• William B. Langdon
  • Riccardo Poli


Living creatures are divided into species. Over time (which may be comparatively short or very long) species change, i.e. they evolve. There are several essential components to natural evolution. Individuals (e.g. animals or plants) within a species population are different. As a result, some live longer and are more likely to have children that survive to adulthood than others (natural selection). These animals (or plants etc.) are said to be fitter (cf. “survival of the fittest”). Sometimes the variation has a genetic component, i.e. the children may inherit it from their parents. Consequently after a number of generations the proportion of individuals within the species with this favourable inheritable characteristic tends to increase. That is, over time the species as a whole changes or evolves.


Genetic Algorithm Search Space Genetic Programming Markov Chain Model Fitness Landscape 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Langdon
    • 1
  • Riccardo Poli
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer ScienceUniversity College, LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of EssexColchesterUK

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