzaki Y. Haemodynamic and metabolic changes of ATP-induced hypotension during surgery. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A 12.Google Scholar
  95. Gaumann D, Tassonyi E, Rivest RW, et al. Cardiovascular and endocrine effects of Clonidine premedication in neurosurgical patients. Can J Anaesth 1991: 38: 837–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gerson JI, Allen FB, Seltzer JL, et al. Arterial and venous dilation by nitroprusside and nitroglycerin-Is there a difference? Anesth Analg 1982: 61: 256–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gianotta JI, Allen FB, Seltzer JL, et al. Arterial and venous dilation by nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Is there a difference? Anesth Analg 1982: 61: 256–260.Google Scholar
  98. Gibson BE, Black S, Maass L, Cucchiara RR Esmolol for the control of hypertension after neurologic surgery. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988: 44: 650–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Giffin JP, Cottrell JE, Hartung J, Shwiry B. Intracranial pressure during nifedipine-induced hypotension. Anesth Analg 1983: 62: 1078–1080.Google Scholar
  100. Goto F, Otani E, Kato S, Fujita T. Prostaglandin El as a hypotensive drug during general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1982: 37: 530–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Gottstein U. Der Hirnkreislauf unter dem Einfluss vasoaktiver Substanzen. Hütlig Verlag, Heidelberg 1962Google Scholar
  102. Gottstein U, Paulson OB. The effect of intracarotid aminophylline infusion on the cerebral circulation. Stroke 1972: 3: 560–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Grände PO. The effects of dihydroergotamine in patients with head injury and raised intracranial pressure. Intensive Care Med 1989: 15: 523–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Greenfield JC, Tindall GT. Effect of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and angiotensin on blood flow in the internal carotid artery of man. J Clin Invest 1968: 47: 1672–1684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Gregory P, Ishikawa T, McDowall DG. CO2 responses of the cerebral circulation during drug-induced hypotension in the cat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1981: 1.195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Griffith DPG, Cummins BH, Greenbaum R, et al. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside. Br J Anaesth 1974: 46: 671–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Grubb RL, Raichle ME. Effect of hemorrhagic and pharmacologic hypotension on cerebral oxygen utilization and blood flow. Anesthesiology 1982: 56: 3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Guo T-Z, Jiang J-Y, Buttermann AE, Maze M. Dexmedetomidine injection into the locus ceruleus produces antinociception. Anesthesiology 1996: 84: 873–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hamel E, Edvinsson L, MacKenzie ET. Heterogenous vasomotor responses of anatomically distict feline cerebral arteries. Br J Pharmacol 1988: 94: 423–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hartmann A, Buttinger C, Rommel T, et al. Alteration of intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow, autoregulation and carbondioxide-reactivity by hypotensive agents in baboons with intracranial hypertension. Neurochirurgica (Stuttg.) 1989: 32: 37–43.Google Scholar
  111. Heilbrun MP, Olesen J, Lassen NA. Regional cerebral blood flow studies in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 37: 1972: 36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Henriksen L, Thorshauge C, Harmsen A, et al. Controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside: Effects on cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous blood gases in patients operated for cerebral aneurysms. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1983: 27: 62–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Heytens L, Verlooy J, Van Vyve M, et al. Influence of ketanserin on intracranial pressure. In Janssen J (ed) Prospects and Strategies in Cardiovascular Research. Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1988; 41.Google Scholar
  114. Hodges MR, Stanley TH, Johansen RK. Pulmonary shunt and cardiovascular responses to CPAP during nitroprusside-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1977: 46: 339–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hoffman WE, Albrecht RF, Militich DJ. Cerebrovascular and metabolic effects of SNP-induced hypotension in young and aged hypertensive rats. Anesthesiology 1982b: 56: 427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hoffman WE, Cheng MA, Thomas C, et al. Clonidine decreases plasma catecholamines and improves outcome from incomplete ischemia in the rat. Anesth Analg 1991a: 73: 460–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hoffman WE, Kochs E, Werner C, et al. Dexmedetomidine improves neurologic outcome from incomplete ischemia in the rat. Anesthesiology 1991b: 75: 328–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hoka S, Siker D, Bosnjak ZJ, Kampine JP. Alteration of blood distribution and vascular capacitance during induced hypotension in deafferented dogs. Anesthesiology 1987: 66: 647–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hossmann KA. Development and resolution of ischaemic brain swelling. In Pappius HM, Feindal W (eds); Dynamics of brain edema. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1976: 219–228.Google Scholar
  120. Hoyer D, Vos P, Closse A, et al. [3H] Ketanserin labels serotonin 5-HT2 and α1 -adrenergic receptors in human brain cortex. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987: 10 (suppl 3): S48–S50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Huang M, Drummond GL Adenylate cylase in cerebral microvessels: Action of guanine nucleotides, adenosine and other agonists. Mol Pharmacol 1979: 16: 462–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Iannotti F, Hoff J. Ischemic brain edema with and without reperfusion: An experimental study in gerbils. Stroke 1983: 14: 562–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Iida H, Ohata H, Iida M, et al. Direct effects of α1 and α2-adrenergic agonists on spinal and cerebral pial vessels in dogs. Anesthesiology 1999: 91: 479–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ishikawa T, McDowall DG. Electrical activity of the cerebral cortex during induced hypotension with sodium nitroprusside and trimethaphan in the cat. Br J Anaesth 1980: 53:605–611.Google Scholar
  125. Ishikawa T, Funatsu N, Okamoto K, et al. Blood-brain barrier function following drug-induced hypotension in the dog. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: 526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ishiyama T, Dohi S, Iida H, et al. Mechanisms of dexmede-tomidine-induced cerebrovascular effects in canine In vivo Experiments. Anesth Analg 1995: 81: 1208–1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ivankovich AD, Miletich DJ, Albrecht RF, Zahed B. Sodium nitroprusside and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized and unanesthetized goat. Anesthesiology 1976: 44: 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ivankovich AD, Braverman B, Shulman M, Klowden AJ. Prevention of nitroprusside toxicity with thiosulfate in dogs. Anesth Analg 1982: 61: 120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Jack RD. Toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. Br J Anaesth 1974: 46: 952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Jarden JO, Barry DI, Juhler M, et al. Cerebrovascular aspects of converting-enzyme inhibition: II. Blood-brain varrier permeability and effect of intracerebroventricular administration of Captopril. J Hypert 1984: 2: 599–604.Google Scholar
