Damage of materials has been modelled by damage quantities within the framework of continuum mechanics [171, 172]. The damage quantities are internal quantities which appear in the expression of the free energy of the material [171, 135, 172, 147, 148, 81]. The many possible expressions for the free energy yield numerous, versatile constitutive laws. The constitutive laws are coupled with the balance law resulting from the principle of virtual power to give predictive theories [171, 231, 96, 147, 148, 11, 81].
KeywordsSize Ratio Nominal Stress Nonlocal Theory Internal Constraint Virtual Power
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