Tunnel-Type GMR (TMR) Devices

  • Eiichi Hirota
  • Hirosi Sakakima
  • Koichiro Inomata
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 40)


Tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is observed for ferromagnetic spin tunneling junctions (MTJ) consisting of ferromagnetic—insulator—ferromagnetic layers[1–3]. When the insulating layer, usually referred to as the barrier layer, is very thin (the order of 1 nm), electrons can tunnel through this forbidden region as a result of the wave-like nature of electrons for a voltage applied between the two electrodes, and can only be described in terms of quantum mechanics. The basic principle of TMR is the dependence of the tunneling probability on the relative orientation of magnetization in the two ferromagnetic electrodes. The tunneling conductance is spin dependent due to the spin dependent density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level for ferromagnets.


Barrier Height Spin Polarization Tunneling Junction Magnetic Layer Ferromagnetic Layer 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eiichi Hirota
    • 1
  • Hirosi Sakakima
    • 1
  • Koichiro Inomata
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Technology Reserach LaboratoriesMatushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Seika, Souraku, KyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Materials ScienceTohoku UniversityAramaki, Aoba-ku, SendaiJapan

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