  131. Jones JV, Fitch W, MacKenzie ET, et al. Lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in the baboon. Circ Res 1976: 39: 555–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kadoi Y, Saito S, Morita T, et al. The differential effects of prostaglandin nitroglycerin on regional cerebral oxygenation in anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 1997: 85:1054–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kanawati IS, Yakch TL, Anderson RE, March RW Effects of Clonidine on cerebral blood flow and the response to arterial CO2. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 6: 1986: 358–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Karlin A, Hartung J, Cottrell JE. Rate of induction of hypotension with trimethaphan modifies the intracranial pressure response in cats. Br J Anaesth 1988: 60: 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Karlsson BR, Forsman M, Roald OK, et al. Effect of Dexedee-tomidine, a selective and potent α2-agonist, on cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during halothane anesthesia in dogs. Anesth Analg 1990: 71: 125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kassell NF, Boarini DJ, Olin JJ, Sprowell JA. Cerebral and systemic circulatory effects of arterial hypotension induced by adenosine. J Neurosurg 1983a: 58: 69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kassell NF, Boarini DJ, Sprowell JA, Olin JJ. Pharmacologically induced profound arterial hypotension in the anaesthetized dog. J Neurosurg 1983b: 58: 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Katsuki S, Arnold W, Murad F. Effects of sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and sodium azide on levels of cyclic nucleotides and mechanical activity of various tissues. J Cyclic Nucleotides Res 1977: 3: 239–246.Google Scholar
  139. Kawaguchi M, Furuya H, Kurehara K, Yamada M. Effect of nicardipine on cerebral vascular responses to hypocapnia and blood blow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. Stroke 1991:22: 1170–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Khambatta HJ, Stone JG, Khan E. Hypertension during anaesthesia on discontinuation of sodium nitroprusside-in-duced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1979: 51: 127–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Khambatta HJ, Stone JG, Khan E. Captopril attenuates vasoactive hormonal release during nitroprusside-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1982: 57: A62.Google Scholar
  142. Khambatta HJ, Stone JG, Matteo RS, Khan E. Propranolol premedication blunts stress response to nitroprussde hypotension. Anesth Analg 1984: 63: 125–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Khan ZP, Munday IT, Jones RM, et al. Effects of dexmedetomidine on isoflurane requirements in healthy volunteers. 1: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Br J Anaesth 1999: 83: 372–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kibler LE, Gazes PC (1977) Effect of Clonidine on atrioventricular conduction. JAMA 238: 1930–1932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kien ND, White DA, Reitan JA. Eisele JH. Cardiovascular function during controlled hypotension induced by adenosine triphosphate or sodium nitroprusside in the anesthetized dog. Anesth Analg 1987: 66: 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kim HK, Zornow MH, Strnat MAP, Maze M. Dexmedetomidine does not attenuate increases in excitatory amino acids after transient global ischemia in the rabbit. J Neurosurg Anesthesiology 1996: 8: 230–235.Google Scholar
  147. King BD, Sokoloff L, Wechsler RL. The effects of 1-epinephrine and 1-norepinephrine upon cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. J Clin Invest 1951: 31: 273.Google Scholar
  148. Kinkor RD, Warner DS. Unexpected myocardial complications after controlled hypotension. J Neurosurg Anesthesiology 1991:2:136–141.Google Scholar
  149. Klimscha W, Tong C, Eisenach JC. Intrathecal alpha 2-adrener-gic agonists stimulate acetylcholine and norepinephrine release from sipnal cord dorsal horn in sheep. An in vivo micrdialysis study. Anesthesiology 1997: 110–116.Google Scholar
  150. Knight PR, Lane GA, Hensinger RN, et al. Catecholanmine and renin-angiotensin response during hypotensive anesthesia induced by sodium nitroprusside or trimethaphan camsylate. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: 248–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kolassa N, Pfleger K. Adenosine uptake by eruthrocytes of man, rat, and guinea-pig and its inhibition by hexobendine and dipyridamole. Biochem Pharmacol 1975: 24: 154–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kolassa N, Beller KD, Sanders KH. Evidence for the interaction of Urapidil with (5-HT lA)-receptors in the brain leading to a decrease in blood pressure. Am J Cardiol 1989: 63: 36C-39C.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kraynack BJ, Gintautas J, Hinshaw J. Adenosine triphsophate increases survival time during hyoxia. Neuropharm 1981: 20: 887–890.Google Scholar
  154. Kuroda K, Kuwata N, Sato N, et al. Changes in cerebral blood flow accompanied with reduction of blood pressure treatment in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurol Res 1997: 19: 169–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lagerkranser M, Irestedt L, Sollevi A, Andreen M. Central and splanchnic hemodynamics in the dog during controlled hypotension with adenosine. Anesthesiology 1984: 60: 547–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lagerkranser M, Sollevi A, Irestedt L, et al. Renin release during controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside, ni-trogycerin and adenosine: A comparative study in the dog. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1985: 29: 45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lagerkranser M, Bergstrand G, Gordon E, et al. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during adenosine-induced hypotension in patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery. Acta Anaestheiol Scand 1989: 33: 15–20.Google Scholar
  158. Lagerkranser M. Controlled hypotension in neurosurgery: Pro. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1991: 3: 150–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lagerkranser M. Effects of nitroglycerin on intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992:36 [suppl 97]: 34–36Google Scholar
  160. Lam AM, Gelb AW. Cardiovascular effects of isoflurane-induced hypotension for cerebral aneurysm surgery. Anesth Analg 1983: 62: 742–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Lam AM, Wu X, Gelb AW. Regional cerebral blood flow during nicardipine and nitroprusside induced hypotension. Anesth Analg 1988: 67: S 125.Google Scholar
