Advertisement

Problems in Fisheries and Management of Fish Resources in the Gulf of Riga

  • Evald Ojaveer
Part of the Central and Eastern European Development Studies book series (CEEDES)

Abstract

Fisheries, health resorts, tourism and maritime transportation connected with the Gulf of Riga have been of special importance for Estonia and Latvia.

Due to the special characteristics of its nature, the gulf supports a variety of organisms with different adaptational backgrounds. The most important are eurytherm euryhaline marine boreal species. Freshwater species are mainly distributed in south-eastern areas, especially in the estuaries of large rivers — the Daugava, Lielupe, Gauja, Pärnu etc. Glacial relicts are mostly inhabitants of deeper water layers.

The dynamics of the stocks are directly or indirectly connected with fluctuations in climatic conditions. The effects of pollution have been controversial. Eutrophication has increased the productivity in the pelagic system but deteriorated the conditions for benthic animals.

The total fish catches within the Gulf of Riga have varied from an average of 13,000 tonnes in the 1930s to the peak figures in the late 1960s and early 1970s (50,000–90,000 tonnes). During the 1990s, they have fluctuated around a moderate level (20,000–30,000 tonnes). Presently, the catches of pelagic fish are good, but demersal stocks are at a low level. The abundance of some cold-water fishes (eelpout, smelt) is increasing. However, the stocks of four-horned sculpin, sea snail and a number of other relict species remain depleted.

In the management of the Gulf of Riga fish resources it should be taken into account that some species (e.g. spring spawning herring) have developed a local population in the gulf which should be assessed and managed separately. Eutrophication should be controlled and overexploitation of fish stocks avoided. This would allow an optimisation of the yield of both commercial mass species and valuable fishes, the suppression of inferior fishes, and it would contribute to the stabilisation of the gulf’s ecosystem. The recently increased tension in the management of living resources connected with the increase in the abundance of top predators (seals, cormorants) should be regulated.

Keywords

Fish Stock Fish Resource Health Resort Relict Species Glacial Relict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrushaitis A, Seisuma Z, Legzdina M, Lenshs E (1995) River load of eutrophying substances and hesvy metals into the Gulf of Riga. Academia 5, Ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga between 1920 and 1990. Ed by E. Ojaveer. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 32–40.Google Scholar
  2. Berzinsh V (1995) Hydrology. Academia 5, Ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga between 1920 and 1990. Ed. by E. Ojaveer. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 7–31.Google Scholar
  3. Eero M (2000) Economic consequences of different pikeperch management regimes in Pärnu Bay (NE Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea) in 1960–1998. ICES Coop. Res. Rep. No. 240, Report on the Young Scientists Conference on Marine Ecosystem Perspectives, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  4. Erm V (1996) On the state of pikeperch Stizostedion lucioperca (L.) stock in Pärnu Bay.–Proc. Polish-Swedish Symp. on Baltic Coastal Fisheries–Resources and Management, 2–3 Apr. 1996, Gdynia, Poland, 71–76.Google Scholar
  5. Genina N (1985) “Vostbaltröbvod” 40. Abiks Kalurile, 3, 21–36.Google Scholar
  6. Harding K, Härkönen TJ (1999) Development in the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations during the 20h century. Ambio, vol. 28, No. 7, pp. 619–627.Google Scholar
  7. HELCOM (1996) Third Periodic Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea, 1989–1993; Background document, Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 64B, 252 pp.Google Scholar
  8. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) (1999) Cooperative Research Report, No. 229, p. 2, 446 pp.Google Scholar
  9. ICES (2001) Coop. Res. Rep. No. 242, p. 3, pp. 604–911.Google Scholar
  10. Järy L (1996) Perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in Estonian coastal waters.–Proc. Polish-Swedish Symp. on Baltic Coastal Fisheries–Resources and Management, 2–3 Apr. 1996, Gdynia, Poland, 81–87.Google Scholar
  11. Kaleis MV (1976) Present hydrographic condition in the Baltic. Ambio Spec. Rep. No. 4, 37–44.Google Scholar
  12. Kint P (1939) Kalandus 1938. Eesti Kalandus, 4, 101–115.Google Scholar
  13. Kostrichkina EM (1970) Feeding of three-spined stickleback in the Gulf of Riga.–Trudy Ba1tNIIRH, IV, Riga, Zvaigzne, 339–348 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  14. Kukk H (1995) Phytobenthos. Academia 5. Ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga between 1920 and 1990. Ed by E. Ojaveer. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 131–138.Google Scholar
  15. Latvijas zivsaimniecibas gadagramata 2000, 4.gads. Riga, BIOTA IU, 384 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Martin G, Paalme T, Kukk H (1996) Long-term dynamics of the commercially useable Furcellaria lumbricalis–Coccotylus truncatus community in Kassari Bay, West-Estonian Archipelago, the Baltic Sea.–Proc. Polish-Swedish Symp. on Baltic Coastal Fisheries–Resources and Management, 2–3. Apr. 1996, Gdynia, Poland, 121–129.Google Scholar
  17. Mikelsaar N (1984) Eesti NSV kalad. Valgus, Tallinn, 432 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Ojaveer E (1998) Influence of long-term climate fluctuations on marine organisms: preliminary results. In: Climate change studies in Estonia. Ed by T. Kallaste and P. Kuldna. Tallinn, Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Ministry of Environment, Republic of Estonia, 85–104.Google Scholar
  19. Ojaveer E, Gaumiga R (1995) Cyclostomes, fishes and fisheries. Academia 5, Ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga between 1920 and 1990. Ed. by E. Ojaveer. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 212–267.Google Scholar
  20. Ojaveer E, Elken J (1997) On regional subunits in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. Proc. 14th BMB symp., 5–8 Aug. 1995, Pärnu. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers, 156–169.Google Scholar
  21. Ojaveer H, Lankov A (1997) Adaptation of eelpout Zoarces viviparus (L.) to spatially changing environment on the coastal slope of the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). ICES C. M. 1997/EE: 03, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Ojaveer H, Lankov A, Eero M, Kotta J, Kotta I, Lumberg A (1999) Changes in the ecosystem of the Gulf of Riga from the 1970s to the 1990s. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56 Supplement: 33–40.Google Scholar
  23. O1esen M, Lundsgaard C and Andrushaitis A (1999) Influence of nutrients and mixing on the primary production and community respiration in the Gulf of Riga. — Journal of Marine Systems, 23, 127–143.Google Scholar
  24. Plikss M, Aleksejevs E (1998) Zivis. Gandrs, Riga, 304 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Tanasijchuk VS, Shurin AT, Gaumiga RYa., Kairov EA, Kostrichkina EM, Trauberga EF (1966) The ways for increasing of fish productivity of the Gulf of Riga. Rybokhoz. issledovanija v basseine Baltijskogo morja, 1, Riga, Zvaigzne, 49–60 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. Uzars DV (1986) Changes in cod feeding in the Eastern Baltic in 1963–1984. — Fischerei-Forschung, Rostock, 24, (1986) 2, 60–65 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  27. Vitinsh MYa, (1976) Regularities of distribution and migrations of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) in the Eastern and North-eastern Baltic. — Fischerei-Forschung, Wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe, Rostock-Marienehe,l. Sonderheft, 39–48 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evald Ojaveer
    • 1
  1. 1.Estonian Marine InstituteTallinnEstonia

Personalised recommendations