Checkpoints in the Regulation of T Helper 1 Responses
The immune system has developed to be highly specialized and effective in eradicating a wide variety of pathogens with a minimum of immunopathology. The adaptive arm of the immune response, consisting of antigen-specific T and B cells, interacts with cells of the innate immune system to mediate an effective response to infectious pathogens. Heterogeneity of T cell responses to pathogens can determine the resistance or susceptibility to such infectious agents. In this regard, at least two subsets of CD4+ T helper subsets have been identified; these subsets are characterized by the cytokines they produce and play distinct roles in fighting infection as well as contributing to immunopathology (Mosmann et al. 1986; Romagnani 1991; Sher and Coffman 1992; Abbas 1996). T helper (Th)1 cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and lymphotoxin and play a critical role in cell-mediated immunity (Mosmann et al. 1986; Sher and Coffman 1992). These cells have also been implicated as being involved in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes, as well as chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (Powrie and Coffman 1993; Liblau et al. 1995; O’Garra 1998). Th2 cells produce interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 and are important in helminth immunity, as well as playing a role in allergy and atopy (Romagnani 1994; O’Garra 1998). Gaining an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Th1 and Th2 development is critical both for the development of more powerful anti-microbial agents as well as for the development of therapies for immunopathologies.
KeywordsArthritis Estrogen Tyrosine Adenosine Bacillus
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