  162. Lam A, Artru AA. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in response to adenosine-induced hypotension in dogs. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1992: 4: 120–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Larsen R, Teichmann J, Hilfiker O, et al. Nitroprusside-hypotension: Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption in neurosurgical patients. Acta Anaesth Scand 1982: 26: 327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Laudignon N, Farri E, Beharry K, Rex J, Aranda JV. Influence of adenosine on cerebral blood flow during hypoxic hypoxia in the newborn piglet. J Appl Physiol 1990: 68: 1534–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Laudignon N, Beharry K, Farri E, Aranda JV. The role of adenosine in the vascular adaptation of neonatal cerebral blood flow during hypotension. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1991: 11:424–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Laycock JRD, Coakham HB, Silver IA, Walters FJM. Changes in brain surface oxygen tension during profound hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside or adenosine in the sheep. Br J Anaesth 1986: 58: 1422–1426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Lee H-W, Caldwell JE, Dodson B, Talke P. The effect of Clonidine on cerebral blood flow velocity, carbon dioxide cerebral vasoreactivity, and response to increased arterial pressure in human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1997: 87: 553–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Leenders KL, Wolfson L, Gibbs JM, et al. The effect of L-DOPA on regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1985: 108: 171–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Levänen J, Mäkelä M-J, Scheinin H. Dexmedetomidine premedication attenuates ketamine-induced cardiostimulatory effects and postanesthetic delirium. Anesthesiology 1995:82: 117–1125.Google Scholar
  170. Ljunggren B, Säveland H, Brandt L, et al. Temporary clipping during early operation of ruptured aneurysm: preliminary report. Neurosurgery 1983: 12: 525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Longnecker DE, Seyde WC. Cerebral oxygen tension during deliberate hypotension with sodium nitroprusside, 2-C1-adenosine, or deep isoflurane anesthesia in rats. Anesthesiology 1984: 61: A366.Google Scholar
  172. Lu GP, Chi OZ, Kaul DK, et al. Effects of nitroprusside on cerebral microcirculation. Anesthesiology 1982: 57: A49.Google Scholar
  173. Lüben V, Hempelmann G. Improved deep controlled hypotension in aneurysmal surgery. Acta Neurochir 1982: 60: 201–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. MacKenzie ET, MCCulloch J, O’Keane M, et al. Cerebral circulation and norepinephrine: relevance of the blood brain barrier. Am J Physiol 1976: 231: 483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Madsen JB, Cold GE, Hansen ES, et al. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms. Br J Anaesth 1987: 59: 1204–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Maekawa T, McDowall DG, Okuda Y. Brain surface oxygen tension and cerebral cortical blood flow during hemorrhagic and drug-induced hypotension in the cat. Anesthesiology 1979: 51: 313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Maier C, Steinberg GK, Sun GH, et al. Neuroprotection by the alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in a focal model of cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology 1993: 79: 306–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Maktabi M, Warner D, Boarini D, et al. A comparison of nitroprusside, nitroglycerin and deep isofluran anesthesia for induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1985: 63: A403.Google Scholar
  179. Maktabi M, Warner DS, Sokoll MD. The effects of hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside and isoflurane on serum catecholamines and plasma renin activity. Anesthesiology 1986:65:A578.Google Scholar
  180. March ML, Shapiro HM, Smith RW, Marshall LF. Changes in neurologic status and intracranial pressure associated with sodium nitroprusside administration. Anesthesiology 1979a: 51: 336–338.Google Scholar
  181. March ML, Aidinis SJ, Naughton KVH, et al. The technique of nitroprusside administration modifies the intracranial pressure response. Anesthesiology 1979b: 51: 538–541.Google Scholar
  182. Matta BF, Lam AM, Mayberg TS, et al. Cerebrovascular response to carbon dioxide during sodium nitroprusside-and isoflurane-induced hypotension. Br J Anesth 1995: 74: 296–300.Google Scholar
  183. Maze M, Tranquilli W. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists: defining the role in clinical anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1991: 74: 581–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Mazzoni P, Giffin JP, Cottrell JE, et al. Intracranial pressure during diltiazem-induced hypotension in anesthetized dogs. Anesth Analg 1985: 64: 1001–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Mc Culloch J, Harper AM. Cerebral circulation: effect of stimulation and blockade of dopamine receptors. Am J Physiol 1977: 233: H222–H227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Mc Culloch J, Teasdale G. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral blood flow. Eur J Pharmacol 1979: 55: 99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. McDowall GD. Induced hypotension and brain ischaemia. Br J Anaesth 1985:57: 110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. McDermott MW, Durity FA, Borozny M, Mountain MA. Temporary vessel occlusion and barbiturate protection in cerebral aneurysm surgery. Neurosurgery 1989: 25: 54–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. McPherson RW, Koehler RC, Kirsch JR. Intraventricular dexmedetomidine decreases cerebral blood flow during normoxia and hypoxia in dogs. Anesth Analg 1997: 84: 139–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Meert TF, Kock MD. Potentiation of the analgetic properties of fentanyl-like opioids with alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonists in rat. Anesthesiology 1994: 81: 677–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Meng W, Busija DW. Comparative effects of angiotensin- (1–7) and angiotensin II on piglet pial arterioles. Stroke 1993: 24: 2041–2045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Merrifield AJ, Blundell MD. Toxicity of sodium nitroprusside. Br J Anaesth 1974: 46: 324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Messick JM, Casement B, Sharbrough FW, et al. Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with EEG changes during isoflurane anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: Critical rCBF. Anesthesiology 1987: 66: 344–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Michenfelder JD, Theye RA. Canine systemic and cerebral effects of hypotension induced by hemorrhage, trimethaphan, halothane or nitroprusside. Anesthesiology 1977: 46: 188–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Michenfelder JD. Cyanide release from sodium nitroprusside in the dog. Anesthesiology 1977: 46: 196–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Michenfelder JD, Milde JH. The interaction of sodium nitroprusside, hypotension, and isoflurane in determining cerebral vasculature effects. Anesthesiology 1988: 69: 870–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Mikawa K, Maekawa N, Goto R, et al. Effects of pindolol on the cardiovascular response to tracheal intubation. British Journal Anaesthesia 1991: 67: 416–420.Google Scholar
  198. Miller DR, Martineua J, Wynands JE, Hill J. Bolus administration of esmolol for controlling the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation: The Canadian multicentre trial. Can J Anaesth 1991: 38: 849–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Mirski MAZ, Rossell LA, McPhersom RW, Traystman RJ. Dexmedetomidine decreases seizure threshold in a rat model of experimental generalized epilepsy. Anesthesiology 1994: 81: 1422–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Monk CR, Sperry RJ, Durieux ME, et al. The regional haemodynamic effects of induced hypotension with isoflurane, sodium nitroprusside or 2-chloroadenosine. Anesthesiology 1987: 67: A34.Google Scholar
  201. Morii S, Nagai AC, Berne RM, Winn HR. Attenuation of hypoxic hyperemia by theophylline: the role of adenosine in cerebral blood flow regulation. Surg Forum 1984: 35: 504–507.Google Scholar
  202. Morii S, Ngai AC, Winn HR. Reactivity of rat pial arterioles and venules to adenosine and carbon dioxide: With detailed description of the closed cranial window technique in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1986: 6: 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Morii S, Nagai AC, Ko KR, Winn HR. Role of adenosine in regulation of cerebral blood flow: effects of theophylline during normoxia and hypoxia. Am J Physiol 1987: 253: H165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Morii S, Wang R, Ohtaka H, et al. Possible involvment of adenosine in vasodilatory reponse of the rat pial arterioles to hypotension. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1989: 9: suppl 1, S487.Google Scholar
  205. Morris PJ, Heuser D, McDowall DG, Hashiba M, Myers D. Cerebral cortical extracellular fluid H+ and K+ activities during hypotension in cats. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: 10–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Moss E. Cerebral blood flow during induced hypotension (editorial) Br J Anaesth 1995: 74: 635–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Muhonen MG, Loftus CM, Heistad DD. Effect of adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine on cerebral collateral vessels. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1995: 15: 1075–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Muhonen MG, Robertson C, Gerdes JS, Loftus CM. Effects of serotonin on cerebral circulation after middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosurg 1997: 87: 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Muzzi DA, Black S, Lasasso J, Cucchiara RE Labetalol and esmolol in the control of hypertension after intracranial surgery. Anest Analg 1990: 70: 68–71.Google Scholar
  210. Nacif-Coelho C, Correa-Sales C, Chang LL, Maze M. Perturbation of ion channel conductance alters the hypnotic response to the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine in the locus coereleus of the rat. Anesthesiology 1994: 81: 1527–1534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Nakamura K, Koide M, Imanaga T, et al. Prolonged neuromuscular blockade following trimethaphan infusion: A case report and in vitro study of Cholinesterase inhibition. Anaesthesia 1980: 35: 1202–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Nakamura K, Hatano Y, Mori K. The site of action of trimethaphan-induced neuromuscular blockade in isolated rat and frog muscle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1988: 32: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Nakazawa K, Hatano Y, Mori K. The site of action of trimethaphan-induced neuromuscular blockade in isolated rat and frog muscle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991: 73: 59–63.Google Scholar
  214. Nemoto EM, Klementavicius R, Melick JA. Norepinephrine activation of basal cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) during hypothermia in rats. Anesth Analg 1996: 83: 1262–1267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Newberg LA, Milde JH, Michenfelder JD. Cerebral and systemic effects of hypotension induced by adenosine or ATP in dogs. Anesthesiology 1985: 62: 429–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Newman B, Gelb AW, Lam AM. The effect of isoflurane-in-duced hypotension on cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen in humans. Anesthesiology 1986: 64: 307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Nicholas JF, Lam AM. Isoflurane-induced hypotension does not cause impairment in pulmonary gas exchange. Can Anaesth Soc J 1984: 31: 352–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Niimi T, Sawada T, Kuriyama Y, et al. The effect of dopamine on cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. Jpn J Stroke 1981: 3: 318–325.Google Scholar
  219. Nilsson F. Cerebral vasoconstriction as treatment of intracranial hypertension. Aspects based on experimental investigations (thesis), ESSatryck, Malmö 1995.Google Scholar
  220. Nishikawa T, Omote K, Namiki A, Takahashi T. The effect of nicardipine on cerebrospinal fluid pressure in humans. Anesth Analg 1986: 65: 507–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Nishikawa T, Dohi S. Oral Clonidine blunts the heart rate response to intravenous atropine in humans. Anesthesiology 1991: 75: 217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Ohata H, lida H, Dohi S, Watanabe Y. Intravenous dexmedetomidine inhibits cerebrovascular dilation induced by isoflurane and sevoflurane in dogs. Anesth Analg 1999: 89: 370–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Ohta K, Rosner G, Graf R. Nitric oxide generation from sodium nitroprusside and hydroxylamine in brain. Neuroreport 1997: 8:2229–2235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Oldendorff WH. Brain uptake of radiolabeled amino acids, amines, and hexoses after arterial injection. Am J Physol 1971: 221: 1229–1639.Google Scholar
  225. Olesen J. The effect of intracarotid epinephrine, norepinephrine, and angiotensin on regional cerebral blood flow in man. Neurology 1972: 22: 978–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Olesen J, Skinhøj E. Effects of ergot alkaloids (hydergine) on cerebral haemodynamic in man. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1972: 31: 75–85.Google Scholar
  227. Olesen J. Effect of intracarotid prostaglandin El on regional cerebral blood flow in man. Stroke 1976: 7: 566–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Olivarius B. Behandling af friske cerebrale infarter med theo-phyllamin. UfL 1961: 123: 376–382.Google Scholar
  229. Olsen KS, Henriksen L, Dige-Petersen H, et al. Effect of ketanserin on global cerebral blod flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism during midazolam-fentanyl or isoflurane anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1992: 69: 263–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Olsen KS, Videbaeck C, Schmidt JF, Paulson OB. The effect of ketanserin on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in healthy volunteers. Acta Neurochir 1992: 119: 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Olsen KS, Madsen PL, ?ørme T, Schmidt JE The effect of ketanserin on cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in healthy volunteers. Acta Neurochir 1993: 125: 83–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Olsen KS, Henriksen L, Owen-Falkenberg A, et al. Effect of 1 and 2 MAC isoflurane with or without ketanserin on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in man. Br J Anaesth 1994: 72: 66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Olsen KS, Svendsen LB, Larsen FS, Paulson OB. Effect of labetalol on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism and autoregulation in healthy humans. Br J Anaesth 1995: 75: 51–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Olsen KS, Albeck M, Agerlin N, Schmidt JF. The effect of ketanserin in ICP and CBF in patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1996: 8: 216–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Orlowski JP, Shiesley D, Vidt DG, Barnett GH, Little JR. Labetalol to control blood pressure after cerebrovascular surgery. Crit Care Med 1988: 16: 765–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Ornstein E, Matteo RS, Schwartz AE. The use of esmolol for deliberate hypotension. Anesthesiology 1986: 65: A575.Google Scholar
  237. Ornstein E, Matteo RS, Winstein JA, Schwartz AE. A randomised controlled trial of esmolol for deliberate hypotension. Anesthesiology 1987: 67: A423.Google Scholar
  238. Ornstein E, Young WL, Ostapkovich N, et al. Are all effects of esmolol equally rapid in onset? Anesth Analg 1995: 81: 297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Öwall A, Gordon E, Lagerkranser M, et al. Clinical experience with adenosine for controlled hypotension during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Anesth Analg 1984: 66: 229–234.Google Scholar
  240. Öwall A, Järnberg P, Brodin L, Sollevi A. Effects of adenosine-induced hypotension on myocardial hemodynamics and metabolism in fentanyl anesthetized patients with peripheral vascular disease. Anesthesiology 1988a: 68: 416–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Öwall A, Lagerkranser M, Sollevi A. Effects of adenosine-induced hypotension on myocardial hemodynamics and metabolism during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Anesth Analg 1988b: 67: 228–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Park TS, Didday JM, Effect of dipyridamole on cerebral extracellular adenosine levels in vivo. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1990: 10: 424–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Paulson OB, Jarden JO, Vorstrup S, et al. Effect of Captopril on the cerebral circulation in chronic heart failure. Eup J Clin Invest 1986: 16: 124–132.Google Scholar
  244. Paulson OB, Waldemar G, Andersen AR, et al. Role of angiotensin in regulation of cerebral blood flow. Circulation 1988: 77 (suppl 1): 155–158.Google Scholar
  245. Pearl RG, Rosenthal MH, Ashton JPA, Murad F. Aminophylline potentiates sodium nitroprusside-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1983a: 59: A126.Google Scholar
  246. Pearl RG, Rosenthal MH, Achton JPA. Pulmonary vasodilator effects of nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside in canine oleic acid-induced pulmonary hypertension. Anesthesiology 1983b:58: 514–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Peden CJ, Prys-Roberts C. The role of alpha-1 agonist in gen-erel anesthesia. Curr Opinion Anesthesiology 1993: 6: 653–658.Google Scholar
  248. Phillis JW, Walter GA, O’Regan MH, Stair RE. Increases in cerebral cortical perfusate adenosine and inosine concentrations during hypoxia and ischaemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987: 7: 679–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Pinaud M, Souron R, Lelausque J, et al. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption during nitroprusside-induced hypotension to less than 50 mm Hg. Anesthesiology 1989: 70: 255–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Proctor LT, Schmeling WT, Warltier DC. Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine alters hemodynamic actions of intravenous anesthetic agents in chronically instrumented dogs. Anesthesiology 1992: 77: 554–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Prough DS, Stullken EH, Scuderi PE, Johnson JC. Intracranial hypertension limits the systemic hypotensive effect of nitroprusside, but not nitroglycerin. Anesthesiology 1983a: 59: A354.Google Scholar
  252. Prough DS, Stullken EH, Scuderi PE. Technique of administration alters increases in intracranial hypertension produced by nitroglycerin but not by nitroprusside. Anesthesiology 1983b: 59: A353.Google Scholar
  253. Puchstein C, van Aken H, Anger C, et al. Influence of ATP-in-duced hypotension on intracranial pressure and intracranial compliance. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A356.Google Scholar
  254. Rich M, Scheinberg P, Belle MS. Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid pressure changes and cerebral blood flow. Circ Res. 1953: 21: 517–525.Google Scholar
  255. Rogers MC, Traystman RJ. Nitroglycerin and nitroprusside induced changes in cerebral hemodynamics Anesthesiology 1979a: 51: S199.Google Scholar
  256. Rogers MC, Hamburger C, Owen K, Epstein MH. Intracranial pressure in the cat during nitroglycerin-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1979b 51: 227–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Rooney MW, Crystal GJ, Salem R. Influence of nifedipine on systemic and regional hemodynamics during adenosine-induced hypotension in dogs. Anest Analg 1989: 68: 261–269.Google Scholar
  258. Rosenirn J (1989) The risk of ischaemic brain damage during the use of self-retaining brain retractors. Acta Neurol Scand [suppl 120] vol 79Google Scholar
  259. Roth S, Jones SC, Ebrahim Z, et al. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1986: 65: A572Google Scholar
  260. Ruta TS, Mutch WAC. Controlled hypotension for cerebral aneurysm surgery: Are the risks woth the benefits?. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1991: 2: 153–156Google Scholar
  261. Samson D, Batjar HH, Bowman G. A clinical study of the parameters and effects of temporary arterial occlusion in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery 1994: 34: 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Sandler AN. The role of Clonidine and alpha-2-agonists for postoperative analgesia (editorial). Can J Anaesth 1996: 43: 1191–1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Satin A, Rall TW. The effect of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on the cyclic adenosine 3′5′-phosphate content of guinea pig cerebral cortex slices. Mol Pharmacol 1970: 6: 13–23.Google Scholar
  264. Satinover I, Hoffman WE, Albrecht RF, et al. Controlled hypotension with ATP and sodium nitroprusside. Anesthesiology 1981: 55: A10.Google Scholar
  265. Sato M, Niiyama K, Kurado R, Oiku M. Influence of dopamine on cerebral blood flow and metabolism for oxygen and glucose under barbiturate administration in cats. Acta Neurochir 1991: 110: 174–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Scheinin M. The locus coeruleus (editorial). Anesthesiology 1992: 76: 873–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Scheinin M, Jaakola M-J, Sjövall S, et al. Intramuscular dexmedetomidine as premedication for generel anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1993: 78: 1065–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Schedewie H, Boban N, Schmeling WT, Bosnjak ZJ. Dexmedetomidine inhibits synaptic transmission in the canine stellate ganglion. Anesth Analg 1992: 74: S261.Google Scholar
  269. Schmidt JF, Waldemar G, Vorstrup S, et al. Computerized analysis of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in humans: Validation of a method for pharmacological studies. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1990: 15: 983–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Schmidt JF, Olsen KS, Waldemar G, et al. The effect of ketan-serin on the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Acta Neurochirurgica 1991: 111: 138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Schroeder T, Schiebeck J, Howardy P, et al. Effect of labetalol on cerebral blood flow and middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in healthy volunteers. Neurol Res 1991: 13: 10–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Schubert J, Brill WA. Antagonism of experimental cyanide toxicity in relation to the in vivo activity of cytochrome oxidase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1968: 162: 352–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Schultz KD, Schultz K, Schultz G. Sodium nitroprusside and other smooth muscle relaxants increase cyclic GMP levels in art ductus deferens. Nature 1977: 256: 750–751.Google Scholar
  274. Schutz JA, Hoffman WE, Albrecht RF. Sympathetic stimulation with physiolostigmine worsens outcome from incomplete brain ischemia in rats. Anesthesiology 1993: 79: 114–121.Google Scholar
  275. Schulz V, Gross R, Pasch T, et al. Cyanide toxicity of sodium nitroprusside in therapeutic use with and without sodium thiosulphate. Klin Wochenschr 1982: 60: 1393–1400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Sensenbach W, Madison L, Ochs L. A comparison of the effect of 1-norepinephrine, synthetic 1-epinephrine, and USP epinephrine upon cerebral blood flow and metabolism in man. J Clin Invest 1953: 32: 226–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Shapira Y, Artru AA, Lam AM. Changes in the rate of formation and resistance to reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid duirng deliberate hypotension induced with adenosine or hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 1992: 76: 432–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sharkey J, Mc Culloch L. Relationship between local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization with selective dopamine receptor agonists. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1985: 5: (suppl): 537–538.Google Scholar
  279. Sharkey J, Mc Culloch J. Dopaminergic mechanism in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: role of different receptor subtypes. In Owaman C, Hardebo JE (eds) Neural regulation of brain circulation, Elsevier. Science 1986: 111–127.Google Scholar
  280. Shenkin HA. Effects of various drugs upon cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. J Appl Phsiol 1951: 3: 465–471.Google Scholar
  281. Shibutani K, Komatsu T, Bhalodia R, et al. Rebound hemodynamic responses after the withdrawal of nitroprusside in anesthetized patients. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A16.Google Scholar
  282. Shin HK, Park SN, Hong KW. Implication of adenosine A2A receptors in hypotension-induced vasodilation and cerebral blood flow antoregulation in rat pial arteries. Life Sci 2000a: 67: 1435–1445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Shin HK, Shin YW, Hong KW. Role of adenosine A(2B) receptors in vasodilation of rat pial artery and cerebral blood flow autoregulation. Am J Physiol: 2000: 278: H339–344.Google Scholar
  284. Singh PP, Dimich I, Sampson I, Sonnenklar N. A comparison of esmelol and labetalol for the treatment of perioperative hypertension in geriatric ambulatory surgical patients. Can J Anaesth 1992: 39: 559–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Skinhoj E, Paulson OB. The mechanism of action of amino-phylline upon cerebral vascular disorders. Acta Neurol Scand 1970: 46: 129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Sollevi A, Lagerkranser M, Irestedt L, et al. Controlled hypotension with adenosine in cerebral aneurysm surgery. Anesthesiology 1984a: 61: 400–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Sollevi A, Lagerkranser M, Andreen M, Irestedt L. Relationshhip between arterial and venous adenosine levels and vasodilatation during ATP- and adenosine-infusion in dogs. Acta Physiol Scand 1984b: 120: 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Sollevi A, Ericson K, Eriksson L, et al. Effect of adenosine on human cerebral blood flow as determined by positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1987: 7: 673–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Spargo PM, Tait AR, Knight PR, Kling TF. Effect of nitroglycerin-induced hypotension on canine spinal cord blood flow. Br J Anaesth 1987: 59: 640–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Sperry RJ, Monk CR, Durieux ME, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow during deliberate hypotension complicated by hemorrhage. Anesthesiology 1987: 67: A575.Google Scholar
  291. Spiss CK, Zadrobilek E, Weindlmayr-Goettel M, et al. Nifedipine induced hypotension in man: hemodynamic response during isoflurane and halothane anesthesia. Anesthesiology: 1985: 63: A 93.Google Scholar
  292. Standefer M, Little JR. Improved neurological outcome in experimental focal cerebral ischemia treated with propranolol. Neurosurgery 1986: 18: 136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Stefanovich V. Influence of theophylline on concentration of cyclic 3′5′-adenosine monophosphate and cyclic 3′5′-guanosine monophosphate of rat brain. Neurochem Res 1979: 4: 587–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Steiner L, Forster DMC, Bergvall U. Effect of prostaglandin El on cerebral circulatory disturbances following subarachnoid hemorrhage in man. Neuroradiol 1972: 4: 20–24.Google Scholar
  295. Stone JG, Khambatta HJ, Matteo RS. Pulmonary shunting during anesthesia with deliberate hypotension. Anesthesiology 1976: 45: 508–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Stoyka WW, Schutz H. The cerebral response to sodium nitroprusside and trimethaphan controlled hypotension. Can Anaesth Soc J 1975: 22: 275–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Strandgaard S, Jones JV, MacKenzie ET, Harper AM. Upperlimit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in experimental renovascular hypertension in the baboon. Circ Res 1975: 37: 164–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Strandgaard S. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in hypertensive patients. The modifying influence of profound antihypertensive treatment on the tolerance to acute, drug-induced hypotension. Circulation 1976: 53: 720–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Strandgaard S, Paulson OB. Cerebral autoregulation. Stroke 1984: 15: 413–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Strandgaard S, MacKenzie ET, Sengupta D. et al. Upper limit of autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the baboon. Circ Res 1974: 34: 435–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Stullken EH, Sokoll MD. Intracranial pressure during hypotension and subsequent vasopressor therapy in anesthetized cats. Anesthesiology 1975: 42: 425–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Stånge K, Lagerkranser M, Rudehill A, Sollevi A. Effect of adenosine-induced hypotension on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the pig. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1989: 33: 199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Stånge K, Lagerkranser M, Sollevi A. Effect of isoflurane-induced hypotension on cerebral autoregulation in the anesthetized pig. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1990: 2: 114–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Suzuki J, Yoshimoto T, Kayama T (1984) Surgical treatment of middle cerebral artery aneurysms. J Neurosurg 61: 17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Symon L, Branston NM, Chikovani O. Ischemic brain edema following middle cerebral artery occlusion in baboons: Relationship between regional cerebral water content and blood flow at 1 and 2 hours. Stroke 1979: 10: 184–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Tagawa H, Vander AJ. Effects of adenosine compounds on renal function and renin secretion in dogs. Circ Res 1970: 26: 327–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Takenaka M, lida H, lida M, Dohi S. Intrathecal dexmede-tomidine attenuates hypercapnic but not hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in anesthetized rabbits. Anesthesiology 2000: 92: 1376–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Talke P, Bickler PE. Effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxia-evoked glutamate release and glutamate receptor activity in hippocampal slices. Anesthesiology 1996: 85: 551–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Talke P, Tong C, Lee H-W, et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine on lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure in humans. Anesth Analg 1997: 85: 358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Tateishi A, Sano T, Takeshita H, et al. Effects of nifedipine on intracranial pressure in neurosurgical patients with arterial hypertension. J Neurosurg 1988: 69: 213–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Thiagarajah S, Azar I, Lear E, Suazo J. Comparative evaluation of intracranial pressure changes in cats during adenosine triphosphate and nitroprusside induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1983: 59: A352.Google Scholar
  312. Thiagarajah S, Azar I, Lear E, Rudolf D. Effect of diltiazem-induced hypotension on normal and increased intracranial pressure of cats. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986: 33: 578–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Thomas WA, Cole PV, Etherington NJ, et al. Electrical activity of the cerebral cortex during induced hypotension in man. Br J Anaesth 1985: 57: 134–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Thompson JA, Wei EP, Kontos HA. Inhibition by ketanserin of serotonin induced cerebral arteriolar constriction. Stroke 1984: 15: 1021–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Thomsen LJ, Riisager S, Jensen KA, Bünemann L. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside and Captopril. Can J Anaesth 1989: 36: 392–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Tietjen CS, Hum PD, Ulatowski JA, Kirsch JR. Treatment modalities for hypertensive patients with intracranial pathology: options and risks. Crit Care Med 1996: 24: 311–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Tinker JH, Michenfelder JD. Sodium nitroprusside: Pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics. Anesthesiology 1976: 45: 340–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Toda N. Influence of dopamine and noradrenaline on isolated cerebral arteries of the dog. Br J Pharmacol 1976: 58: 121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Todd MM, Morris PJ, Philbin DM. Acute neurologic changes caused by nitroprusside-induced intracranial hypertension. Anesth Analg 1980: 59: 561–562.Google Scholar
  320. Tohmo H, Karanko M. Enalaprilat controls postoperative hypertension while maintaining cardiac function and systemic oxygenation after neurosurgery. Int Care Med 1995: 21:651–656.Google Scholar
  321. Toivonen J, Virtanen H, Kaukinen S. Labetalol attenuates the negative effects of deliberate hypotension induced by isoflurane. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992: 36: 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Toivonen J, Kuikka P, Kaukinen S. Effect of deliberate hypotension induced by labetalol with isoflurane on neuropsychological function. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1993: 37: 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Tsutsue T, Maekawa T, Goodchild C, Jones JG. Cerebral blood flow distribution during induced hypotension with haemorrhage, trimetaphan or nitroprusside in rats. Br J Anaesth 1995: 74: 686–690.Google Scholar
  324. Tuor UI, Edvinsson L, Mc Culloch J. Catecholamines and the relationship between cerebral blood flow and glucose use. Am J Physiol 1986: 251. H824–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Turner JM, Powell D, Gibson RM, McDowall DG. Intracranial pressure changes in neurosurgical patients during hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside or trimethaphan. Br J Anaesth 1977: 49: 419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Uzunov P, Petkov V, Stancheva S. Differential inhibition of phosphodiesterase according to the organ origin of the enzyme. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Warzawa) 1975: 35: 159–164.Google Scholar
  327. Van Aken H, Puchstein C, Schweppe M-L, Heinecke A. Effect of labetalol on intracranial pressure in dogs with and without intracranial hypertension. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1982: 26: 615–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Van Aken H, Puchstein C, Fitch W, Graham DI. Haemodynamic and cerebral effects of ATP-induced hypotension. Br J Anaesth 1984a: 56: 1409–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Van Aken H, Puchstein C, Anger C, et al. Changes in intracranial pressure and compliance during adenosine triphos-phate-induced hypotension in dogs. Anesth Analg 1984b: 63: 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Van Aken H, Anger C, Puchstein C, Thijs J, Lawin P. Influence of ketanserin, an antihypertensive agent with specific 5-HT2-receptor blocking activity, on intracranial pressure. Crit Care Med 1984c: 12: 4–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Vanhoutte P, Amery A, Birkenhäger W, et al. Serotoninergic mechanisms in hypertension. Focus on the effect of ketanserin. Hypertension 1988: 11: 111–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Vesey CJ, Cole PV, Simpson PJ. Cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations following sodium nitroprusside infusion in man. Br J Anaesth 1976: 48: 651–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Vesey CJ, Sweeney B, Cole PV. Decay of nitroprusside. II: In vivo. Br J Anaesth 1990: 64: 704–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Voldby B, Enevoldsen EM, Jensen FT. Cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 1985: 62: 59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Von Essen C. Effects of dopamine on cerebral blood flow in the dog. Acta Neurol Scand 1974: 50: 39–52.Google Scholar
  336. Von Essen C. Effects of dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine on the cerebral blood flow in the dog. J Pharm Phramacol 1972: 24: G68.Google Scholar
  337. Von Essen C, Zervas NT, Brown DR, et al. Local cerebral blood flow in the dog during intravenous infusion of dopamine. Surg Neurol 1980: 13: 181.Google Scholar
  338. Vulliemoz Y, Shen H, Virag L. Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists decrease cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in the mouse brain. Anesthesiology 1996: 85: 544–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Waaben J, Husum B, Hansen AJ, Gjedde A. Hypocapnia prevents the decrease in regional cerebral metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1989: 1: 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Waaben J, Husum B, Hansen AJ, Gjedde A. Regional cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization during hypocapnia and adenosine-induced hypotension in the rat. Anesthesiology 1989: 70: 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Wahl M, Kuschinsky W. The dilatory action of adenosine on pial arteries of cats and its inhibition by theophylline. Pflugers Arch 1976: 362: 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Waldemar G, Paulson OB. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. A review. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989: 28: 177S–182S.Google Scholar
  343. Waldemar G, Schmidt JF, Andersen AR, et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and cerebral flow autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive man. J Hypertens 1989: 7: 229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Wang C, Knowles MG, Chakrabarti MK, Whitman JG. Clonidine has comparable effects of spontaneuous sympathetic activity and afferent A- and C-fiber-mediated somatosympathetic reflexes in dogs. Anesthesiology 1994: 81: 710–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Watanabe H, Passoneau J. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate in cerebral cortex: alteration following trauma. Arch Neurol 1975: 32: 181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Watanabe H, Nomiyama S. Study of hypotension anaesthesia with Prostaglandin El. Japanese J of Anesthesiology 1982: 31: 820–824.Google Scholar
  347. Weigand MA, Michel A, Eckstein HH, et al. Adenosine. A sensitive indicator of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Anesthesiology 1999: 91: 414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Werner C, Hoffman WE, Kochs E, et al. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril improves neurologic outcome from incomplete ischemia in rats. Anesthesiology 1990: 73: A695.Google Scholar
  349. Weyland A, Stephan H, Grüne F, et al. Effect of ketanserin on global cerebral blood flow and middle cerebral artery velocity. Anesth Analg 1995: 80: 64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Weyland A, Grune F, Buhre W, et al. The effect of nitroglycerin on cerebrovascular circulation, cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and blood flow rate in basal cerebral arteries. Anaesthesist 1996: 45: 1037–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. White RP, Hagen A, Robertson JT. Experimental evaluation of the spasmogenicity of dopamine on the basilar artery. J Neurosurg 1976: 44: 45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. White RP, Deans C, Hindley C, et al. the effect of nitric oxide donor glycerol trinitrate on global and regional cerebral blood flow in man. J Neurol Sci 2000: 178: 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Wildsmith JAW, Drummond GB, MacRae WR. Metabolic effects of induced hypotension with trimethaphan and sodium nitroprusside. Br J Anaesth 1979: 51: 875–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Williams JT, Henderson G, North RA. Characterization of alpha2-adrenoreceptors which increased potassium conductance in rats locus coeruleus neurones. Neuroscience 1985: 14: 95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Winn HR, Rubio R, Berne RM. Brain adenosine production in the rat during 60 seconds of ischemia. Circ Res 1979: 45: 486–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Winn HR, Welsh JE, Rubio R, Berne RM. Changes in brain adenosine during bicuculline-induced Scizures in rats. Circ Res 1980a: 47: 568–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Winn HR, Welsh JE, Rubio R, Berne RM. Brain adenosine production in the rat during sustained alteration in systemic blood pressure. Am J Physiol 1980b: 239: H 636–641.Google Scholar
  358. Winn HR, Rubio R, Berne RM. The role of adenosine in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1981: 1:239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Woittiez AJJ, Wenting GJ, van den Meiracker AH, et al. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension. Hypertension 1986: 8: 167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Woodside JR, Garner L, Bedford RF, et al. Captopril reduces the dose requirement for SNP-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 1982: 57: A61.Google Scholar
  361. Wu PH, Phillis JW Uptake of adenosine by isolated rat brain capillaries. J Neurochem 1982: 38: 687–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Yamamura H, Inada Y, Fujita T, et al. The safety of Prostaglandin El (G511) in induced hypotension during surgery in patients complicated with ischemia heart disease. Japanese J of Anesthesiology 1987: 36: 537–541.Google Scholar
  363. Zäll S, Edén E, Winsö I, et al. Controlled hypotension with adenosine or sodium nitroprusside during cerebral aneurysm surgery: Effect on renal hemodynamics, excretory function, and renin release. Anesth Analg 1990: 71: 631–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Zornow MH, Scheller MS, Sheehan PB, et al. Intracranial pressure effects of dexmedetomidine in rabbits. Anesth Analg 1992: 75: 232–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Zubrow AB, Daniel SS, Stark RI, et al. Plasma renin, catecholamine, and vasopressin during nitroprusside-induced hypotension in ewes. Anesthesiology 1983: 58: 245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg E. Cold
    • 1
  • Bent L. Dahl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuroanaesthesiaÅrhus University HospitalÅrhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations